Content management system

boompikeInternet και Εφαρμογές Web

8 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

157 εμφανίσεις


1

Content management system

A
content management system (CMS)

is a
computer software

system used to assist its
users in the process of
content management
. A CMS facilitates the organization, control,
and publication of a large body of documents and other content, such as images and
multimedia

resources. A CMS often facilitates the
collaborative

creation of documents. A
web

content mana
gement system is a content management system with additional
features to ease the tasks required to publish
web content

to
Web sites
.

Web Content management systems are often used for storing, controlling, versioning, and
publishing industry
-
specific documentation such as news articles, operators' manuals,
technical manuals, sales guides, and marketing brochures. A co
ntent management system
may support the following features:



Import and creation of documents and multimedia material



Identification of all key users and their content management roles



The ability to assign roles and responsibilities to different content ca
tegories or
types.



Definition of the content workflow tasks, often coupled with event messaging so
that content managers are alerted to changes in content.



The ability to track and manage multiple versions of a single instance of content.



The ability to pu
blish the content to a repository to support access to the content.
Increasingly, the repository is an inherent part of the system, and incorporates
enterprise search and retrieval.



Some content management systems allow the textual aspect of content to be
separated to some extent from formatting. For example the CMS may
automatically set default colour, fonts, or layout.

Contents



1

Web Content Managemen
t Systems



2

History



3

Operation



4

Terminology Meaning



5

Types of CMS



6

References



7

See also

8

External links


Web Content Management Systems

Main ar
ticle:
Web Content Management System

A web content management system is a computer system used to manage and control a
large, dynamic collection o
f web material (HTML documents and their associated

2

images). A CMS facilitates document control, auditing, editing, and timeline
management. A Web CMS provides the following key features:



Automated Templating:

Create standard visual templates that can be
a
utomatically applied to new and existing content, creating one central place to
change that look across all content on a site.



Easily Editable Content:

Once your content is separate from the visual
presentation of your site, it usually becomes much easier
and quicker to edit and
manipulate. Most CMS software include
WYSIWYG

editing tools allowing non
-
technical individuals to create and edit content.



Scalable Feature Sets:

Most CMS have plug
-
i
ns or modules that can be easily
installed to extend an existing site's functionality.



Web Standards Upgrades:

Active CMS solutions usually receive regular
updates that include new feature sets and keep the system up to current web
standards.



Workflow mana
gement
: Workflow is the process of creating cycles of
sequential and parallel tasks that must be accomplished in the CMS. For example,
a content creator submits a story but it's not published on the
website

until the
copy editor cleans it up, and the editor
-
in
-
chief approves it.



Document Management:

CMS solutions always provide a means of managing
the life cycle of a document from initial creation time, through revisions,
publication, archive
, and document destruction.

History

The term
Content Management System

was originally used for website publishing and
management systems. Early content management systems were developed internally at
organizations which were doing a lot of web publishing,
such as on
-
line magazines,
newspapers, and corporate newsletters. In 1995,
CNET

spun out its internal web
document management and publication system into a separate company called
Vignette
,
which opened up the market for commercial content management systems.

As markets evolved, the scope of products promoted as content management systems
greatly broadened
, fragmenting the meaning of the term.
Wiki

systems and web
-
based
groupware

are often described as content management systems,

in contrast to the original
website publishing management system definition.

Operation

A web site content management system often runs on the website's
server
. Mos
t systems
provide controlled access for various ranks of users such as administrators, copy editors,
senior editors, and content creators. Access is usually via a web browser program,
possibly combined with some use of
FTP

for uploading content.

Content creators submit their documents to the system.
Copy Editors

comment on, accept,
or rej
ect documents.
Layout editors

layout the site. The
editor in chief

is

then responsible

3

for publishing the work to the live site. The content management system controls and
helps manage each step of this workflow, including the technical task of publishing the
documents to one or more live web servers.

The content and all ot
her information related to the site is usually stored in a server
-
based
relational database

system. The content management system typically keeps a record of
previous

website editions and in
-
progress editions.

The pages controlled and published through the content management system can then be
seen by the visitors to the website.

In larger organizations these server based documents need to communicate with desktop
appl
ications and
Open Document Management APIs

perform the necessary "translations".
They have made substantial cost and time savings to document management overall, and
assist in smooth flow of docum
ents through enterprises, applications and processes.
[1]

Terminology Meaning

The following terms are often used in relation to web content management systems but
they

may be neither standard nor universal:



Block

-

A block is a link to a section of the web site. Blocks can usually be
specified to appear on all pages of the site (for example in a lefthand navigation
panel) or only on the home page.



Module

-

A content mod
ule is a section of the web site, for example a collection
of news articles, an FAQ section, etc. Some content management systems may
also have other special types of modules, for example administration and system
modules.



Theme

-

A theme specifies the cos
metic appearance of every page of the web site,
controlling properties such as the colours and the fonts.

Types of CMS



Module
-
based CMS.

Most tasks in a document's life
-
cycle are served by CMS
modules. Common modules are document creation/editing, transfor
ming and
publishing.



Document transformation language
-
based CMS.

Another approach to CMS
building with use of open standards.
XSLT
-
based CMS compile ready documents
from
XML

data and XSLT
-
template.
XML Sapiens
-
based CMS compile a
document from the stream of ‘pure’ data, design template and functionality
templates.


4



Web
-
based CMS.

Another approach to CMS building uses databases such as
postgresql, mysql or mssql and scripting languages or tools such as coldfusion,
php, jsp or asp to interact with the data to parse them into visual content. Data
stored in a database is que
ried and compiled into html pages or other documents
and transformed using cascading style sheets. These systems can include a
number of other functions, such as discussion boards, bloggs, or email newsletters.

References

1.

^

ODMA
advantages


See a
lso



Comparison of content management systems



Digital asset management

External links



Open Source CMS Report

Open Source Content Management Systems: An
Argumentative Approach.



What Is CMS



Content management

at the
Open Directory Project


Directories of available systems



Open Source CMS

Demo showcase for many content management systems.



CMS Matrix

Overview of (web) content management systems.



CMS Watch

Annotated lists of major enterprise and web content management
systems.



Contentmanager

Detailed list of conte
nt management systems (attention, paying
entries are featured, they're not featured because they are better!)



Open Source Scripts

Open Source Content Management Systems.



PHPXref CMS page

Library of cross referenced Open Source Content
Management Systems written in PHP.

Open Document
Management Application Program Interface

Definition:
The Open Document Management Application Program Interface (ODMA) is
an industry standard interface for document management that standardises
communications between desktop applications and server
-
based
document management
systems.



In modern day business there are very few processes that do not involve the transfer of
data from one point to another, whether it is vital information such as a customer order or

5

something as simple as a memo. If this data c
annot be reach its destination the process
cannot be successful.


The problem, however, lies in the fact that even
the smallest enterprises make use of several
different applications, none of which speak quite
the same language. Imagine an office staffed

by
exclusively English, French, Urdu and Japanese
speaking staff and you’ll have some idea of the
document management problems you can find
within a typical enterprise.


To ensure that vital business information can pass
between applications, it is vital

that there be some sort of common interface


a
translation device that can allow applications to understand each other’s data formats and
successfully access their documents. The Open Document Management API is such an
interface.


History of ODMA



Befo
re ODMA was accepted as an industry standard there were enormous difficulties
associated with the integration of applications and document management systems.
Without a standard API, DMS vendors were required to write separate integration code
for each of
the client applications they supported.


Conversely, applications that were not supported by DMS
systems had to write their own integration code for each
DMS. This mass of integration codes each came with their
own bugs and reliability issues, limiting th
e flow of
information within enterprises and causing a massive
headache for software developers.


To solve these problems, a group of vendors formed the
ODMA Consortium in an effort to create a high
-
level
industry wide standard that provided vendor
-
indep
endent
integration between the majority of desktop applications and
DMS systems. The objectives of the ODMA were as
follows:


To integrate DMS systems and desktop applications
seamlessly so that DMS services appeared to users as if they
were part of the a
pplication.


To reduce the burden on application vendors to provide support for multiple DMS
systems.



6

To reduce the burden on DMS vendors to provide support for applications.


To the reduce the complexity and effort required to install and manage DMS s
ystems.


Applications of ODMA



Use of ODMA in DMS systems and desktop applications has led to an ease of use in
document management the never before existed.


* Application Integration


The largest benefit of ODMA is the increased flexibility of enterp
rise document
management. Before a common standard existed, applications were required to be hard
-
coded into the DMS system, making system set
-
up a time consuming and costly process.


The ODMA standard allowed enterprises to quickly connect many different

applications
into a DMS system with little hassle. This offered both the flexibility to rapidly upgrade
and modify IT infrastructure and the ability to quickly transfer data between disparate
applications.


* Platform Independent Display


In addition to

this, the ODMA standard allows integration within the documents
themselves. ODMA enables DMS systems and applications can easily manage a
document written in Microsoft Word that contains an Excel spreadsheet and a number of
images within a single document
. Before ODMA this capability would have required
hard coding for MS Word, Excel and an image display application, which would have
made the management of the document far too complex to be worthwhile.


* Platform Independent Editing


Even more impressiv
e is the fact that ODMA
-
enabled applications can not only access
documents created in third party applications, but they can also modify them. For
example, Microsoft Word can access and modify documents saved in MS
-
DOS text, Rich
Text, Unicode, WordPerfect

and HTML, among others. Once the editing is complete it is
possible to save the document in either its original format or in any other supported
format.


In a Nutshell


The ODMA standard interface offers benefits on two fronts. Initially, the interface
allows
enterprises to create and manage document management systems and the IT
infrastructure in general at lower costs and using fewer man
-
hours.


Additionally, the interface continues to save time and money by smoothing the flow of
documents throughout
the enterprise, allowing users to access data without the need to

7

switch between applications.


ODMA was among the first attempts to integrate applications, and it paved the way for a
number of other open standards that have further revolutionised documen
t management,
such as WebDAV.




List of content management systems

This is a
list of notable
content management systems

that are used to organize and
fac
ilitate collaborative content creation. Many of them are built on top of separate
content
management frameworks
.

Contents



1

Free and open source software



2

Commercial Low Cost (< $5,000)



3

Commercial Medium ($5,000
-

$15,000)



4

Commercial Expensive (> $15,000)



5

See also

6

External links

Free and open source software

Name

Platform

Supported databases

Latest
stable
release

Aegir

Midgard

add
-
on


1.0.3

Alfresco

Java

MySQL
,
Oracle
,
SQL Server
,
PostgreSQL

1.4

Apache Lenya

Java
, XML,
Apache
Cocoon


1.2.4

Ariadne


Oracle
,
PostgreSQL


b2evolution

PHP

MySQL

1.8.2

BBl
og

PHP

+
Smarty

MySQL

0.7.6

Blockstar

Java



BLOG:CMS

PHP

MySQL


blosxom

Perl


2.0

Caravel CMS

PHP

OpenLDAP

and
PostgreSQL


Chlorine Boards

PHP

MySQL
/
MSSQL
/
Postgresql
/
DB2
/
Microsoft
Access

0.6.5

CivicSpace

PHP

MySQL

0.8.3


8

CMScout

PHP

MySQL

1.23

CMSimple

PHP



CMS Made
Simpl
e

PHP

MySQL
/
Postgresql

1.0.3

Community
Server

ASP.NET

SQL Server

2.1 SP1

Daisy

Java
,
X
ML
,
Apache
Cocoon

MySQL

1.5

Dokuwiki

PHP

Flat
-
file database

2006
-
11
-
06

DotNetNuke

VB.NET

Microsoft SQL Server

4.4.0

Dragonfly CMS

PHP

MySQL

9.6.1

Drupal

PHP

MySQL
/
PostgreSQL

5.0

e107

PHP

MySQL

0.7.7

eGroupWare

PHP

ADOdb


Epiware

PHP

MySQL

4.5

Etomite CMS

PHP

MySQL

0.6.1.3

ExpressionEngine

PHP

MySQL

1.5.2

eZ publish

PHP

MySQL
/
Postgresql
/
Oracle

3.8.0

Fedora

Java

MySQL

or
Oracle


FlexCMS

ASP.NET

SQL Server

1.0

Geeklog

PHP

MySQL

1.4.0

Hello! CMS

PHP

Flat
-
file database

0.0.7

Jahia

Java

HyperSonic
SQL
/
MySQL
/
PostgreSQL
/
Oracle
/
SQL
Server

5.0

jAPS
-

java Agile
Porta
l System

Java
,
XML

on
Windows

or
Linux

HyperSonic SQL
,
PostgreSQL


Joomla!

PHP

MySQL

1.0.12

KnowledgeTree
Document
Management
System

PHP

MySQL

3.3.1

Krang CMS

Perl

on
mod_perl

MySQL

2.008

Lyceum

PHP

MySQL


Magnolia

Java

Content repository API for Java

(JSR
-
170)

3.0

Mambo

PHP

MySQL

4.6.1

MediaWiki

PHP

MySQL

1.8.2

Midgard CMS

PHP

(Midgard
framework)

MySQL



9

MKPortal

PHP

MySQL

1.1

MMBase

Java



MODx

PHP

MySQL

0.9.5

NitroT
ech

PHP

MySQL

0.0.1

Nucleus CMS

PHP

MySQL

3.23

Nuke
-
Evolution

PHP

MySQL

2.0.2

Nuxeo CPS

Zope

ZODB

3.4.3

OpenACS

TCL

AOLserver

PostgreSQL
/
Oracle

5.1.5

OpenCms

Java

MySQL
,
Oracle

6.2.1

OpenPHPNuke

PHP

MySQL
,
PostgreSQL
,
SQLite

2.4.3

phpCMS

PHP

Flat
-
file database

1.2.1pl2

PHP
-
Fusion

PHP

MySQL

6.01.3

phpns

PHP

MySQL

1.0 Beta


PHP
-
Nuke

PHP

MySQL

8.0

PHPSlash

PHP

MySQL


phpWCMS

PHP

MySQL


phpWebSite

PHP

MySQL

or
PostgreSQL


PhpWiki

PHP

Flat
-
file database
/
MySQL
/
PostgreSQL

etc.


Pivot

PHP

Flat
-
file database

1.30

Plone

Zope
,
Python

ZODB,
MySQL

&
PostgreSQL

via
Zope

2.5.1

PmWiki

PHP

Flat
-
file database


PostNuke

PHP

MySQL

.764

PuzzleApps

PHP
,
XML
,
XSLT

MySQL
,
PostgreSQL
,
SQLite
,
MSSQL

2.2

Scoop

Perl

on
mod_perl

MySQL

1.1.8

Slash

Perl

on
mod_perl

MySQL


SpotlightPHP

PHP

Flat
-
file database

1.0

Textpattern

PHP

MySQL

4.0.3

TikiWiki

PHP

ADOdb


TWiki

Perl

Perl DBI compatible

4.0.4

Typo

Ruby on Rails

MySQL
,
PostgreSQL
,
SQLite


TYPO3

PHP

MySQL
,
PostgreSQL
,
Oracle

4.0.4

UNITED
-
NUKE

PHP

MySQL
,
DB2
,
PostgreSQL
,
MSSQL
,
SQLite

4.2.07ms2

WebGUI

Perl

on
mod_perl

MySQL


WordPress

PHP

MySQL

2.0.6

Xaraya

PHP

with
XHTML
/
XML
/
XSLT

MySQL
,
PostgreSQL
,
SQLi
te

using
ADOdb

and
Microsoft SQL Server

with
1.1.2


10

Creole

XOOPS

PHP

My
SQL

2.2

Zentri

PHP

MySQL
,
PostgreSQL
,
Oracle
,
MSSQL

2.1.0

Commercial Low Cost (< $5,000)

Name

Platform

Suppor
ted
databases

Latest
stable
release

Price in
USD

Online
Demo

Accrisoft
Freedom

PHP

MySQL

5.7

$50 /
month

Yes

Changer

Perl

/
AJAX

MySQL

4.0

$45 /
month

Yes

Conquest
(CMS)

ASP.NET

MS SQL2000

1.7

$4,500

Yes

eDIY
Software

ASP.NET

MS SQL

3.9

$199

Download

Ekklesia
360

PHP

MySQL

1.43

$1,000

Yes

eRedaktør

ASP.NET

MS SQL2000

1.7

$1,600

No

Lisk CMS

PHP

MySQL

or
MS
SQL server

or
Oracle

4.4

$500

Yes

Site Sapiens

XML
,
XML Sapiens
,
PHP
/
AOP
,
SOA
/
SOAP
,
RIA
/
AJAX

MySQL, Oracle,
MS
-
SQL,
FireBird

3.0.129


Yes

Commercial Medium ($5,00
0
-

$15,000)

Name

Platform

Supported
databases

Latest
stable
release

Price in USD

Online
Demo

Colony

XML,
XSLT,
ASP

SQL2K

3.0



G3 cms

Coldfusion

SQL2K

1.5



Jalios JCMS

Starter
Edition

Java


5.6



Magnolia

Java

content repository
API for Java
(JSR
-
170), DB2,
Oracle, MySQL,
BerkleyDB,
Derby, MSSQL,
3.0

10k USD/yr and
server (includes
unlimited operating
support and
update
s) 50%
academic discount
Yes


11

PostgreSQL etc.

available.

Monk CMS

ASP

PHP

MySQL



ocPortal

PHP

MySQL




Quantum Art

ASP,
ASP.NET,
C#




Yes

Simplicis

JSP

Any SQL
-
92

3.0.2

$5,999/year

Yes

Subdreamer

PHP

MySQL

v2.4

$49.95/$99.95

Yes

WebIm
petus

MacOS
and
Windows

4th Dimension




WORKSsitebuilder

PHP

MySQL
,
PostgreSQL
,
Oracle
,
MS
SQL

3.2.2



Commercial Expensive (> $15,000)

Name

Platform

Supported
databases

Latest
stable
release

Price in
USD

Online
Demo

Activesite






CoreMedia CMS

Java

Oracle, IBM
DB2, Microsoft
SQL Server

CoreMedia
CMS 2006



FatWire

Java

Oracle
,
Microsoft
SQL Server
,
IBM
DB2
,
Sybase
,
MySQL

Content
Server 6.3


No

I
-
ON Content
Server4

Java/J2EE

Orac
le, MS
-
SQL

ICS4



Jadu

PHP

SQL

2.0x



Jalios JCMS

Java/J2EE


5.6



Livelink ECM

J2EE

Oracle Database

or
MS SQL
Server

9.7

price per
n
amed
users

Yes

Obtree

WCM

JavaScript
,
Solaris
,
Linux

or
Windows

Oracle Database

or
MS SQL
Server

9.7

price per
CPU or
per named
users

Yes

RedDot CMS

Windows


7.1


Yes

Rhythmyx

XML
, J2EE

Oracle database

or
MS SQL
Server

6.0


No


12

Microsoft Sharepoint
Portal Server

.NET

SQL Server




Socialtext






Stellent

Java,
IDocScript
,
XML

Oracle
,
SQL
Server
, other

7.5



Traction TeamPage

Java

Built
-
in

3.7

$5,000
and up


Vignette Content
Management

Java

Oracle Database

or
MS SQL
Serv
er

7.3.1



VYRE

J2EE

All supported by
Hibernate

4.2.1



WORKSsitebuilder

.NET

Oracle
,
SQL
Server
, other

1.5.6



See also



List of web application frameworks



W
ikis and content management systems



OSCOM
, the central organization for
open source

content management
, provides
many resources on open source CMSes



Internet forum

External links



CMS Matrix

-

Detailed CMS feature information and customizable head
-
to
-
head
CMS comparisons



CMS Watch Vendor
Analysis

-

Detailed critiques of individual content
management products



Elliot Smith, "
A revi
ew of open source content management systems
,"
OpenAdvantage, May 2005.



Barry Parr, "
Top 10 Free and Cheap Content Management Systems
," MediaSavvy
,
May 29, 2004.



OpenSourceCMS.com



Website that hosts demo versions of open source
content management systems programmed in
P
HP

and using
MySQL

as database.

Digital asset management

Digital Asset Management (DAM)

is a form of
enterprise content management

that
consists of management tasks and decisions directed as successfully meeting
opportunities and threats in the dynamic business environments by effectively ingesting,
annotating, cataloguing, storing, retr
ieving as well as the distribution of the company’s
digital assets

in such a way that the overall objectives of the company, its clients and

13

society will be achieved (van Niekerk
, A.J. 2006. Allied Academies, New Orleans
Congress).

The term "digital asset management" (DAM) also refers to the protocol for downloading,
renaming, backing up, rating, grouping, archiving, optimizing, maintaining, thinning, and
exporting files. "There a
re two primary types of DAM software: browsers and cataloging
software. A browser reads information from a file but does not store it separately.
Cataloging software stores information in its own separate file, however, the software and
the catalog documen
t it makes are distinct from the photos themselves."


Contents



1

Uses



2

Types of Digital Asset Management systems



3

DAM Market



4

Challenges of Implementation



5

The Spectrum of Digital Asset Management (DAM) Applications



6

Media Catalogs v. Asset Repositories



7

Off
-
the
-
shelf or Custom?



8

Planning For Electronic Archiving



9

Digitizing Traditional Image and Fabrics



10

Budget Considerations



11

Digital photo management



12

External links

13

Notes

Uses

Many busi
nesses and organizations are adopting Digital Asset Management as a business
strategy because managing image, video and other media assets present unique
challenges and require solutions designed specifically to streamline the acquisition,
storage and retr
ieval of digital media. So we need a system that can reduce the time and
cost of content production, maximize the return on investment (ROI) from media assets,
bring new products and services to market faster and streamline compliance. This system
should b
e designed in such a way that enables to cost
-
effectively optimize media asset
management across the companies.


Types of Digital Asset Management systems

The following broad categories of digital asset management systems may be
distinguished: • Brand asse
t management systems, with a focus on facilitation of content
re
-
use within large organizations. • Library asset management systems, with a focus on
storage and retrieval of large amounts of infrequently changing media assets, for example

14

in video or photo

archiving. • Production asset management systems, with a focus on
storage, organization and revision control of frequently changing digital assets, for
example in digital media production.

DAM Market

As the industry evolves into technology driven business
es, an increasing number of
companies are reaching a critical threshold in needing to control and manage their vast
amounts of digital media assets. Technically speaking, a digital asset is any form of
media that has been turned into a binary source. Digit
al assets, which for textile mills
include everything from image, logos and photos to PowerPoint presentations, text
documents and even e
-
mail, are proving to be valuable assets in terms of both
productivity and company valuation. However, an asset is only

an asset when you can
find it, or you know that you have it in the first place. The statistics tell a convincing
story. According to GISTICS research, an average of $8,200 per person per year is spent
on file management activities which include searching,

verification, organization, back
-
up and security
[1]
. Creative professionals spend an average of 1 out of every 10 hours of
their time on file management. Searches alo
ne account for a full third of that time!
According to Canto Software, developers of asset management software with more than
120,000 licensed seats worldwide, the average media user manages over 7,000 files
distributed over a variety of storage mediums. T
he average creative person looks for a
media file 83 times a week and fails to find it 35% of the time. Their research shows that
digital asset management solutions will drop that figure to 5%.

Digital asset management (DAM) saves not just time, but money.

Research indicates that
the ROI on DAM is between 8:1 to 14:1. Where do the savings come from? Labor
reduction is a primary contribution, allowing employees to spend less time locating assets
and more time working on current projects. Re
-
purposing is anot
her key benefit. The
ability to find and research existing work facilitates the reuse of valuable creative assets
from previous projects. A by
-
product of this benefit is faster development. The ability to
take advantage of work performed on prior projects
will reduce turnaround time. And last,
but not least, workflow efficiency


DAM enforces a consistent workflow.

There are additional benefits which, though difficult to quantify, contribute substantially
to the value of DAM. The process insures that only a
pproved brand elements are used
and are used in the proper context. The process automates the workflow, with the ability
to keep track of version or routing the asset to its next destination. DAM helps to build
relationships by supporting the ability to sh
are assets over an extranet with clients and
suppliers. In addition, with the ability to allow clients or other departments to observe
creative works in progress, DAM fosters communication and collaboration. While the
term DAM implies its use for strictly
computer generated image, a growing number of
textile mills and product manufacturers are finding DAM applications an ideal tool for
cataloging the years and years of hand drawn image they have purchased as a part of each
new development season. These comp
anies have begun scanning or photographing these
assets and building a database that not only makes it easy to find and use purchased assets,
but provides a valuable tool for insurance valuation.


15


Challenges of Implementation

Digital Asset Management (DAM)
, the management of digital content so that it can be
cataloged, searched and re
-
purposed, is extremely challenging for organizations that rely
on image handling and expect to gain business value from these assets. Metadata plays a
crucial role in this man
agement

The Spectrum of Digital Asset Management (DAM) Applications

A Digital Asset Management application is simply a tool for organizing digital media
assets for storage and retrieval. When searching for a digital asset management system,
the first thing

to identify is the objective. What solutions should it provide to what
problems? Do you simply want to find media content on demand? Create collaborative
creative environments? Systematize efficient workflow? Manage rights and permissions
complete with au
tomated tracking and accounting? Implement full
-
blown electronic
commerce? The priority of one or more of these goals are the guiding principle in sorting
through the facts and marketing hype. The marketplace offers a broad range of solutions,
ranging from

individual workstations to enterprise
-
wide solutions.

Desktop solutions represent the simplest type of DAM. They serve the needs of
individual users using relatively small collections of content. This model can be to a
handful of stations in a low
-
securit
y file
-
sharing network and sometimes even to larger
studios, if one person is managing one type of media asset, such as design files. While
desktop solutions allow for descriptions and keyword searches, they typically only
catalog thumbnails and references

to the actual files, as opposed to the files themselves.

A collaborative solution is the likely choice if your objective is sharing work
-
in
-
progress
and finished media among a tightly knit group of co
-
workers. The content itself can be
stored on a central

server or across individual workstations
--

including offline storage,
such as CD
-
ROMs and tape cartridges. The more sophisticated offerings include
annotation capabilities and strong communications support for efficiently transferring
files between remot
e users. Process
-
oriented solutions focus on workflow, orbiting
around a centralized database of project management information that allows a producer
to assign, prioritize, and track a project's progress across the entire production team.
These systems tr
ack the history of what has happened to a file, including edits,
conversions, and sign
-
offs. Given that workflow varies greatly across different types of
enterprises, process
-
centric solutions are often tailored to the needs of specific vertical
markets.

I
ndustry
-
centric solutions extend the sharing of an enterprise's media assets to suppliers,
contractors, and other partners. Such systems include high
-
level security that allows the
primary enterprise to work with multiple parties without commingling propri
etary assets.
Merchant
-
centric solutions for e
-
commerce enable an enterprise to serve a high volume
of online customers who will browse and purchase media assets. Merchant
-
centric
systems routinely process secure financial transactions, drive order fulfill
ment processes,
interface with inventory systems, and report to accounting systems that can manage

16

things like royalty payments to represented parties. Some businesses find that one vendor
can handle all of their needs, while others implement multiple syst
ems according to the
disparate needs of various departments. In the latter case, the use of open system
architecture can allow these multiple systems to act on one central repository of data.

Media Catalogs v. Asset Repositories

DAM applications are charac
terized by architectural differences. The playing field can be
subdivided into two basic categories, media catalogs and asset repositories. The primary
characteristic of media catalogs is the utilization of proxies, such as thumbnails, in an
indexed databa
se that can be quickly searched by keyword. The actual source files are
left untouched and under control of the operating system. The benefits of media catalogs
include low cost, ease of installation and administration, and scalability across multiple
divi
sions of an enterprise. Since media catalogs do not actually manage the content itself,
anyone with system access can typically view, change, move, or delete any content
element. This usually precludes such features as check
-
in/check
-
out of content, rights

management, and automatic versioning (the latest version of a print, for example). Media
catalogs can also become sluggish with very large catalogs, especially if distributed
across multiple servers or geographic locations. In asset repositories the conte
nt itself is
physically stored inside a secure database. This results in a host of benefits, including
security levels, replication, referential integrity, and centralized data management. Also
included is the comfort of full hierarchical storage managemen
t and disaster recovery.

Solutions based on the asset repository model are ideal when systematizing studios with
industrial workflow, managing rights and permissions (such as the intellectual property of
either your company or a third party), and structuri
ng global access by employees,
contractors, suppliers, partners, and customers. This centralization of all assets into a
single or distributed storehouse for safekeeping requires significantly higher performance
hardware such as high
-
end UNIX servers, form
idable online storage, and very high
-
speed
networks. According to a report in New Media Magazine, it also demands a capital
investment 10 to 50 times that associated with media catalogs, as well as a
commensurately higher level of system administration.

Of
f
-
the
-
shelf or Custom?

Another important question to be answered is how much technical expertise is required in
the installation and maintenance of a DAM solution. Much like CAD systems, the
selection ranges from totally integrated off
-
the
-
shelf packages t
o custom solutions. Since
the best
-
integrated application suites are built around process knowledge, they are ideal
for business models centered on methodologies well established within a given industry.
Such solutions are often easy enough to install that

they can be set up by end users. The
middle ground is populated by higher
-
level prebuilt components, enabling a business to
utilize their more unique business knowledge in configuring a partially customized
application. While the orchestration of prebuilt

components will require modest
knowledge of systems integration, this genre represents an excellent vehicle for creating a
uniquely branded service. On the high end of the spectrum are universal server databases

17

and search engines that enable systems inte
grators to assemble the best of breed for their
unique needs. Each consists of a self
-
contained module automating one business function
or the activities of a single employee. This toolkit approach definitely requires expertise
in complex system integratio
n.

Planning For Electronic Archiving

One of the most important decision points in implementing DAM is also one of the most
frequently overlooked: Who are your users and how do they work? Their technical level,
their comfort with existing platforms and netw
orks, as well as their current workflow will
all be major factors in the success, or failure, of a new system. Champions and
evangelists within the various departments of an enterprise are often critical to the
success of this kind of new technology. Once
the personnel and technical issues are
addressed, workflow will define the process. In most cases, applications dictating
workflow should be avoided. Instead, efficiencies should come from the automation of
proven workflow tasks. Of course, emulating poor
workflow will only let your staff be
inefficient more quickly. Having already identified the goals of your DAM system, step
number two in the planning stage is to draw a flowchart of your current imaging and
storage processes. Identify what you like or don
't like about your current workflow, and
map out the recommended changes. This step should include participation from any and
all employees involved in the process, as they will all be affected by any changes that are
made.

The next step is to create the a
ttributes and keywords that will be supported by the
database (See Sample Descriptive Label exhibit below


courtesy of Dee Dee Davis,
Springs Industries). Attributes include categories such as business unit, type of asset,
design family, ground effect, ge
ometry, design elements, scale, layout, technique or style,
etc. Within each of these categories, your users can identify keywords they might use
when looking for a particular type of image, such as floral, plaid, stripe, directional,
impressionist, etc. D
ee Dee Davis, former CAD archivist and digital imaging specialist
for Culp and now a CAD designer for Springs Industries, advises that all departments
needing to use the archived files be included in this developmental stage, as
classifications used by the

design department are often different from classifications and
descriptions needed by other departments in the company.

Now you are ready for your system design plan, which will identify how equipment
pieces will need to be connected to one another. How w
ill non
-
digital image be digitized,
what equipment does it require and who will do it? Who will administer the archiving
and who will have access to it? What file formats need to be saved in order to support
various departments? If you need a variety of fo
rmats for the re
-
purposing of the files,
will this be done at the time of archiving or at a later date as needed? A map of the new
workflow should identify who does what, when they do it and how they do it. The final
step in the planning process is to iden
tify and develop the system standards that will
identify workflow issues such as file names, versions, folders, directories and servers.
Failure to do so will simply undermine the system and make it difficult to locate the
"correct" version of a file.


18

Digi
tizing Traditional Image and Fabrics

While archiving digitally generated image is a fairly straightforward process, archiving
the vast libraries of fabric samples and traditional hand drawn image that has been
collected for many years (if not decades) prov
ides for some unique challenges and
opportunities. Not only will digitizing image make it easier to find, use and re
-
purpose,
but archiving your image can also prove to be very valuable for an insurance claim in the
event of fire or theft. As with the impl
ementation of any DAM system, you must
determine your objectives before digitizing any image. There are four quality standards
that need to be considered for the use of your digital files: 1) Product development and
pre
-
publishing reference, 2) Intra
-
compa
ny report enhancement, 3) Business to business
for sales and marketing and 4) Direct to consumer e
-
commerce. Your goals will establish
the quality standards, resolution and file formats for the digital files.

While there are several capture devices to cons
ider for use in digitizing image, including
digital cameras, flat
-
bed scanners and drum scanners, most experts agree that a high
-
end
digital camera is the best solution for the broad range of texture, repeat size and color
challenges that textiles present.

While it is possible to capture image on a conventional
camera and have the slides or negatives converted to digital data, this method is not
recommended, as there are too many variables in the conversion process that can cause
degradation of the image in

both quality and color. In addition, digital photography is
both less expensive and faster than conventional photography, which requires a series of
time consuming and costly steps to get to the digital file format. Another important
advantage to using ph
otography over scanning is the ability to control the lighting with
the use of a camera. Scanners use only one light source that "scan" the entire image, often
missing nuances of special textures, yarns, finishes, and colors. The use of a camera will
allow

you to use multiple lighting sources that can be modified to highlight the features
of a variety of fabrics. In controlling the light source, you can also minimize the effect of
the fabric construction while trying to capture just the print. While there a
re software
applications such as Pointcarré from Monarch that will allow you to remove the fabric
construction from a print, this is a step that can be avoided by obtaining a proper capture
to start.

Digital cameras range in price from $500 to $25,000. The

less expensive cameras are not
as color accurate, capture less data and are prone to "digital noise" that will create
unacceptable artifacts and mottled solid colors. The best
-
of breed for low end digital
cameras according to Richard Lerner , president of

RSL Digital in NYC who has over 25
years of photography experience, is the new Nikon Coolpix (list price $995, street price
of $850
-
$950). This camera includes many attributes of the high
-
end cameras, including
a flash sync for setting off studio strobes,

excellent color contrast and balance controls,
and it works well in a number of automatic modes. While you may be able to obtain a
desired image quality from a low end digital camera, you should review your workflow
and processing time when evaluating cam
eras. "Using a low end camera is like trying to
pass a lot of data on a floppy disk," states Randy Parker, President of Digital Images in
Research Triangle Park, NC, a firm that specializes in the photography and archiving of
textiles. "You are constantly
performing ‘sneaker net’ and are required to run back and

19

forth between the camera, which has limited storage capacity, and the computer’s hard
drive. High
-
end digital cameras have a direct SCSI connection to the computer that will
eliminate the need for r
epetitive data transfers. If you are capturing a lot of images, this
capability alone will more than offset the cost of the more expensive camera. The digital
files will range in size from 2 MB to 25MB or more depending on the physical size and
intended us
e of the image. Resolution requirements range from 72 dots per inch (dpi) for
images to be viewed only on a computer screen, 150
-
300 dpi for printing to fabrics
(contingent on the type of fabric and amount of color coverage) and 300 dpi for printing
to pre
ss for sales and marketing materials. The rule of thumb is to capture a minimum of
the same number of dots per inch as the line screen of the output device, up to a
maximum of twice the line screen. Again, it is very important to know your intended
output
or goals before beginning the archiving process.

Digital Asset Management is not just about having the proper equipment, software and
workflow, but about having qualified talent to produce and manage the archiving process.
Digital photography is an art in
the same way that computer aided design is an art.
Buying the requisite tools does not compensate for the skill set needed to produce quality
archives. Experts advise that professional photographers be used to create the digital files.

Budget Consideration
s

Budget will play an important role in your decision regarding appropriate hardware,
storage, backup, and communications infrastructure. DAM software solutions come in
many different packages, from a "per seat" basis for client licenses, to server solutio
ns
that allow unlimited access via Web browsers. If paying per seat, it's important to
understand the user mix. Licenses that dedicate one installation per seat can be more
costly compared to those allowing a given number of clients to be online at once. M
ore
critical than the price tag alone is a projection of cost savings, ROI and growth catalyst.
While archiving, many companies have discovered they were archiving duplicate images
purchased by different divisions of the company, a practice which could be
avoided
through proper asset management. The time saving, as outlined in part one, is an obvious
ROI. In many businesses, especially media
-
intensive ones, an investment in the optimal
digital asset management solution can even kick profitability into high
gear and be
critical to sustaining a competitive advantage. Remember, besides your employees, your
library of product samples and references are one of your company’s most valuable assets.

Digital photo management

Digital photo management

(DPM) is an emerg
ing subfield where anything from a few
thousand digital photos to millions of digital photos are managed. As
digital cameras

become more commonplace, the number of digital phot
os increases at a rapid rate.
Initially, for most individuals and organizations, the first practice is to burn the pictures
onto
CDs

or
DVDs
. As time goes by the number of CDs or DVDs starts to get out of
control. There is also the problem of
CD rot
, where a large percentage of the CDs or
DVDs become unreadable w
ithin a few years.


20

The next stage in this evolution is to put all the digital photos onto the hard disk or on a
central server. This too, in time, gets out of control as the number of pictures rises.
Eventually it becomes necessary to use systems with data
base software such as an
SQL

database, with a friendly client software or browser software interface on top to help
manage these photos.

In recent years several systems have emerged, such as
VeriPic
. This system keeps the
photos inside an SQL database so that they are searchable yet secure from intrusion. The
decision to employ this type of system depends directly on the number of digital photos
being managed. As long as the total number of pictures
is still easy to manage in a folder
hierarchy, this type of system is not needed. Once the number of photos gets too large
and finding specific photos becomes a burden, a DPM system becomes necessary.

External links



Article "
Intro to Digital Asset Management: Just what is a DAM?
" by
Magan
Arthur



Article

"
Rich Media and Business Agility
" by
Bill Trippe, The Gilbane Report



The DAM User Community & Home to the DAM Symposium



Article "
Protect your Digital Assets: Selecting a DAM
"



Article "
DAM: Agile and Effective
"



Article "
Use
-
Cases for Digital Media Asset Managemenet
"

Notes

1.

^

Gistics.com provides paid research services, and while this statistic is quoted in
many online articles it's original source could not be located.

Open Source Content Management Systems:
An Argumentative Approach



Abstract



Businesses currently face the daily challenge of managing content efficiently.

These businesses are being flooded with information from web Content Management

Systems (CMS) that present an all
-
too
-
simple picture. Ins
tead, content

management
systems should solve the problem of turning content into information

and information
into knowledge.



Content Management Systems are not just a product or a technology. CMS is

defined as a generic term which refers to a wide range

of processes that

underpin the
``next
-
generation'' of medium to large
-
scale websites. Content

management is a process
which deals with the creation, storage, modification,

retrieval and display of data or
content.




21

This report evaluates seven open source

CMS products. The comparison is based

on eight categories as seen from a business perspective. These categories are;

a
pplications, data repository, deployment, integration, revision control, user

interface,
user management and workflow. Each category is s
cored from 0 to 10

points and the
overall score is determined based on the average of all

categories.



The comparison clearly shows how most CMS products require further development

prior to being used within a commercial environment. The few

CMS products

which are
ready for commercial deployment contain an inherent

design flaw. This flaw refers to the
inefficient management of large
-
scale user

databases.



Businesses are currently seeking alternative methods to improve their services

and Open
Source Softw
are (OSS) is one such method. This will

require OSS authors to consider the
implications of running their software

within commercial environments and
a
ccommodate business requirements. A CMS

product which follows these rules will be
commercially sustainabl
e.


WHAT IS

CMS

Do you need to create a new website, re
-
brand an old website, or launch an online
marketing campaign?

If you do, you'll need a reliable and “future
-
proof” Content Management System (CMS)
to base your efforts on. These days, having a succes
sful website means having a content
management system. The best web content management systems offer enterprise
functionality with intuitive usability. Scalability is also essential.

If you take a quick look around the web


you’ll quickly see how many we
bsites are
created and then left to languish in the lower echelons of Google’s ranking because they
haven’t had consistent content upgrades. There are literally thousands of sites floating
around, featuring out
-
of
-
date messages or news items, text mistakes
, invalid product
pricing and the like. More importantly, thousands of online consumers see those sites,
notice the negligence and move on as a result.

That isn’t always the fault of the site’s owners, sometimes it’s the result of having a poor
content ma
nagement system or having no CMS at all.


You don‘t have to fall into this
trap.

An e
nterprise
-
class CMS

provides an efficient base for developing and maintaining your
website.

Using A CMS. You’ll Be Free To:



Manage and continually update the structure an
d content of your website;


22



Create configurable access restrictions so content managers can be assigned roles
and permissions for editing and making changes on a website;



Publish multiple formats on a website such as HTML or PDFs;



Publish news feeds, strea
ming video/audio, press releases and site update
information;



Manage the way advertising shows up on your website;



Create forums and blogs;



Track and store a variety of visitor statistics;



Take full control of your online advertising campaigns and web
-
based marketing
efforts;



Open an


online/eCommerce store to sell goods and services;



Accept check, debit, and credit card payments online;



Generate mailing lists and automatically send out messages and or newsletters to
site subscribers;



Publish documents
, which can be found by search engines using metadata
creation
-

appropriate metadata is captured on all web pages, making the site
search engine friendly;



Workflow management
-

the CMS provides a range of work flow capabilities for
all content elements on

a website. This maintains strict control and coordination
over the quality, accuracy, and consistency of information published onto a
website;



Much more!

Is A CMS the Right Solution for You?

It minimizes the cost of maintaining your website by offering
you a better way to manage
information online. Best of all, you don't need to be web designer or programmer to
service, maintain, and manage the day to day content flow on your website. By using a
CMS, you gain the freedom to take control of your site from

any computer ANY where
in the world regardless whether or not you have



programming skills.