materials (Bui, Brown, Christensen)

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Chapter 5

Understanding How
Interfaces Affect
Users


Christina Bui

Stephen Brown

Casey Christensen

Affective Aspects


Affective
-

producing an emotional response.


Recognizing facial expressions and body language


Responding appropriately


Affective Computing
-

designing computers that
recognize and express emotions the same way
that humans do.


How can systems be designed to make people
respond in certain ways?

Expressive Interfaces


Attempt to convey a computer’s “emotional
state”
.


Dynamic icons that indicate state


Animations


Spoken messages for instructions


Sounds to indicate actions or events


Friendly interface agent


Emoticons (emotional state of the user)



Aesthetics of an interface can have a positive
effect on people’s perception of the system’s
usability.

User Frustration

Computer interfaces inadvertently
elicit negative emotional
responses.



User Frustration



An application doesn’t work properly or crashes.



The system doesn’t do what the user wants it to do.



The user’s expectations are not met.



The system does not provide sufficient information to enable the
user to know what to do .



Error messages pop up that are vague, obtuse or condemning.



The appearance of an interface is garish, noisy, gimmicky or
patronizing.

Sources of Frustration



Ranked from most to least frustrating:




Error Messages




Overburdening the user




Appearance




Gimmicks






YOU STUPID PIECE OF CRAP!!!!!

The operation has expectedly
quit, due to poor coding in the
operating system.


It’s okay, I know you didn’t mean it.

!

I’m sorry I crashed. I realize I am
a failure and a disappointment to
you, the user. In the future, I’ll try
to do a better job of running your
programs.

Anthropomorphism

Attributing human qualities to non
-
human objects, such as cars, pets,
cartoon characters, or robots.

Anthropomorphism in Design?


Systems are more enjoyable and fun to
interact with.


People, especially kids, are more
motivated to carry out suggested tasks.


First person dialog and screen characters
are deceptive. (Shneiderman)


People quickly become annoyed and
ignore suggestions.


Kinds of Agents


Synthetic characters
-

lifelike character, as in a
video game (1st or 3rd person).


Animated agents
-

play a collaborating role at the
interface.


Emotional agents
-

have personality and allow
the user to manipulate moods.


Embodied conversational interface agents
-

emulate human conversation.


Recognizing, responding to, and generating output
(verbal and nonverbal).


Coping with breakdown and turn
-
taking


Signal the state of the conversation


Making Characters Believable


Appearance
-

parsimony and simplicity


Convincing behavior
-

point out relevant
objects, lead with its eyes


Mode of interaction
-

emulate human
conversation (difficult) or simple artificial
conversation

Discussion Points

Chapter 5


How Interfaces Affects Users

Today I am feeling…


Happy


Tired


Bored


Confused


Frustrated


Sad


Exhausted

Expressive Interfaces



Dynamic Icons



Animations



Spoken Messages



Sounds



Interface Agents

User Frustrations


POP UPS !#$!@!!%!

User Frustration


Error messages


FATAL
, ERROR,
INVALID, Ka
BOOM
!!



Expectations not met


Gimmicks


Too flashy, noisy


Overburdening


Applications crashes

Coping with frustration


Should computers say they are sorry?


Reeves and Naas argue that they should


What do you think?


Do you think the apology would be sincere?


Would you forgive it?


“I’m really sorry I crashed. I’ll try not to do
it again.”

Virtual Characters


Synthetic


3D characters in video
games


Animated


Tutors, wizards,
helpers


Emotional


Predefined personality
and emotions


Conversational


Humanlike

Virtual Characters


Miss Boo.com


Sales Agent for a virtual shopping mall




Rea



MIT Embodied Agent


Design Concerns


Apple’s Knowledge Navigator “Phil”



Which one do you like better?

People, Places, and Projects


Chapter 5

Humanoid Robotics
Group


MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory


Humanoid Robots


Cog

(
http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid
-
robotics
-
group/cog/cog.html
)


Kismet (
http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid
-
robotics
-
group/kismet/kismet.html
)


video


And the newest member
Coco



Rodney Brooks

-

director of the MIT Artificial
Intelligence Lab, the founder of the humanoid robotics
group


http://www.ai.mit.ed


u/projects/humanoid
-
robotics
-
group/

James C. Lester



Associate Professor

Department of Computer Science

North Carolina State University


Animated Pedagogical Agents


Herman the Bug


Cosmo


Ph.D., Computer Science (1994)

University of Texas at Austin


http://www4.ncsu.edu/~lester/imedia/james.ht
ml




Aaron Marcus


Founder of Aaron Marcus and Asociates, Inc.


Cultural Dimensions and Global Web User
-
Interface Designer


One design white American females


European adult male intellectuals


But what happened??? Everyone agreed that one was
best



http://www.amanda.com/


Ben Shneiderman


Department of Computer Science

University of Maryland


ACM CHI (Computer Human Interaction)
Lifetime Achievement Award in 2001



Developed guidelines on how to design good
error messages


Author of
Leonardo’s Laptop


http://www.cs.umd.edu/~ben/



Clifford Nass and Byron
Reeves


Stanford in the Department of
Communications


Main authors of
The Media Equation


Everyone responds to PCs as if they
are social actors


uses such techniques as brainwave monitoring, home video, and
questionnaires to measure peoples’ response to media in all its
forms



perception is more important than reality


form of media isn’t an issue; the same social responses can be
elicited from multiple and varied forms of media


Microsoft’s Bob


Friendly interface agent


Aimed at new computer users


“Stupid”


Questions? Comments?