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http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Course SHS

Program in Cognitive Psychology

Spring 2007


Human
-
Robot Interaction


User
-
centred design of social robots


Aude G Billard


Learning Algorithms and Systems Laboratory
-

LASA

EPFL, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Lausanne, Switzerland


aude.billard@epfl.ch


http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

The Aesthetic of the Body


Why is
Aesthetic

important?


http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

The Aesthetic of the Body

It is a truism that people will be more inclined to interact
with “
attractive
” faces than with “unattractive” ones.



Typical appealing features are large eyes, symmetric and
round faces, pink cheeks and big eyelashes.


Dolls’ faces versus Monster’s faces?




C. DiSalvo, F. Gemperle, J. Forlizzi, and S. Kiesler. All robots are not created equal: The design and perception of
humanoid robot heads. In Proc. Designing Interactive Systems, pages 321: 326, 2002.

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

The Aesthetic of the Body



19
th
-
20
th

Century:
Automata



(Automated toys)




Mimicking the body and
behavior of an animals



Only one single behavior



Completely preprogrammed
in the mechanics



The
aesthetic

was very
important


pieces of art




SDR
-
3X, Sony Dream Robot

50cm, 5 Kg, 24 DOFs

OS: Aperios, OPEN
-
R,

16MB memory stick

CCD Color Camera, Microphone (x2),


IR distance, Acceleration,

Touch Detection (x8), Speaker

Walking Speed, 15m per minute




HOAP
-
1

Fujitsu Laboratory Ltd.

48 cm, 6 kg, 20 DOF,

OS: RT
-
Linux

USB 1.0 (12Mbps)


PINO

Kitano ERATO Project, Tokyo

Sound and Vision

Mini
-
Humanoids



Baby Robots

My Real Baby (2000)

IRobot Corp, Boston, USA

Robota (1997
-
2002)

Univ. of Edinburgh 1997
-
1998,

EPFL (Switzerland) 1998
-
1999

DIDEL SA (Switzerland) 1999
-
2007

CSI, Paris, France 2000
-
2002

USC, Los Angeles,2001
-
2002

Image of My
Real Baby

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

The Aesthetic of the Body





"uncanny valley"[Mori 1970]

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

The Aesthetic of the Face

Surprisingly, however, many of the humanoid robots
developed so far have more in common with monsters
than with dolls.

Maverick, 2001

RIKEN & USC

Berthoc, 2006

Univ. Bielefeld

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

The Aesthetic of the Face

Another set of attempts

University of Pisa &
Jet Propulsion Lab

Kobayashi / Ishiguro’s Lab

Science University of Tokyo,
2001

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007


Human
-
like body

BiPed Locomotion

Kawato Erato Project,

ATR, Kyoto, Japan

YFX Studios,

Japan, USA



Binocular Vision



Anthropomorphic Hands



Anthropomorphic Arms

University of Karslruhe,
Germany

BIP 2000, CRNS, France



Anthropomorphic Head

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

The Aesthetic of the Body

Repliee R1: Ishiguro’s lab, Osaka Univ.

This android has 9 degree of freedom in her head.

She

can move her eyes, eyelids, mouth, and neck.


Its body is covered with silicone, so the skin feels humanlike.

And it has 4 high sensitivity skin sensors under the skin.


http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

The Aesthetic of the Body

Repliee R2: Ishiguro’s lab, Osaka Univ.

Facial expressions of the adult
android: 13 of the 42 actuators are
used in the head. Humanlike facial
expressions are realized by the
motion of the eyes and mouth.

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

The Aesthetic of the Body

Together with the company Kokoro,
Ishiguro’s lab
at Osaka Univ
has developed a new life
-
like
android called
Actroid DER2
.


This android looks
very human and talks and moves its head, arms,
hands, and body.


This android is available for rental
now at the rate of $3,500 for 5 days.

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

The Aesthetic of the Face

And, finally, he cloned himself!

Geminoid

,
Ishiguro’s Lab, Osaka University


Hiroshi Ishiguro would say that his Geminoid is like a twin!

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

The Aesthetic of the Face

The realism of the facial expressions
are as important as the overall
aesthetic of the face

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Expressing Emotions

The Kismet Robot, C. Breazael, MIT, 1999

Sad Happy Surprised

Designing Robot’s Faces

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Expressing Emotions

Feelix robot by L. Canamero, MIT, 1999

From left to right and top

to bottom: neutral, anger, sadness, fear, happiness, and surprise.


Designing Robot’s Faces

L. Canamero
, J Fredslund, I show you how I like you
-
can you read it in my face, IEEE Transactions on Systems,
Man and Cybernetics, Part A,, 2001

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Designing Robot’s Faces

Mike Blow, Kerstin Dautenhahn, Andrew Appleby, Chrystopher L. Nehaniv, David Lee,
The Art of
Designing Robot Faces
-

Dimensions for Human
-
Robot Interaction
, Proc. AMC/IEEE HRI06, Salt
Lake City, Utah, USA, 2006, pp. 331
-

332.

Kaspar has 8DOF head and two 6DOF arms.


Rational behind the development of Kaspar is:



consistency of appearance and complexity between the head, body and
hands to aid natural interaction



minimal expressive features to create the impression of sociability

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

The Aesthetic of the Face

Mike Blow, Kerstin Dautenhahn, Andrew Appleby, Chrystopher L. Nehaniv, David Lee,
The Art of
Designing Robot Faces
-

Dimensions for Human
-
Robot Interaction
, Proc. AMC/IEEE HRI06, Salt
Lake City, Utah, USA, 2006, pp. 331
-

332.

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Designing Robot’s Faces

Mike Blow, Kerstin Dautenhahn, Andrew Appleby, Chrystopher L. Nehaniv, David Lee,
The Art of
Designing Robot Faces
-

Dimensions for Human
-
Robot Interaction
, Proc. AMC/IEEE HRI06, Salt
Lake City, Utah, USA, 2006, pp. 331
-

332.

e.g. a Photograph

e.g. Comics faces

e.g. Picasso’s cubic faces

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Expressive Body Movements

Keepon
(Kozima’s group, CRL, Japan)
:

Very simple but powerful design to convey joint attention
and turn taking behavior

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Keepon
's kinematic mechanism. Two gimbals are connected
by four wires; the lower gimbal is driven by two motors.


Another motor rotates the whole inner
-
structure; yet another
drives the skull downward for bobbing.

Expressive Body Movements

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Attentive action

Directing the head up/down and left/right so as to orient
Keepon's face/body to a certain target in the environment. Keepon seems
to be perceiving the target. This action includes eye
-
contact and joint
attention.

Emotive action

Keeping its attention in a certain direction, Keepon rocks
its body from side to side and/or bobs its body up and down. Keepon
seems to express emotions (like pleasure and excitement) about the target.

Expressive Body Movements

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Robota: Educational and Therapeutic Toy

Designing Robot Toys



SDR
-
3X, Sony

Price: Luxury car (>$100’000.
-
)



Robota, DIDEL SA

Price: $2’800.
-

My Real Baby,
IRobot Corp

Price: $100.
-

Robota fills a gap in the market: It is an
affordable
humanoid robot

Teaching toy:

It provides a nice basis for child
-
robot interaction

Education:

It has
development software
, you can have several robots in a
class room

What is the use of Robota?

Image of SDR
-
3x

Image of My Real Baby


http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Design Issues behind Robota

Robota’s

Body
:




Cuteness



Human
-
likeness,

i
.
e
.

respecting

the

body

proportion

of

a

young

child

(between

16

and

20

months

old),




Naturalness

of

the

motions,

i
.
e
.

the

robot’s

motions

should

be

human
-
like
.


Robota’s

Capabilities
:


Provided

with

capabilities

for

interactions

that

a

child

of

this

age

would

display
:



To

recognize

human

faces

and

direct

its

gaze

towards

the

user,




To

understand

and

learn

a

restricted

vocabulary




Simple

imitation

of

the

user’s

motion


Designing Robot Toys

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

First Prototype


Univ of Edinburgh, 1998

Designing Robot Toys

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Learning Dance Movements


Univ of Edinburgh, 1998

First Prototype

Designing Robot Toys

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

LAMI
-

EPFL, 1999

In collaboration with Jean
-
Daniel Nicoud and Andre Guignard

Second Prototype

Designing Robot Toys

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Second Prototype

Billard, A.

(2003)
Robota: Clever Toy and Educational Tool
. Robotics & Autonomous Systems,
42, 259
-
269.

Designing Robot Toys

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

PDA
-

Pocket
-
PC

400MHz, 64Mb

Windows CE

Embedded C++

Speech Processing

CONVERSAY

synthesis + recognition

Touch

Switches

Kinesthetic


Haptic

Potentiometers

Face and Motion Tracking

CMOS FlyCam camera

Robota


The Product

Designing Robot Toys

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Robota


The Product

Since 1999, Robota is a commercial product sold by DIDEL SA, Switzerland

Designing Robot Toys

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007


Three degrees of
freedom:

-
1 for horizontal binocular
motion

-
2 for vertical motion (separate
blinking)


Aesthetic: all components
within the head

ROBOTA’S EYES

Pongas, D.,
Guenter, F.
, Guignard, A. and
Billard, A.

(2004)
Development of a Miniature Pair of Eyes With
Camera for the Humanoid Robot Robota
. IEEE
-
RAS/RSJ International Conference on Humanoid Robots.

Designing Robot Toys

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

ROBOTA’S EYES

Designing Robot Toys

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007



2 USB Cameras



VGA (640X480)



15 frames per
second


Robota’s eyes

IEEE Conf. In Humanoid Robotics, HUMANOIDS’04

Designing Robot Toys

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Body and Brain must Match


It

is

fundamental

that

the

robot’s

cognitive

capabilities

match

its

physical

appearance
.





An


adult
-
like


humanoid

robot

will

be

expected

to

produce

adult
-
like

capabilities

(understanding

of

speech

and

complex

manipulation

capabilities)
.




Conversely,

if

one

interacts

with

a

baby
-
like

robot
,

one

will

probably

have

lower

expectations

on

the

robot’s

speech

and

manipulation

capabilities
.


http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Designing the body and the brain of a robot


Why are the key criteria?




The robot’s body creates expectations in terms of the robot’s
capabilities.




If these do not match, the robot loses some of its believability and of
its appeal.


What are the main challenges?





To manage to endow the robot with complex facial and body
expressions, while not loosing the aesthetic of the robot.




To better understand the complex and subtle effects that each of
these features have on human
-
robot interaction.


http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

The importance of having human
-
like
motions

Ishiguro’s Android driven
by sinusoid
-
like motions

Real
-
time mapping of
human motion on the
Android

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

The Kindness of the Behaviour

Ri
-
Man robot from Riken

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Goal:
Creates gaze contact and change gaze directionality with focus of
interest

Development:
Oculo
-
motor control, eye
-
head coordination, visuo
-
audio
control

Infanoid, CSL, ATR, Kyoto

Robita, Waseda University


Human
-
like behavior


http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Goal:
Teaching the robot through imitation

Development:
From recognizing to categorizing, learning and reproducing
gestures gestures


Human
-
like behavior

Darrin Bentivegna, ATR, Kyoto

Infanoid, CSL, ATR, Kyoto


http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

4 different scenarios were studied in the trials where a robot approached
the subject who was located in the living room:

1) Seated on a chair in the middle of an open space.

2) Standing in the middle of an open space.

3) Seated at a table in the middle of an open space.

4) Standing with their back against a wall.


Human
-
like behavior

Subject seated on a chair

Subject standing against a wall

Sarah Naomi Woods, Michael Leonard Walters, Kheng Lee Koay, Kerstin Dautenhahn (2006)
Methodological
Issues in HRI: A Comparison of Live and Video
-
Based Methods in Robot to Human Approach Direction Trials
. Proc.
The 15th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO
-
MAN06).

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

The main findings were:



Humans strongly did not like a direct frontal approach by a robot, especially
while sitting (even at a table) or while standing with their back to a wall.



An approach from the front left or front right was preferred.



When standing in an open space a frontal approach was more

acceptable and although a rear approach was not usually most

preferred, it was generally acceptable to subjects if physically

more convenient.


Human
-
like behavior

Sarah Naomi Woods, Michael Leonard Walters, Kheng Lee Koay, Kerstin Dautenhahn (2006)
Methodological
Issues in HRI: A Comparison of Live and Video
-
Based Methods in Robot to Human Approach Direction Trials
. Proc.
The 15th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO
-
MAN06).

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

M. L. Walters, K. Dautenhahn, K. L. Koay, C. Kaouri, R. te Boekhorst, C. L. Nehaniv, I. Werry, D. Lee (2005) Close
encounters: Spatial distances between people and a robot of mechanistic appearance. Proc. IEEE
-
RAS
International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids2005), pp. 450
-
455.

The child groups showed a dominant response to prefer the ‘social zone’
distance, comparable to distances people adopt when talking to other humans.
From the single adult studies a small majority preferred the ‘personal zone’,
reserved for talking to friends. However, significant minorities deviate from this
pattern.


Human
-
like behavior

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Summary



The robot’s face must be appealing to enhance the
interaction




It must be able to express emotions to which humans
can relate




Brain and body must match


the robot’s capabilities
must match the expectations raised by its body features




Simple designs can sometimes be more effective than
highly complex and realistic ones




The robot must be endowed with basic social behaviors:

Joint attention, imitation, keep a desired distance.

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007


CONTEST


Team of 3


Draw the most appealing robot



15 minutes