bottlelewdΚινητά – Ασύρματες Τεχνολογίες

12 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

73 εμφανίσεις




Course Faculty:
Mrs Yasmin Malik

Venue: IBA City Campus, Karachi

Course Start Date: Spring 2012 (Feb 1)

MIS553: Mobile Marketing Strategies

Mobile/Wireless Network Technologies






(IMT Advanced)

Rely on digital signal instead of
radio signal. Launched in 1991
(Finland on the GSM standard)
and divided into time or code
based standards depending on
the type of multiplexing used

Rely on circuit switching domain for
voice and packet
switching domain
for data communications. This set of
standards enables high
speed data
transfer over 2G GSM/CDMA
networks that have been upgraded

Provide mobile phones with
broadband or near
speed transmission.

3G IMT 2000

3G Transitional: 3.5, 3.75, 3.9G

(includes LTE E

Represent a collection of wireless
standards that are all adapted to
be 100% packet and IP based.
They will provide a complete
replacement for current networks
and features include IPTV,
streaming audio/video, digital

CDMA (Code Division Multiple

GPRS (General/Global Packet
Radio Service)

HSPA/WCDMA (High Speed
Packet Access)

LTE Advanced (Long Term
Evolution) is IP data network that
optimizes data transmission rather
than voice.

GSM (Global System For Mobile

EDGE/2.75G (Enhanced Data Rates
for GSM Evolution) launched in US in
2003 and improves network
capacity and performance by 3x.
Can be added to 2G, 2.5G, GPRS

CDMA 2000/EvDO 1x

(Evolution Data Only with various

3G Transitional: EvDO Rev A/B

Mobile WiMAX IEEE 802.16m

TDMA (Time Division Multiplex

Mobile WiMAX (Worlwide
Interoperability for Microwave
Access) is based on all
IP core
network and the
IEEE 802.16e
2005 standard

The debate of WiMAX vs LTE i.e.
3G vs 4G is very much alive

Data rates: 56 kbps
236 kbps

Download: 1.8
5.8 Mbps

Upload: 3.8
14.4 Mbps

Download/Upload: 30
95 Mbps

Mobile/Wireless Technologies Defined:


2G networks are the second generation of cellular networks that rely on a digital signal instead of a
radio signal

Voice quality is better due to digital encryption

They make efficient use of spectrum (channel bandwidth) and allow operators to push through a
higher number of calls than 1G networks

However, this technology relies more on proximity to a base station/tower

when a caller moves out
of range, calls are dropped entirely instead of progressively degrading

2G technologies can be divided into time or code based standards depending on the type of
multiplexing used (a process where multiple signals/digital data is combined into one signal over a
given shared medium)

Technologies directly related to 2G are CDMA, TDMA and GSM and replace typical “1G”
technology introduced in the 1980s

In general, a new “generation” of
cellular standards has appeared approximately every tenth year
since 1G systems became operational

Note: Each new generation is generally characterized by new frequency bands, specifications and
higher data rates

Mobile/Wireless Technologies Defined:



Code Division Multiple Access systems allow each mobile device (phone) to
be assigned a specific code which allows multiple users to be put on the same
transmission channel

Each channel transmits its bit as a coded channel
specific sequence of pulses

Widely used in North and South America and Asia as a telecommunication

It is also applied in GPS (Global Positioning System)

Mobile/Wireless Technologies Defined:



Time Division Multiple Access

Most 2G networks rely on TDMA to transmit digital signals that are divided
up into different time slots instead of codes as in CDMA

The signals are sent in rapid succession while sharing one digital channel

Some shortfalls of TDMA: this timing requirement frequently makes it
unreliable as a mobile phone transmission technology because when callers
move closer/farther away from a base station, they mis
align the timing
requirements of the system and disrupt transmission

Mobile/Wireless Technologies Defined:



Global System for Mobile Communications

Developed in 1991 in Finland to address some of the shortfalls of TDMA technology

Now used around the world making, among other things, roaming much more
streamlined (as phones can almost always access a signal that they can use)

based) accounts for 80% of the world’s mobile subscribers

It requires timing advance commands to be sent to the base station which sends
signals to the mobile phone telling it whether it should transmit the signal earlier and
if so, by how much

Because of its success, many other 2G technologies including CDMA and TDMA
eventually transferred to GSM including CDMA2000 (operating in the CDMA 450
MHz frequency band/spectrum range)

Mobile/Wireless Technologies Defined:

2.5/2.75G G (GPRS/EDGE)

2.5 G networks are an improvement over 2G networks and employ a “packet” switched domain
for data communication while still maintaining a circuit
switching domain for voice communication

It usually describes a GSM system which has been upgraded for data transmission such as the
mobile internet usage

Technologies directly related to the 2.5G standards include GPRS and EDGE


Global Packet Radio Service can be added to 2G, GSM or 3G networks to achieve
improvements in data transmission by using TDMA to improve packet switching over a given
mobile network

GPRS typically provides commercial data rates from 50 to 100 kbps and is typically used for
such services as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) access, Multimedia Messaging Service
(MMS), and email

Note that most telecom operators charge for GPRS data transfer per megabyte of data traffic
used (often in the form of data “bundles”) whereas voice communication/calls via traditional
circuit switching is billed per minute or 30 seconds

Mobile/Wireless Technologies Defined:

2.5/2.75G G (GPRS/EDGE)


Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution was launched in US in 2003

It provides almost a
3 fold

improvement in GSM/GPRS network capacity and
performance through its packet switching optimization

EDGE is standardized by 3GPP as part of the GSM family and can be deployed as
an “upgrade” on any GSM/GPRS network

Data rates of up 235 kbps can be reached giving users a “broadband” like

Mobile/Wireless Technologies Defined:

3GPP, ITU, IMT/3G/4G, Spectrum


The 3rd Generation Partnership Project is an industry collaboration
between major telecommunications companies and associations with the aim
of making system specifications for the global application of 3G networks

These specifications must fall within the scope of the
International Mobile
Telecommunications (IMT

project of the ITU and are based on the
GSM specifications encompassing radio, core network and network/service


International Telecommunication Union is a UN based agency whose
role is to regulate information and communication technology related
matters. Among its tasks, it coordinates the global use of radio spectrum,
establishes worldwide communications standards and promotes international
cooperation for the improvement of telecom infrastructure

Mobile/Wireless Technologies Defined:

3GPP, ITU, IMT/3G/4G, Spectrum

2000 or 3G:
International Mobile Telecommunications
2000 (IMT
2000) is also known as 3G

It is a generation of mobile phone and mobile telecommunication standards
and it fulfills specifications set by the ITU

According to the ITU
200 specifications, a typical 3G communications
system must allow simultaneous use of voice and data services and provide
peak data rates of at least 200 kbps in a commercial environment and
several Mbps (5
14 Mbps) for wireless broadband access

Typical 3G mobile services include wireless voice, mobile internet, video
calls and mobile TV

These networks are functionally similar to Wi
Fi (11
54 Mbps) but are
meant to cover less area

The first 3G network in the world was launched in Japan by DoCoMo in
2001 based on WCDMA technology followed by South Korea in 2002
based on Ev
Do technology

Technologies directly related to 3G are HSPA, EvDO and WiMAX

Mobile/Wireless Technologies Defined:

3GPP, ITU, IMT/3G/4G, Spectrum

Advanced or 4G:

this type of cellular system must have
peak data rates of up to

Mbps for mobile internet access

A typical 4G network should provide services (via an all
IP based solution) including IP
telephony, IP TV, ultra
broadband Internet access, gaming services, digital video
broadcast, video chat and streamed multimedia

These networks represent a collection of wireless standards that are all adapted to be
100% packet and IP based

4G promises higher network capacity and more simultaneous users per cell

Technologies directly related to 4G are WiMAX and LTE

, successfully launched the world’s first commercial
4G services in Sweden and Norway in Aug/Sept 2010

LTE services were rolled out in cities including Stockholm and Oslo

Users enjoy peak rates of up to 100Mbps, average downlink rates of 85
90Mbps and an uplink of 30Mbps

Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN)

provided its radio equipment for the
operator’s LTE roll out in the city and during 2010 will participate in
deployments in Sweden’s 25 largest cities

Jan 2012: At this time, there are over 200 LTE networks deployed around
the world!

The World’s 1

4G (LTE) Network

Mobile/Wireless Technologies Defined:

3GPP, ITU, IMT/3G/4G, Spectrum


(or more
correctly “Radio
Frequency Spectrum”) is
a key distinguishing
factor used to compare
different mobile systems
and ranges from
approximately 30 Hz
(termed Extremely Low
Frequency [ELF]) to
above 100 GHz (termed
Extremely High
Frequency [EHF]).

Band Name

Frequency Range

Commercial Use

Extremely Low

30 Hz


Medium Frequency

3,000 kHz

AM broadcasting

Ultra High Frequency

3,000 MHz

TV, cellular and WLAN

Super High Frequency

30 GHz

WLAN, WiMAX, Point
Point and Point

Mobile/Wireless Technologies Defined:



“Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access”

it is an implementation of the IEEE 802.16e
2005 standard (3G transitional) and the IEEE 802.16m standard (4G IMT

is a broadband wireless solution that enables convergence of mobile and fixed broadband

It provides high speed, wireless connectivity over a longer distance more simply and more cost
than current cellular technologies

WIMAX will co
exist and inter work with existing wired/wireless technologies as it supports VoIP but will

2G/3G for voice services.

Its infrastructure can be used effectively
to take off voice traffic capacity

from mobile operators due to
capacity constraints.

WiMAX offers:

High data rates and long distance coverage: coverage of up to 50 km at up to 75 Mbps per
base station

Quality of Service (QoS): video streaming with low latency (delay)

Scalability: more cells can be added at a lower cost

Mobile/Wireless Technologies Defined:



Evolution Data Only

is a 3G packet based data transmission standard
particularly for wireless broadband access and supports high data rates (which vary on
the “Revision” type e.g. 2.4 Mbps for Rev 0 and 3.1 Mbps for Rev A)

It uses both CDMA and TDMA to maximize data rates at both the user end and system

Its standards are set in line with the 3GPP2 as part of the CDMA2000 standards and
has been adopted by many mobile network operators globally and is often deployed
alongside an MNO’s voice service or those who have already employed a CDMA based

Mobile/Wireless Technologies Defined:

Advanced (WiMAX/LTE)


Long Term Evolution is an IP data network optimized for the transmission of data
rather than voice packets

It competes with WiMAX 802.16m as the 4G standard of choice

Commercially deployed by TeliaSonera in 2010 in Sweden and Norway


an implementation of the IEEE 802.16m standard to compete with the likes
of LTE


there is wide industry debate as to which technology is the better one wrt 4G
between WiMAX 4G and LTE