Chapter 3 : Classification of Computers

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Chapter 3 : Classification of Computers

Classification of Computers According to:

1)


Size

o

Microcomputers, or Personal Computers :
These computers use
a microprocessor chip and this chip is used instead of CPU means that this
microprocessor chip works as a
CPU.

These computers are also called personal computers. Two major types of
these computers are laptop or Desktop computers. Only one user uses these
computers at time that's why they are also known as personal computers.

o

Minicomputers :

These are powerful

computer. These computers come
into existence in 1960s at that time mainframe computer was very costly.
Mini computers were available in cheap prices, so users start using it.

o

Mainframe Computers :
It as a very powerful and large computer. You
can get ide
a of its power as it can handle processing of many users at a time.

Terminals are used to connect a user to this computer and users submit
there
task

through mainframe. Terminal is a device which has keyb
oard and
a screen. By using terminal users put inputs into the computer and get the
output through screen.

o

Supercomputers :
As the name "super computer" specifies that these
are most powerful computers even than mainframe. Actually, when we
optimize a main
frame computer then we get super computer.

2)

Data Handled

:

o

Analog

:
Analog computers are used to process continuous data. Analog
computers represent variables by physical quantities. Thus any computer
which solve problem by translating physical conditions
such as flow,
temperature, pressure, angular position or voltage into related mechanical
or electrical related circuits as an analog for the physical
phenomenon

being
investigated in general it is a computer which uses an analog quantity and
produces

analog values as output. Thus an analog computer measures
continuously. Analog computers are very much speedy. They
produce

their
results very fast. But their results are approximately correct. All the analog
computers are special purpose computers.

o

Digit
al

: Digital computer represents physical quantities with the help of
digits or numbers. These numbers are used to perform Arithmetic
calculations and also make logical decision to reach a conclusion, depending
on, the data they receive from the user.


o

Hyb
rid

: Various specifically designed computers are with both digital and
analog characteristics combining the advantages of analog and digital computers
when working as a system. Hybrid computers are being used extensively in
process control system where it

is necessary to have a close representation with
the physical world.


The hybrid system provides the good precision that can be attained with analog
computers and the greater control that is possible with digital computers, plus
the ability to accept the
input

data in either form.



3)

Purpose of use

o

General Purpose Computers
:
General
-
purpose computers are
designed to solve a large variety of problems. That is they can be given
different programs to solve different types of problems

General
-
purpose computers can process
business

data as readily as they
process complex mathematical formulas. General
-
purpose computers can
store large amount of data and the programs necessary to process them.
Because general
-
purpose computers are so vers
atile, most businesses today
use them. Most digital computers are general computers and it is mainly
such computers that are used in business and commercial data processing.

o

Special Purpose Computers

:
Special purpose computers are
designed to solve a spec
ific problems; the
computer

program for solving the
problem is built right into the computer. Special purpose computers have
many features of general
-
purpose computers but are designed to handle
specific problems and are not applied to other computerized a
ctivities. For
example, special purpose computers may be designed to process only
numeric data or to completely control automated
manufacturing processes
.
Moat analogue computers are special purpose computers.

Special purpose computers are often used as
tr
aining

simulators
. A
simulator

is a computer
-
controlled device for training people under
simulated, or artificially created, conditions. The computer creates test
conditions the
trainee

must respond t. it then records and evaluates he
responses, providing
these results to both trainee and supervisor.

-