Affective-Cognitive Learning & Decision Making - Computer Science

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14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Affective Computing:

Agents With Emotion

Victor C. Hung

University of Central Florida


Orlando, FL


EEL6938: Special Topics in Autonomous Agents


March 29, 2007

University of Central Florida

www.ucf.edu

Agenda


Introduction


Highlighted Projects


Affective Cognitive Learning & Decision
Making


Questions

University of Central Florida

www.ucf.edu

Introduction


Affective Computing relates to, arises from, or
deliberately influences emotion or other
affective phenomena


Engineering, computer science with psychology,
cognitive science, neuroscience, sociology,
education, psychophysiology, ethics …


Emotion is fundamental to human experience


Cognition


Perception


Learning


Communication


Rational decision
-
making

University of Central Florida

www.ucf.edu

Introduction


Technologists have largely ignored emotion


Affect has been misunderstood


Hard to measure


MIT Media Lab: Affective Computing


http://affect.media.mit.edu


Develop new technologies and theories


Understanding affect and its role in human experience


Restore a proper balance between emotion and
cognition in the design of technologies for
addressing human needs

University of Central Florida

www.ucf.edu

Introduction


Issues in affective computing


Communication of affective
-
cognitive states to
machines


Techniques to assess frustration, stress, and mood
indirectly


Make computers can be more emotionally
intelligent


Personal technologies for improving self
-
awareness
of affective states


Emotion’s influences personal health


Ethics

University of Central Florida

www.ucf.edu

Highlighted Projects


Affective
-
Cognitive Framework for
Machine Learning and Decision
-
Making


Emotion’s role in learning and decision
making


Digital Story Explication as it Relates to
Emotional Needs and Learning


Emotional interaction in child learning


ESP
-

The Emotional
-
Social Intelligence
Prosthesis


Aid for the emotionally
-
impaired

University of Central Florida

www.ucf.edu

Highlighted Projects


Fostering Affect Awareness and
Regulation in Learning


Combat frustration during the learning
process


Machine Learning and Pattern
Recognition with Multiple Modalities


Emotional sensor data fusion


Ripley: A Conversational Robot


Human
-
robot interaction platform through
language and visual perception modalities

University of Central Florida

www.ucf.edu

Affective
-
Cognitive Learning & Decision Making


(2006) Ahn and Picard’s “
Affective
-
Cognitive
Learning and Decision Making: The Role of
Emotions
”, The 18th European Meeting on
Cybernetics and Systems Research


Framework for learning and decision making


Inspired by neural basis of motivations and the role
of emotions in human behavior


Affective biases


Loss aversion


Effect of mood on decision making

University of Central Florida

www.ucf.edu

Affective
-
Cognitive Learning & Decision Making


Affective biases


Two
-
armed bandit


University of Central Florida

www.ucf.edu

Affective
-
Cognitive Learning & Decision Making


Loss aversion


Prefer avoiding losses than acquiring gains

University of Central Florida

www.ucf.edu

Affective
-
Cognitive Learning & Decision Making


Effect of mood on decision making

HAPPINESS

Optimism about the present

Pessimism about the future

FEAR

ANGER

Optimism about the future

Pessimism about the present

SADNESS

University of Central Florida

www.ucf.edu

Affective
-
Cognitive Learning & Decision Making


A motivational value (reward)
-
based learning theory:





Extrinsic value from the cognitive (deliberative and analytic)
systems


Intrinsic value from multiple affective systems such as Seeking
(Wanting), Fear, Rage, and other circuits


Probabilistic models


Cognition (cognitive state transition)


Multiple affect circuits (Seeking, Joy, Anger, Fear, ...)


Decision making model


Previous knowledge can be incorporated for expecting
the consequences of decisions (or computing the
cognitive value)

University of Central Florida

www.ucf.edu

Affective
-
Cognitive Learning & Decision Making

University of Central Florida

www.ucf.edu

Affective
-
Cognitive Learning & Decision Making


The Decision
-
Making Model



Cognitive state (c)


Affective state (a)


Decision (d)

University of Central Florida

www.ucf.edu

Affective
-
Cognitive Learning & Decision Making


Affective seeking value =


Valence = decided by the mean of the filtered
values for the reward samples


Arousal = uncertainty of the reward sample
distribution (modeled as standard deviation)


Complete decision
-
making expression:





Non
-
affect agent has only the cognitive
component

University of Central Florida

www.ucf.edu

Affective
-
Cognitive Learning & Decision Making


Affective agent vs. Non
-
affect agent

University of Central Florida

www.ucf.edu

Affective
-
Cognitive Learning & Decision Making


Influence of an outlier on the cognitive values and the
valence values

University of Central Florida

www.ucf.edu

Affective
-
Cognitive Learning & Decision Making


Affective component less sensitive to outliers than
cognitive component


Affective Cooling: Agreement between two
components


More likely to follow the decision by the cognitive component
(Exploitation)


Value of the induced inverse temperature parameter
increases


Humans using cognition in decision
-
making


Affective Heating: Conflict between two components


Less likely to follow the decision by the cognitive component
(Exploration)


Value of the induced

inverse temperature parameter
decreases



Humans depending on emotion in decision
-
making

University of Central Florida

www.ucf.edu

Affective
-
Cognitive Learning & Decision Making


10
-
armed bandit tasks

University of Central Florida

www.ucf.edu

Affective
-
Cognitive Learning & Decision Making


Too much or too
little affect impairs
learning


Excessive
learns faster,
but not good
for long
-
term


Insufficient
better for long
-
term, but slow

University of Central Florida

www.ucf.edu

Affective
-
Cognitive Learning & Decision Making


Results and Conclusions


Framework enhancements


Model other affect circuits


Incidental influences on decision making


Use of prior knowledge for expecting cognitive outcomes




Affective bias


Helps automatically regulate exploration and exploitation


Speed up learning without sacrificing decision quality


This framework might mimic well
-
studied human
behavior


Risk aversion


Effects of mood on decision making


Self
-
control

Questions?