RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE WELD TRAINER/SIMULATOR IMPLEMENTATION INTO TRAINING PROCESS WELDING PERSONNEL ON EUROPEAN LEVEL

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14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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“This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the auth
or, and the
Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which

may be made of the information contained there

in.”




1



















RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE WELD TRAINER/SIMULATOR
IMPLEMENTATION INTO TRAINING PROCESS
WELDING
PERSONNEL
ON EUROPEAN LEVEL
















Prepared within LEONARDO da Vinci
program Transfer of Innovation

project

no.: LLP/LDV/TOI/2009/SK/93100548
-

VIRTWELD



Implementation of virtual technology in education of welders and welding specialists













“This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the auth
or, and the
Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which

may be made of the information contained there

in.”




2














Preface



This
document

has been developed by the partners of the VIRTWELD project

Implementation of
virtual technology in education of welders and welding specialists


Czech
Welding Society


ANB

(Česká svářečská společnost


ANB)
, Prague Czech Republic,
Welding Institute
(Institut za varilstvo)
Ljubljana, Slovenia, E
uropean Federation for
W
elding, Joini
ng and Cutting
Lisbon Portugal and Welding Research Institute


Industrial
Institute SR

(Výskumný ústav

zváračský


Priemyslený Inštitút SR)
, Bratislava Slovakia

during period 11/2009


10/2011.




















“This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the auth
or, and the
Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which

may be made of the information contained there

in.”




3




The objective of this document
is to
present

aspects of the
implementation
of Virtual
Weld Training Systems (VWTS)/weld trainers/weld simulators into
t
raining
and education of
welding personnel. The document
is
point
ing

out on the peculiarities of implementation of

a
completely new tool/equi
pment


VWTS
-

which have been developed
in the period of the
last ten years
. The document should be considered as a recommendation for the
implementation into training and education process of welding personnel.

It is also important to notice that VWTS w
ere considered originally as a tool for
training of welders. During
the
study and demonstration of individual VWTS it has been
recognized that these tools are suitable not only for practical training but also for presentation
of each welding process at the

welding courses of higher welding personnel e.g. welding
engineers,

technologist, specialists and practitioners.

The document takes into account all possible application in education and training of
welding personnel and is divided into following chapter
s: European education and training
scheme of welding personnel, VWTS


new tool for training and education of welding,
recommendations for implementation of VWTS into training of welding personnel.


Education and training of welding personnel



Education and training of welding personnel was an important aspect of
implementation of welding technology into industrial production and use. Since the beginning
of the implementation
of welding technology
main concern was to train skill of practical
wel
ders in order to have skilled personnel to perform
welding

without unacceptable defects
.
Training and education was mainly controlled according to the national standards.
Globalization and process of European unification remarkably change t
he

approach to t
raining
and education of welding personnel.


Since 1992 complex training and education and qualification programme has been
implemented by
European Federation for Welding, Joining and Cutting (EWF)
, an ass
ociation
of
welding organisations
/institutes
and s
ocieties
consisting
of around
2
0
European
countries
.




“This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the auth
or, and the
Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which

may be made of the information contained there

in.”




4


EWF has specified
content of
education programme and also
possible
qualifications
for the
application of
welding technology.


The following qualifications have been
defined
:

-

I
nternational/European weldi
ng engineer
,

-

I
nternational/European welding
technologists,

-

I
nternational/European welding
specialists,

-

I
nternational/European welding
practitioner,

-

International/European

weld
er.

The individual qualification levels where built up according to the needs of
companies
which have to fulfil the quality
requirements
according to technical standards. Standards
describe and define skill, knowledge and competence of welding personnel in welding
production.


Access conditions, content of education and time allocated
for the training and
education
in
courses
for

each qualification level have been defined. Training and education
have been strictly separated from
the
examination
process
e.g. education and examination and
performed by different bodies


Authorize
d

Nationa
l Body
-

body responsible for the
implementation of EWF education and qualification programme and examination
and
Approved Training Body



body responsible for training and education process
.


The basic requirement for qualifications in welding was
implemented into quality
production standards and companies are obliged to follow

this requirement
.


European qualification and education system is also supported by the application of
welding
standards which define the requirements
for
get
ting

approva
l for
practical
welders.
This qualification is based on certification of personnel and is
outside of EWF qualification
scheme. This approach is very often used.



The welding courses for each qualification level organized by ANB on the national
level
d
e
fine content of education and practical training and also timing for separate parts

and
individual subjects of the programme
. The education of personnel is performed in classrooms
and also in the welding workshops (welding booth). Up till now traditional t
raining and
education of welding personnel has been used. Old fashion facilities and also old
methodologies are used mainly in ATB and welding schools.





“This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the auth
or, and the
Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which

may be made of the information contained there

in.”




5




There is strong activity within European welding community to implement
improvements and changes
into education process. The purpose of this activity

is

to attract
mainly young generation to welding and also to improve image of welding from 3D (dirty,
dusty, dangerous) to 3C (clean, clever, cool) alternative.



Large effort is made to implement infor
mation technologies such as computers,
videos, interactive blackboards, internet, video conferences and recently developed so called
Virtual Weld Training Systems (VWTS) etc. into welding training and education.


Virtual Weld Training Systems (VWTS)



VWTS is a new tool developed for training and education of welding personnel. It is
based on the application of virtual reality via highly developed numerical simulation,
application of motion sensors in order to provide visualisation of the welding proces
s.
Motion,
distance, speed and trajectory are the fundamental parameters which characterize movement
of torch and arc during welding. All four parameters are followed by sensors in order to
identify and by computer simulation visualize welding process.
VWT
S is considered as a skill
training and education tool which also provides the evaluation of the practical tests and
knowledge. VWTS is computer based equipment which does not need a specific knowledge
related to welding processes and health and safety in
welding.


VWTS is completely new tool for training and education.
Its application depends on
the purpose
what will be the equipment used for. One

purpose

is the skill training
of

welders
and the second for demonstration of specific aspects of welding process

in education
.


VWTS allows apply specific approach for training in general so called one by one
.

Using

this approach each parameter is trained separately and subsequently in

combination in
order to get skill completely

in combination of all parameters
.

It is
also
recommended to split both theoretical and practical parts into two parts and
allocate time for demonstration and training on VWTS.








“This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the auth
or, and the
Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which

may be made of the information contained there

in.”




6




Recommendations for
implementation of VWTS into training and education



There are two aspects of implementation of VWTS into training. First aspect is type of
VWTS and the second is the purpose of the use



training skill and education
.


There are
several
types of VWTS
which

are
different
according to
constructions,
content and also technical possibilities

on the market
. VWTS
simulate mainly
MMA and
MIG/MAG welding
processes
. TIG welding has been introduced into some of them recently.
There are also technical aspects which ha
ve

to be taken into account

for the implementation of
VWTS


type of sensors and helmet/no helmet solution
.
Types of sensors used for
identification of the motion of the electrode/torch are

u
sually electromagnetic, optical and
ultrasonic. The study is perf
ormed in order to define what condition, especially location in the
workshop, can be individual sensors used for. S
olution of helmet/no helmet
seems
also
to be
an
important

factor
. It is
due to the fact that
sensors are located also in this part of equipme
nt.
Some other aspects have to be considered when decision is made what type of VWTS to use.
The following parameters are also important:
general weight which can influence
transferability, type of tool (torch and electrode holder) and also resolution of t
he screen
should be taken into account. Each user should take decision according
to evaluation of

parameters mentioned above.



Recommendations for the implementation of VWTS into training and education
process of welding personnel are based on specif
ications of the allocated time and sequence
of training on VWTS. This specification depend
s

on
what qualification
level
the VWTS
is
used for.
The time of allocation
of VWTS
depends on the time defined by the guidelines.


Numbers of discussions have been concentrated on definition of time for training skill
of welders. No clear conclusion has been made
up till now
according

to the experiences
presented by the users. It has been declared that the time spent on VWTS is indivi
dual
according to the participant of the
training
course. It
is
assumed that approximately 20 % from
practical part of training for welders should
b
e sufficient for
getting reasonable skill
t
o
perform real welds.

It is
also
generally recommended to train
c
ombination
process/material/weld type/weld position on VWTS first. Real welding in welding booth is
recommended when VWTS test is
successfully
passed.








“This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the auth
or, and the
Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which

may be made of the information contained there

in.”




7




Total number of hours for training of welders is roughly 200
according to the
guidelines
and
consists of 20 % of theoretical education and 80 % of practical training in
welding booth.

It is supposed to reduce the time spend in welding booth and super
se
d
ed by
training on VWTS
.



There is an important aspect of welders´

training. There are two gr
oups of
trainee
s
;

one consists of beginners and the second of we
l
ders who are obliged to

pass training and
examination i
n order to prolong the approval/certificate.

All
recommendations

can be applied
for

the first group e.g. to beginners. The second group
generally refuses the training on
VWTS. Anyway such training seems to be not relevant due to experiences already collected
during practice in the company or the workshop.


The training of welders is concentrated more on skill and t
he following scheme
can
be

applied

for implementation of VWTS into
this type of course
:

-

theoretical part


allocate up to
5

% of time presentation of VWTS which consists of

presentation of
technical solution of VWTS

and

demonstration of
operation system
,

-

practical part


allocate

up to
15 to 20
% time for practical training which consist
s

mainly
of

p
ractical training.

The use of VWTS has not been originally presented as a tool for demonstrations in
education programme of higher welding personnel e.g. for welding engineers, technologists,
practitioners and specialists. The technical solutions and technical content
of VWT
S
showed


a completely new
view on this modern tool. The technical content and
presentation of welding
process which are very important for technical decisions in
practice provide an excellent
source of visual and written information
. It has been recogni
zed

that practical training
of
real
welding
, for which almost 15 % of
course
time was allocated
, brought less knowledge
mainly
for engineers and technologists
. The presentations and demonstration of VWTS have shown
that the use of virtual reality using VWT
S
is
an excellent tool for study of details of welding
processes.
Due to this fact EWF association has already implemented recommendation that
practical training of higher welding personnel can be up to 50 % of time allocated to the
practical part of the c
ourse.







“This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the auth
or, and the
Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which

may be made of the information contained there

in.”




8



Conclusions


This document summarizes recommendations for the implementation of Virtual weld
training systems into training and education of welding personnel based
upon
experiences and
study of application of virtual reality in welding.

The following conclusions can
be made:

-

VVWTS is a modern, sophisticated tool
suitable
for training skill and also for
demonstration of welding processes

in education
,

-

VWTS belong to computer based tool
and
is
recommended for
implement
ation i
nto
education a
nd training process in welding,

-

it is recommended to implement VWTS into training skill of welders and allocate
approximately 20 % of time of the whole course
;

th
e

time allocation is not strict
and
depends on the skill of the course participant,


-

one by o
ne approach is recommended to apply for skill training of each welding
parameter distance, speed, working angle and trajectory,

-

VWTS is recommended for demonstration and practical training for the education of
higher welding personnel such as welding engin
eers and technologists,



-

time allocation of VWTS for education is approximately 50 % of time for practical
exercise during th
e

whole course.