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Core Technologies of the next generation
wireless systems for the high rate mobile
data access services

Workshop on the Communication Core Technology

Educational Culture Center in Seoul

Feb. 14, 2006

By
-

Bekay (Byung Keun) Lim, Ph.D.

ArrayComm LLC

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

1

Agenda

1. Telecommunication Services Status and Trend

2. Mobile Wireless Technology Evolution

3. Experience of the high rate AMC based technologies

4. The constraints of public mobile wireless technology evolution

5. AAS and SDMA for the high rate mobile access

6. Experience of the AAS/SDMA technologies

7. Conclusion

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

2

1. Telecommunication Services Status and Trend


Telecommunication Services Status and Trend

»
Voice to Data & Multimedia

»
Wireline to Wireless

»
Higher Data Speed

»
Voice Centric network to Data Centric network

»
NGN, IPv6, Ubiquitous, 3.5G, 4G,

»
Core Service to Additional Supplementary Services,

»
Converged services

»
Converged market
-

Public Operator driven Market , Enterprise, and SOHO
Market.

»
Saturated and slow growth.

»
New Revenue Source are required for fast growth

»
Shared equipment to Personalized



PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

3

»
Voice to Data & Multimedia, Wireline to Wireless, Higher Speed



LAN/ WLAN


PSTN Voice

Dial up data

xDSL,



Cable
modem

Data


Multimedia


Services

Mobile Wireless Voice

Voice

Services

Fixed

Fixed Wireless

pedestrian

Vehicular

Mobility

Information

Rate

64Kbps

144Kbps

1Mbps

2Mbps

Broadband

Multimedia Services

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

4

»
Voice Centric network to Data Centric network, NGN, IPv6,
Ubiquitous, 3.5G, 4G,



Wireless

패킷망

PSTN

Wireless

PSTN

Access Transport

DATA

Switching Networks

Legacy Separate Network

QoS Packet Network

Mobile

Access

Enterprise

Access

Home

Access

Softswitch

Next Generation Network

Services

services

Network

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

5

»
Core Service to Additional Supplementary Services,


PSTN


IN services, 080, Ring Sound, CID, etc.


PCS, Cellular


SMS, Multimedia, Data

»
Converged services, Converged market
-

Public Operator driven
Market , Enterprise, and SOHO Market.


DMB over the Handset


Home Network

»
Saturated and slow growth. New Revenue Source are required for
further growth. Subscribers as of Dec.30, 2005


PSTN


No growth, (decrease) 22.92Mil


PCS, Cellular


38.34Milion


High Speed Internet


12.14Mil


PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

6

»
Shared telecommunication equipment to Personalized


PSTN provides a telecommunication services to every home and
Office (PSTN Phone)





PCS, Cellular provide a personal services (Handset)



Broadband Internet Access Services, xDSL, Cable, Metro
Ethernet provide a High Speed Internet Access services to
Home and Office (Desk Top PC)





Wireless Broadband Access provides a personal


services ( mobile PC)

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

7

2. Mobile Wireless Technology Evolution


2. Mobile Wireless Technology Evolution

»
Voice Centric Network technology


3GPP2, IS
-
95A/B, cdma2000 1x/Ev
-
Do, 1xEV
-
Do rev A

,


3GPP, WCDMA, CDMA/HSDPA, HSUPA, LTE, TD
-
SCDMA, TD
-
CDMA,


GSM, GPRS, EDGE,

»
Data Centric network technology


IEEE802.x, Hiperxxx


WiFi, WiMAX, WiBro, Mobile WiMAX


HC
-
SDMA,

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

8

»
From Voice Centric technology to Data Centric technology


Circuit switch Cellular/PCS to All IP Network

»
Narrow Channel Bandwidth to Broad Channel Bandwidth


1.25Mhz
-
> 5Mhz

> 10Mhz
-
> 20Mhz


To have a broadband access channel widen the channel
bandwidth

»
Uniform Rate service coverage to variable rate service coverage by
AMC


Symbol modulation for basic voice channel covers full service
areas


Higher order modulation 16QAM, 64QAM, 256QAM provides a
portion of coverage areas depend on the SNR


To achieve the high peak data rate as far as possible


PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

9

3. Experience of the high rate AMC based technologies


3. Experience of the high rate AMC technologies

»
Easy approach to get a higher peak data rate

»
Non
-
uniform service coverage


25 20 15 10 5 0 dB

N

W

E

S

SNR

Distance

25

20

15

10

5

0

-
5

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

10

»
Lower Cell Edge data rate deteriorate the service quality

»
Peak Data rate mislead the understanding for the End user even
Operators

»
Cause a complain by the poor service quality


< CDMA 2000 1x, WCDMA, GSM >

< 1xEV
-
DO, EV
-
DV, HSDPA, WiBro>

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

11

4. The constraints of public mobile wireless technology
evolution


4. The constraints of public mobile wireless technology evolution

»
Public wireless service system criterion


Guarantee the quality of Services

»
Public Wireless Services system is different from private wireless system


ISM band WIFI vs. Licensed Spectrum Radio System


Cell Planning and Quality

»
HSDPA, Mobile WiMAX, WiBro, LTE, 3.5G, 4G, approach is to get a
broadband channel bandwidth, higher rate AMC technique


Peak rate driven, OFDMA, MIMO, Higher Radio Frequency Band 2.5GHz,
5GHz, etc.


High RF band is required for Broadband Channel BW



Propagation loss, uniform service quality, Backhaul Cost limit the
massive deployment


PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

12

»
Lesson of Commercial experience of the MBWA system, Cellular, Netspot,


Expensive, Poor quality (non
-
uniform), Small coverage


Non
-
popular services

»
Low cost , uniform service quality, higher data rate, higher network
capacity are required.


For the popular services

»
Voice Centric Approach could not break the paradigm of cost, quality
constraint


User expect similar amount of payment for the data access


Data services requires several tenth times data capacity compare to
Voice services capacity

»
Data centric application network


Can ensure the Capex and Opex for the MBWA services

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

13

»
Data centric telecommunication MBWA network for what?


Providing services by a cheap cost


Providing guaranteed service quality


Providing uniform service quality


Providing commercial new subscriber (Mobile PC?)


Can not build a MBWA network by a legacy cellular concept

»

New Paradigm is required for MBWA network


Limit some service features (mobility)


Smaller cell (Pico Cell for high capacity/m²)


Zone based service coverage ( reduce the Capex and Opex)


Higher Capacity / footprint ( MBWA requirement)


AAS for the Cell Edge Data Speed and Quality (Uniformity )

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

14

5. AAS and SDMA for the high rate mobile access


5. AAS and SDMA for the high rate mobile access

»
Array Antenna based Adaptive Antenna solution provides wider
coverage and higher capacity


Technical Interpretation


Gain vs. noise, fading, ... expands envelope to right


Interference mitigation (+ gain) expands it upwards

Economic Interpretation


Coverage improvements reduce CapEx, OpEx (esp. backhaul, sites)


Capacity improvements reduce delivery cost, spectrum requirements

range (km)

Throughput/cell

(Mbps)

2/2.5G (10 MHz)

802.11b (83 MHz)

Noise

Limited

Interference

Limited

Smart Antenna

Benefit

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

15


Exploiting Channel State Information

User 1,

s
1
(t)e
j

t

+1

-
1

2bs
2
(t)

as
1
(t)+bs
2
(t)

as
1
(t)
-
bs
2
(t)

User 2,

s
2
(t)e
j

t


Users’ signals arrive at array with different space
-
time channels


Processing provides gain and interference mitigation

+1

+1

2as
1
(t)

as
1
(t)

as
1
(t)

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

16


Gain, Active & Passive Mitigation

user

omni/sector

reference

co
-
channel user

coherent gain

passive mitigation

active mitigation

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

17


Protocol Independence

»
Applicable to any access & modulation methods

»
Processing in parallel on each channel resource

Transceiver

Channelizer

(TDMA, FDMA, CDMA,
OFDMA)

Transceiver

Channelizer

(TDMA, FDMA, CDMA,
OFDMA)







Spatial and Temporal Processing

baseband signals/user data

antenna

antenna

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

18


SISO, MISO, SIMO, MIMO, …

SISO

»
Single Input,
Single Output

MISO

»
Multiple Input,
Single Output

SIMO

»
Single Input,
Multiple Output

MIMO

»
Multiple Input,
Multiple Output

SDMA

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

19


Wide variety of geometries and element types

»
arrangements of off
-
the
-
shelf single elements

»
custom arrays


Array size

»
vertical extent determined by element gain/pattern as usual

»
horizontal extent, as small as 3
-
5 lambda

»
regular structures with 0.5 lambda subarrays desirable for FDD


2 GHz: array of eight 10 dBi elements is 0.5 x 0.75 m

»
small!

»
conformal arrays for aesthetics



Antenna Arrays

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

20

RF

PHY

MAC

Antenna

Co
-
Processing

Calibration
Module

...

...

Resource
scheduling
and
calibration
control

Antenna processing software modules from ArrayComm

Calibration subsystem

Common Radio System Logical Layouts for
Advanced Antenna Processing

Base Station

Client Device

RF

PHY

MAC

Frame and Control

Antenna

Processing

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

21

»
HC
-
SDMA system performance


6.7x capacity
improvement through
3 software releases in
microcellular
application, with over
275,000 installations in
service in Japan and
China

PHS

HC
-
SDMA

Industry’s most sophisticated spatial
processing at work in multiple large
-
scale deployments of true mobile
broadband standard

GSM

12

30 dB link budget and

2

6x capacity improvement in
challenging urban FDD application, large
US operator trial ongoing

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

22

»
WiBro/Mobile WiMAX performance
-
Downlink SINR distribution,
reuse 3




Out of Service

~10dB

~30%

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

23

»
WiBro/Mobile WiMAX performance
-

Downlink SINR distribution,
reuse 1



PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

24


HC
-
SDMA ,
Base Case: 8 Terminals, 8 Carriers

600
700
800
900
1000
1100
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Elasped Time [sec]
Throughput [kbps]
Downlink

Uplink

220
240
260
280
300
320
340
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Elasped Time [sec]
Throughput [kbps]
2,629

7,966


Total

328

1,025


UT#6

328

1,027


UT#8

328

982


UT#7

332

1,026


UT#5

331

892


UT#4

325

1,027


UT#3

329

964


UT#2

328

1,023


UT#1

Uplink

Downlink



Average Data Rate [kbps]

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

25


Antenna Configurations


Stub & Patch


»
Pair 1: co
-
pol closely spaced



»
Pair 2: x
-
pol



»
Pair 3: co
-
pol distant

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

26


Wavelength at 2GHz is about 15 cm


Typical handset dimension is 10 cm x 5 cm


A 2
-
antenna solution with 0.3


0.5
λ

antenna separation can be
easily accommodated


Due to the large angle spread of the received signals, a 0.3


0.5
λ

antenna separation will yield good performances


ArrayComm has studied handset antenna configurations in
detail


PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

27


Measurement Results


Patch Antennas

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

28


Measurement Results


Stub Antennas

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

29


Network Simulation


Ec/Ei in the WCDMA Handset


3GPP TR 29.942


3 sectors/site


Max BS power: 20
Watts


Pilot TX power: 1
Watts


Cell radius: 1500 m


Uncorrelated
Shadowing
sigma=8 dB

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

30

Ec/Ei After Cancelling Most Dominant Interferer


3GPP TR 29.942


3 sectors/site


Max BS power: 20
Watts


Pilot TX power: 1
Watts


Cell radius: 1500 m


Uncorrelated
Shadowing
sigma=8 dB

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

31

Ec/Ei After Cancelling Two Dominant Interferers


3GPP TR 29.942


3 sectors/site


Max BS power: 20
Watts


Pilot TX power: 1
Watts


Cell radius: 1500 m


Uncorrelated
Shadowing
sigma=8 dB

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

32

6. Experience of the AAS/SDMA technologies


6. Experience of the AAS/SDMA technologies

»
Mitigate the cell edge interference and provide uniform QoS

»
Increase the network average throughput

»
Increase the network total capacity by SDMA

»
Easy to implement on top of existing technologies

»
Optimum solution for data centric application system

»
MIMO Now


BS AAS (Multiple RX/TX)


Handset AAS ( 2 Rx)

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

33


7. Conclusion

»
Next generation licensed MBWA market


The last domain of telecommunication services

»
New ocean of Telecommunication services market


When the subscriber come with a new client devices


New Device will consumes a lot of data traffic compare to
Cellular packet usage on the handset


Popularity will be assured by low cost and uniform quality

»
Core technologies for the new public licensed MBWA market


AAS uniquely assures the uniform services quality


SDMA is the last technique to improve the capacity in any
technologies even on top of MIMO

7. Conclusion