Analytical Solutions for Heat

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12 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Analytical Solutions for Heat
Flow in IC Interconnects

Kuntal Bhattacharyya

Project Synopsis


Project '03

Kuntal Bhattacharyya

2

Topics Covered


Failures in Interconnects


Reliability Concepts


Interconnect Thermal Profile


Hot Spots and Via Effects


Thermal Resistance in Interconnects


Calculation of Healing Length


Static Heat solution in (r,z,fi) plane


Project '03

Kuntal Bhattacharyya

3

Failures in Interconnects
1,2


Electromigration



Current Crowding



Increase in Joule/Self
Heating


Increase in the overall
line temperature


Project '03

Kuntal Bhattacharyya

4

Reliability Measures


Electromigration is a temperature dependent
effect. Temperature control is necessary.
This needs efficient Self Heating.


Current density is to be kept low. Ensured
by proper Interconnect parameters ( L, R/L,
C/L)


To achieve reasonable Interconnect lifetime,
ITRS standards should be maintained.

Project '03

Kuntal Bhattacharyya

5

Interconnect Thermal Profile
3,4,5

Assumptions



Though ‘k’ is a function of
temperature and position, it is
assumed to be constant.


All four sidewalls are
considered to be adiabatic.


Heat is exchanged only through
the underlying substrate.

Project '03

Kuntal Bhattacharyya

6

Interconnect Heat Flow
3


Under stated assumptions and steady state conditions, the system of
heat equation is




k[

2
T/

x
2
+

2
T/

y
2
+

2
T/

z
2
]+Q* =0



The 1
-
D equation is


2
T/

x
2
=
-
Q*/k
m




The volumetric heat generation rate
Q*
is a factor of

1.
Power generation rate due to RMS current.

2.
Heat loss rate between interconnect and substrate.



The summarized interconnect heat flow equations:



d
2

T
line
(x)/dx
2
=

2

T
line
(x)
-


2

T
ref
(x)
-





2
=1/ k
m

[{k
ox
(1+0.88 t
ox
/w)/t
m
t
ox
}
-

I
2
rms


i


⼠
2
t
m
2
]



= I
2
rms


i

/ w
2
t
m
2

k
m



Significance of
T
ref





Project '03

Kuntal Bhattacharyya

7

Substrate Thermal Profile
3,5


Using the two boundary
conditions T(x=0)= T
ref

and
T(x=L)= T
ref

the interconnect
thermal profile is obtained as




T(x)= (

/

2
)[1
-
{sinh

砫獩sh



-
x)}/sinh

L崫]
ref





Concept of “VIA” and its
importance in heat flow.


Project '03

Kuntal Bhattacharyya

8

Heat Profile Incorporating Via Effect
6


Healing length

L
H
=[ (k
M
H t
ILD
/ k
ILD
).(1/s)]
0.5



Heat spread factor


s=w
effective
/w



W
effective !!!!!



Temperature along wire:

T(x)=

T
0
+



max

[
1
-
{cosh(x/

L
H
)/

cosh(L/

2
L
H
)}]
;




L/
2



x



-

2



Where


T
max
(=j
2
rms


L
2
H
/ k
M
)



Hot spots and vias




Project '03

Kuntal Bhattacharyya

9

Heat profile with test parameters

For the 100nm technological node,


W=d=2

m


H=t
ILD
=0.8

m



k
ILD
=k
SiO2
=1.4W/mK


k
M
=k
aluminum
=216.5W/mK



M
=

aluminum
=2.65E
-
8

m



The length of the interconnect is
the distance between the two ends
of the vias



Therefore, L= 50

m



The temperature at different points
on the 50

m length of the
interconnect have been found and
plotted using different values of
“x”, that accounts for the location.
X=0 is the middle of the wire.


Project '03

Kuntal Bhattacharyya

10

Interconnect thermal resistance


Rth
e
-
e
=(1/k
M
).L/(w.t)


So, the thermal resistance per
unit length:


Rth
e
-
e
/L=1/(k
M.
w.t)= f (w, t)



Project '03

Kuntal Bhattacharyya

11

Chip thermal resistance

Project '03

Kuntal Bhattacharyya

12

Calculation of healing length
6,7


Heat flow in devices


Should be calculated neglecting
self heating.



Comparison between
effects of L
H1
& L
H2


Project '03

Kuntal Bhattacharyya

13

Summary


Heat flow equations have been analyzed for an
interconnect, independently, with via
-
effect and
with substrate profile.


Thermal resistance of the interconnect and the
chip has been studied. Healing length has been
calculated for given device parameters.


Present and future work involves a study of the
static heat conduction equation in the chip in
cylindrical coordinates, and analysis of the
solution.

Project '03

Kuntal Bhattacharyya

14

Bibliography

[1]
Thermal and Electrical Simulation of Deep Submicron Interconnection
Systems
-
R.Streiter, H Wolf, Z Zhu, X Xiao, T Gessner .

[2]

http://www.csl.mete.metu.edu.tr/Electromigration/emig.htm


[3]

K Banerjee, Pedram and Ajami,
Analysis and Optimization of Thermal Issues
in High
-
Performance VLSI
, ISPD’01, April 1
-
4, 2001, Sonoma, California,
USA .

[4]

Ajami, Banerjee, Pedram and Van Ginneken,
Analysis of Non
-
Uniform
Temperature
-
Dependent Interconnect Performance in High Performance
Ics
, DAC’01, June 18
-
22, 2001, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.

[5]

Ajami, Pedram and Banerjee,
Effects of Non
-
Uniform Substrate Temperature
on the Clock Signal Integrity in High Performance Designs
, CICC 2001.

[6]

Chiang, Banerjee, Saraswat,
A New Analytical Thermal Model For Multilevel
ULSI Interconnects Incorporating Via Effects
, CIS, Stanford University, CA

[7]

J S Brodsky,
Physics
-
based thermal impedance models for the simulation of
self
-
heating in semiconductor devices and circuits
, Dissertation presented to
the University of Florida, 1997.