Методические указания по подготовке и выполнению ...

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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение

среднего профессионального образования

Уфимский колледж статистики, информатики и вычислительной техники








Методические указания для подготовки и выполнения контрольных
работ по дисциплине: Английский язык для студентов
II
,
III
,
IV
курсов по
специальностям 230105, 230101, 230106, 230103.











Согласовано:







Разработала:

Председатель ПЦК






Преподаватель УКСИВТ

________Тенякова.Е
.А.



____________ Ящук О.И

“16” Декабря 2011г






“16” Декабря 2011г


Методист УКСИВТ

________ Байсакова Р.Р.


2011 год




2


Содержание

1.

Пояснительная записка


3

2.

Тексты для чтения, перевода и выполнения контрольных работ.

4
-
15

3.

Варианты контрольных работ.

15
-
26

4.

Ключи для проверки.


27
-
32

5.

Использованная литература.

33



3


Пояснительная записка.

Данная разработка представляет собой комплект контрольн
о
-
измерительных
материалов дл
я студентов
II
,
III

и
IV

курсов специальности :
230105 Программное обеспечение вычислительной техники и
автоматизированных систем.

230103 Автоматизированные системы обработки информации и управления
(по отраслям).

230101 Вычислительные

машины, комплексные системы и сети.


Контрольно
-
измерительные материалы состоят из контрольных работ на
IV

варианта и ключей для проверки, а так же методических указаний для их
выполнения и материала для подготовки к контрольной работе.


Контрольные р
аботы разработаны по таким темам как:


«Основные элементы окна»


«Диски, директории и файлы»


« Типы компьютеров»


«Аппаратное обеспечение компьютеров»


« Программное обеспечение компьютеров»

«

Работа с текстовым редактором»


« Операционные си
стемы»


« Базы данных»


« Работа с электронной таблицей»


Разработка состоит из
III

разделов. I раздел


материал, необходимый для
подготовки к контрольной работе. II раздел


варианты контрольных работ.
III раздел


ключи для проверки.




4


Тексты для

чтения, перевода, выполнения контрольных работ и
самостоятельной работ
ы

студента.


Text № 1

Basic Elements of Windows.


Windows provides everything you need to manage your applications and files
easily and efficiently. The following illustration shows the

graphical environment
of Windows.


When working in Windows, your main work area is the
desktop.
You can move
items around on the desktop, add new ones to it, and remove those you do not
need.

The first time you start Windows, the Program Manager window
appears on your
screen. You can use Program Manager to organize your applications and start
them.


After you start an application, in runs in an
application window

on the desktop.
You can reduce any open application window to an
application icon
. An
applic
ation icon is a small picture representing an application. By reducing
application windows to icons, you can free space on your desktop without quitting
the applications. For more information about icons, see “ Types of Icons” later in
this charter.


The
following illustration shows applications running as icons on the desktop.




Vocabulary

application

1. приложение, прикладная программа


2. применение, использование

environment

1
. окружение, среда


2. режим


3. операционная среда

desktop

-

рабочий стол

item

1. единица



2. предмет


3. элемент

Program

Manager

-

Диспетчер Программ

to

run

-

выполнять, запускать на выполнение

application

window

-

окно прикладной программы

application

ic
on

-

значок приложения, пиктограмма



5



Text № 2

Parts of a Window.



Most windows have certain elements in common, such as a title bar and a menu
bar. Not all windows, however, have every element.


You’ll learn more about how to use window
elements throughout this charter.




The
Control
-
menu box

is in the upper
-
left comer of each window. The
Control menu most useful if you use your keyboard to move, size, and close
a window.



The
title bar

shows the name of the application or document. If more

than
one window is open, the title bar for the
active

window (the one in which
you working) is usually a different color or intensity than other title bars.



The
window title

shows the application name, the document name, or the
name of a group, directory,

or file.



The
menu bar

lists the available menus from which you can choose
commands.



The
scroll bar

enable
s


you to move through a document or a list when the
entire document or list does not fit in the window or the allotted space. Click
the
scroll arrows

with the mouse to move through the document or list, one
line at a time.



Clicking the
Maximize button

with the mouse enlarges the active window so
that it fills the entire desktop; clicking the
Minimize button

reduces the
window to an icon. You can also u
se the Maximize and Minimize
commands on the Control menu.



The
Restore button

replaces the
Maximize button

after you enlarge a
window. Clicking the Restore button returns the window to its previous size.
You can also use the Restore command on the Contro
l menu.



The
window bor
d
er

is the outside edge of a window. You can change the
window size by len
g
thening or shortening the bor
d
er on each side of a
window.



Moving the
window corner

shortens or lengthens two adjoining sides of a
window border at the same time.



The
insertion point

shows where you are in a document. It marks the place
where text and grap
h
ics appear when you begin typing or drawing. (The
shape of the insertion point may

vary among applications.)



The
mouse pointer

appears if you have a mouse installed. When you move
the mouse, the position of the pointer changes on the screen. (The shape of
the mouse pointer may vary among applications and even among documents
within the

same application.)



6



Vocabulary

Title bar
линейка

заголовка
,


строка заголовка,


заголовок окна

menu


bar


главное меню,


строка меню,


линейка меню

control
-
menu
-
box

командная кнопка


системного меню

keyboard

клавиатура

window

title

заголовок окна

scroll

bar

зона прокрутки,



полоса прокрутки,


линейка прокрутки

scroll



arrow

кнопка прокрутки

maxi
m
i
ze


button

кнопка развертывания окна

minimize


button

кнопка свертывания окна

restore


button

кнопка восстановления

window


border

граница

окна

window


corner

угол

окна

insertion


point

точка

вставки

shape

форма
,
шаблон
,
вид

mouse

pointer

указатель

мыши
,
курсор

мыши

to

install

инсталлировать, устанавливать




Text

№ 3

Opening Files

Choosing the Open command from an application’s File menu opens a dialog box
that is often the same regardless o
f which application you are using. This dialog
box is designed to save you
r

time because you can select the drive, directory, file,
and file type from the ones displayed in the list boxes.


-
To open a file

1. From the application’s File menu, choose Open.

The
Open dialog box appears.


2. If the file you want to open is on a different drive, select the drive you want
from the Drives box.

3. In the Directories box, choose the directory you want to open. (Double
-
click the
directory, or press the UP ARROW or

DOWN ARROW key to select the
directory. And then press ENTER.)

Windows displays the names of all files in that directory that are t
ype selected in
the List Files o
f Type box. To display a different type of file select the typ
e you
want from the List Files

o
f Type box.

7


4. From the list of files, select the file you want to open. Some applications provide
a check box to specify that the file be
read
-
only

(which means changes cannot be
made to the file). If you want the file to be read
-
only, select this check

box.

5. Double
-
click the filename. Or choose the OK button.



Saving Files.

In many applications, the File menu contains two commands for saving files: Save
and Save As. You use the Save command to save changes to an existing file. You
use the Save
As command to name and save a new file or to save an existing file
under a new name. For example, you might want to make changes to a file, yet
keep a copy of the file as it existed before you began working on it. Bu using the
Save As command, you can save

another copy of the original file by giving it a
different name.

-
To save an existing file



From the application’s File menu, choose Save.

To save a new file or an existing file under a new name

1.

From the application’s File menu, choose Save As. The Save A
s dialog box
appears.

2.

If you want to save the file on a different drive, select the drive you want
from the Drives box.

3.

In the Directories box, choose the directory in which you want to save the
file (Double
-
click the directory, or press the UP ARROW or DO
WN
ARROW key to select the directory, and then press ENTER.)

4.

In the File Name box, type a name for the file.

If you don’t specify a filename extension, the application may add one. For
example, Windows Notepad adds the extension. TXT to a filename.


The de
fault extension is shown in the Save File As Type box. To use a different
extension, select the extension from the Save File As Type list, or type an
extension.

5.

Choose the OK button.


Text


4

Drives, Directories, and Files

MS
-
DOS organizes information in

your computer using drives, directories, and
files. This system of organizing information is hierarchical; files populate
directories, and directories populate drives.

Drives

For the purposes of this section, “drives” means disk drives, the actual physica
l
drives that are a part of your computer. In most computers, the nonremovable hard
disk contained within your computer is the C: drive. The floppy disk you use to
install programs and copy files is the A: drive. In addition, many computers today
also have

a B: drive, another floppy drive.


8



Directories

Each drive contains at least one directory. All drives have a root directory, a
directory that is used by the computer when it is powered up. A computer can have
many other directories, too. For example,
your computer probably has a directory
called DOS that contains all of your MS
-
DOS files.

Many times as you add programs to your computer, you add directories, too. This
helps organize your files. For example, your word processor files are probably in
one
directory (or several subdirectories). If you need to find a word processing file,
you know it will be in that directory.

If you need further organization, you may want to create subdirectories. For
instance if you wanted word processing files separated by

month, you would create
12vubiectoris. This organization would assist you in looking for a document
created during March, for example. If you know the file is on drive C:, in the
directory WP, in the subdirectory MARCH, you could look for a file with the
extension*. Txt by typing the following command:
dir C:
\
wp
\
march
\
*/txt

MS
-
DOS would show you all the files that have extension. TXT that exist in the
\

MARCH subdirectory.

Files

Files are the most basic unit of organization on your computer. Any time you
create a new word processing document, for instance, you have created a file.
Groups of files make up directories.

There are basically two types of files in MS
-
DOS systems: executable files and
nonexecutable files.

Executable files also called program fil
es, and often have extensions like. EXE or
COM. These files allow your computer to carry out instructions to do functions in
spreadsheets, word processors, or databases.

Nonexecutable files are also called data files. These contain the raw information
that

executable files work with. Using word processing as an example, a data file
might contain letters, lists, or any other document information that you have
entered into a file.





Vocabulary

drive

1. дисковод, накоп
итель, привод


2. передача


3. запуск

directory

каталог, оглавление, словарь

double
-
click

двойной
щелчок

up

arrow

key

клавиша «стрелка вверх»

down

arrow

key

клавиша «стрелка вниз»

enter

1. исполнение

9



2. входить



3. выносить


4. вводить данные


5. включать

type


box

шрифтовая каретка

check


box

независимый переключатель, кнопка с


независимой фиксацией

read
-
only

только считывание; только для чтения

save


command


команда «сохранить»

save


As

command

команда «сохранить под именем»

filename

расширение имени файла



Text

5

COMPLETELY ELECTRONIC DEVICE

There are many different
kinds of computers in the world today. Computers are
operating at the bank, in you
r

ca
r
, and at the grocery store. Many of these
computers are special
-
purpose computers; that is, they serve specific functions.
There are also general
-
purpose computers in th
e office, at home, and at school,
versatile enough to handle all kinds of tasks. The existence of all these different
types of computers raises an important question: What is computer? Simply put, a
computer is a device that processes raw data into useful
information. But from that
perspective, a typewriter, a calculator, or even an abacus could be call
ed a
computer. What distinquishes

a computer from other information
-
processing
devices are three basic characteristics:


* A computer is completely electro
nic. That is, all its functions are carried out
with electrical

signals.


* A computer can remember information and hold it for future use. Computers do
this on a temporary basis with memory circuits and permanently with storage
devices such as magnetic di
sk and tape.


* A computer is programmable. Unlike other devices built to perform a single
function or limited range of functions a computer can be instructed to do whatever
task we tell it to do. This opens up a vast realm of possibilities for computers
to
solve problems for us in everyday life: at home, at school, or at work.

The most common kind of general
-
purpose computer in use today is the personal
computer or microcomputer. It gets the name microcomputer from the tiny
electronic device, called the m
icroprocessor, that does the actual processing. The
use of personal computers has grown greatly during the last ten years. Only a few
million personal computers were in use in 1980, so they were a relative novelty.
Now there are almost a hundred million in

this country alone.

Microcomputers form the most common of the four classes of general
-

purpose
computers; the other three classes are minicomputers, mainframe computers, and
supercomputers. Microcomputers, besides relying on a microprocessor, are the
10


sma
llest and are generally designed for a single user. Minicomputers, mainframes,
and supercomputers all use processors built from a large number of components.
Minicomputers, larger than microcomputers (up to the size of a refrigerator) are
generally intende
d for small
-

to medium
-

sized groups of users in businesses and
other organizations; their processing abilities are more robust than those of
microcomputers. Mainframe computers can take up a whole room and can handle
the needs of many simultaneous users w
hile processing large volumes of data; they
are most often used in large organizations and institutions. Supercomputers, the
most sophisticated computers, are designed for extremely, high
-
speed processing
of huge amounts of data, often using multiple proce
ssors working together. They
are most often used for perfo
r
ming complex computations by the government,
research organizations, and large industrial groups.

As the microcomputer industry grew, computer makers constantly tried to lure new
customers with mor
e powerful machines. The typical microcomputer sold today
can work with more than 200 times as much data as the first IBM PC, and it work
with that data at least 200 times as fast. In fact, many of today's laptop and desktop
microcomputers are more powerfu
l than the minis and mainframes that dominated
the market only fifteen or twenty years ago.

The power of the modern microcomputer enables it to be used for all kinds of
tasks. You can use it to write papers, perform mathematical computations and
analyses,
and conduct research. At home you can use the same computer to
communicate with friends, play games, buy airline tickets, and keep track of
finances. The same computer can be used again at work for correspondence,
financial analysis, comp
i
lin
g

and analyzing data, communicating with clients, and
a thousand other tasks.

Text 6

DATABASES

Database software makes it possible for computers to store anti retrieve large
amounts of data. To do this, a database is organized into three levels: files, reco
rds,
and fields. A file (the electronic equivalent of a filing cabinet) contains a group of
records. A record (like a paper file folder) stores a group of data items, or fields,
relating to a single specification such as a person, place, or thing.

Each fie
ld has a field name, size, and type. The field name is a unique identifier.
Field size determines the maximum number of characters or numbers that can be
stored in a field. Data type determines the kind of operation the computer can
perform on the data; if

can be alphanumeric, numeric, logical, or date.
Alphanumeric data
-
addresses, Social Security numbers, and the like
-
can be
alphabetized and sorted numerically but it cannot be subjected to any mathematical
operations. Numeric data are numbers used in mathe
matical operations. Logical
data identifies one of two alternatives
-
true or false, yes or no. The numbers stored
in a date field represent a calendar date.

Planning is the single most important step in a creating a successful database. A
poor plan can make

manipulating and controlling data difficult or impossible; a
good plan leads to a database that is both easy to work with and efficient.

11


Data is entered in the database through an on
-
screen entry form or a data file
formatted to match the already
-
defined
fields. Some programs offer list views,
allowing the user to modify information in several records a
t

once.

The order of the records can be permanently changed by sorting or temporarily
changed by indexing. The latter allows the creation of multiple
indexes within one
file, providing greater flexibility.

A reguest for data in a database is a query. A simple query inv
o
lves identifying a
field and searching for all records that match the field name. Querying an indexed
file produces an organized list of

data.

Structured query language (SQL)*, a standardized language for quer
y
ing, is based
on a series of expressions that specify the criteria for a data search. Once data have
been retrieved, a report generator can be used to control the display of informat
ion
on the screen and on paper.

The six major types of database are relational, fiat
-
file, HyperCard, hierarchical,
network, and free
-
form. Relational databases organize information in relational
tables and let users manipulate or control more than one fil
e at a time. Flat
-
file
databases (file managers) work with single
-
file applications. HyperCard combines
text and graphics to produce individual screens called cords. A hierarchical
databases organizes data into a family tree formation, with the broadest gr
ouping at
the parent (root) level; specific subgroups appear

as their children (subdirectories).
Network databases are similar to hierarchical databases; each subgroup has more
than one parent. Free
-
form databases allow the entry of large amounts of text
w
ithout specifying data type or size. Data are instructured and are accessed through
keywords. Encyclopedic databases are part of this group.


Text 7

DESKTOP PUBLISHING

Desktop publishing software provides the tools and controls to combine text and
graphics

files into publications. These controls provide manipulation of the page
layout, typography and graphics. Whether it is command
-
driven or WYSIWYG*
-
oriented, DTP software is always a tool for expression.

Page layout controls the page size a
n
d orientation,
margins and column sizes and
their placement on the page, and the plac
e
ment of graphics and their relation to the
text. It also controls the number of pages and whether these pages are double
-
sided
or single
-
sided. You also use page layout controls to plac
e ruling lines, headers,
footers, and page numbers, and , in some programs, to define a master page or base
page on which to model the rest of the publication.

Typographical controls determine the appearance of type, which can vary
according to typeface, t
ype style, and type size; these three factors make up a font.
Type can be manipulated to create special effects, such as drop caps and reverse
type. Controlling the spacing makes the text attractive and easy to read. Paragraphs
can be flush left, centered
, flush right, or justified. All text attributes can be set in
user
-
defined paragraph tags.

Graphics control
s start with the sizing and sca
ling of original images. Proportional
12


sizing preserves the original ratio of height to wi
dth

of an image, but this ra
tio can
be altered for a special effect. Images can be cropped, and line art can be drawn on
the page to make lines, boxes, ovals, and round
-
cornered boxes. Text wrap controls
can flow text over an image or space it equally around the image or irregularly
to
conform to the image's shape. The appearance of the image can be adjusted for
lightness, contrast, and screen pattern, but the original image is never changed by
DTP software.

DTP software output is sent to disk, to a laser or other printer, or to a dig
ital image
-
setter. The product from an image
-
setter or printer can be reprodu
c
ed by
photocopier or in a print shop. These and disk files can also be handled by service
bureaus.

Following established design princ
i
ples, DTP software can be used to create an
unlimited variety of publications. Flyers, brochures, business cards, books
-
virtually
anything printable
-
can be produced for a wide variety of uses.


Text 8

HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE

All computers consist of hardware. This includes the computer itself and all
other
related physical devices. The other pieces of the computer system include software,
the instructions that tell the computer what tasks to perform; data, the information
the computer works on; and you, the user, who ultimately tell the computer what t
o
do, and for whom the computer does all its work.

All computers use the same basic technigues for carrying out the tasks we give
them. The computer takes in data through input devices, it manipulates the data
according to its instructions, it outputs the
results of its processing, and it stores
data for later use. These four processes together are known as the computing cycle.

Input is the process of entering data into the computer. The most common device
used for input on microcomputers is the keyboard. C
omputer keyboards include
many special command
s

and function keys to perform specialized input tasks as
well as the usual typewriter layout. Other input devices include a mouse, which
manipulates a pointer on the computer screen for giving commands and entering
data; a scanner , which reads graphic ima
ges and pages of text and sends them to
the computer; a modem, which receives data over phone lines; and several other
devices.

Once data is in a microcomputer, it is processed by the microprocessor and its
associated integrated circuit chips. Microprocess
ors perform all calculations and
manipulations necessary to transform data into meaningful information. Associated
with the processor is the computer's memory, which is used for storing data an
d
programs while they're being u
sed by the processor.

Getting p
rocessed data out of the computer is the job of output devices. The
computer can display the data on a monitor screen, of whic
h there are several
types: colo
r or monochrome, flat
-

panel or picture tube, desktop or portable. You
can also send data to printe
r or plotter to make a paper copy, use the modem to
send the data over a phone line to another computer, or use any number of
13


specialized output devices.

What do you do if you want to keep the data in a permanent form? That's what
storage devices are for.
Storage devices hold data permanently, so you can save it
and retrieve it later. All microcomputers use disks to store data magnetically. Each
type at disk is used by its corresponding disk drive to read and write information.
Floppy disks are used for eas
y, portable storage, and built
-
in hard disks are used
for more permanent storage of larger amounts of data and programs for fast access.
Other common storage devices include optical discs (such as CD
-
ROM) and
magnetic tape.

A program is a group of instruct
ions that tells the processing devices what to do.
Software can be a single program or a set of programs that work together. Because
their meanings are very similar, the terms software (or a piece of software) and
program are often used interchangeably.

Tw
o types of software are necessary to make the computer capable of perfo
r
ming
useful work. They are the operating system and application software. The
operating system contains basic instructions that tell the CPU* how to use other
hardware devices, where t
o find programs, and how to load and keep track of
programs in memory. Because it includes basic instructions that
are vital to the
internal function
ing of the computer, the operating system is the first program to be
processed after the computer is turned

on, and it remains in memory until the
computer is turned off.

For the computer to perform useful tasks, it needs application software in addition
to the operating system. An application is a job that a computer can perform, such
as creating text document
s, manipulating sets of numbers, creating graphic images,
and communicating with other computers. Application software is the term used to
describe programs that tell the computer how to perform such jobs. The six most
common types of application software
are


* Word processing software


* Graphics software


* Desktop publishing software


* Sp
r
eadsheet software


* Database management software


* Communications software

Application software is what makes a computer a tool for a perfo
r
ming the tasks
we
most often need to complete at school, at home, or at office.


Text
9

SPREADSHEETS

A spreadsheet program is essentially an electronic ledger sheet that performs
mathematical manipulations on numeric information. Its ability to perform
complex operations qu
ickly and accurately makes it an ideal too; for accountants
government agencies, schools, businesses, industry in short, anyone who must
work with numbers. Teachers can keep classroom attendance and perfo
r
mance
records; sports fans can record scores and ba
tting averages; city planners and
14


taxing authorities can project growth and revenues; b
u
siness users can track
inventory, personnel, the customer base, and so on.

Like a paper ledger sheet, the worksheet organizes data by row and column,
forming cells into

which labels, values, or formulas are placed. The data is
manipulated by functions and formulas, providing prompt answers to complex
operations. The program's recalculating ability allows users to ask "What if?"
questions about changes in income, expendit
ures, and growth.

Macros, templates, built
-
in functions, and graphics capabilities add to the
usefulness of most spreadsheets. Although spreadsheets vary in complexity, they
provide the capability to enter, edit, and manipulate data
-
from basic arit
h
metic
f
unctions to the highly sophisticated offerings designed for the professional user.


Text
10

WORD PROCESSING

Word processor is an automated writing tool
-

a program that lets users enter and
edit text quickly and efficiently.

Word processing is the most
universal of all microcomputer applications, and the
one that justifies buying the computer for many people.

Word processors vary in specific features and working styles, but all share a core
of common functions. They all let you enter text, edit it, forma
l it, save it to disk,
and a print it.

Entering text is done through the keyboard; the text you type shows up at the
cursor. Computer keyboards have many specialized keys, which are programmed
to perform different functions.

Setting up your document consis
ts of specifying its margins and justification,
hyphenation, spacing, tabs, columns, headers and footers, and/or page numbers.

Although text can be edited easily at the cursor using the backspace or delete keys,
and insert or type over mode, the real editi
ng power of a word processor lies on
manipulating text box. Once a group of text is selected as a block, if can be
deleted, moved, copied, or formatted as you wish. Spelling and grammar checkers
are useful utilities for catching typing errors and grammatic
al mistakes.

Word processors offer many choices for formatting text: paragraphs can be aligned
left, right, or centered within the margins; characters can be boldface, italic,
underlined, or ser in other special formats. Using fonts can give your document
a
professional look. Special character sets let you type symbols and other special
characters.

Many word processors offer special features to improve the utility of the software,
including macros, indexes, and tables of contents, foo
t
notes, and references,

and
the ability to work with graphics and data imported from other programs. The
merge function of many word processors lets you print form letters and other
documents based on database information.

Saving you work is of paramount importance. Save often t
o avoid losing your data,
and keep you information organized by using meaningful file names. Keep backup
copies of all your work.

15


There are many options for printing you document. Most word processors let you
print any portion or all of your document, and
any number of copies; the quality of
you printout depends on the quality of you printer.



Контрольная работа для студентов 2 курса

Basic

element

of

Windows

I
-
вариант


Windows provides everything you need to manage your applications and files
easily and
efficiently.

When working in Windows your main work area is the desktop. You can move
items around on the desktop, add new ones and remove those you do not need.

The first time you start Windows, the Program Manager appears on your screen.
You can use Prog
ram Manager to organize your applications and start them.

After you start an application it runs in an application window on the desktop.
You can reduce any open application windows to an application icon. An
application icon is a small picture representin
g an application. By redusing
application windows to icons, you can free space on your desktop without quitting
the application.





Vocabulary

Application



1.приложение, прикладная программа





2.применение. использование

Environment


1.окружающая сред
а





2.операционная среда

Desktop




рабочий стол

Item





1.единица





2.элемент





3.предмет

Program

Manager


Диспетчер программ

To

rum



Запускать на выполнение

Application

window

окно приложение

Application

icon


значок приложения





I.

Answer the

questions:



1.What can you do with the items on the desktop?


2. How can you use program manager?


3. Can you reduce any open application window to an application icon?


4. What is an application icon?


16


II.

Translate into English and mach
with English equivalents:

1.

Управляться





a)on your screen

2.

Легко и эффективно





b
)
start

them

3.

Рабочая территория





с)
manage

4.

На

вашем

экране



d)easily and efficiently

5.

Организовывать приложения
e
)
reduce

6.

Запускать

их





f) organize applications

7.

Сокращать





g) application icon

8.

Значок приложения


h
)
work

area


III.

Find

English

equivalents

in

the

text

1.

Удалить те, которые вам не нужны

2.

Появляется на вашем экране

3.

Управляться легко и эффективно

4.

Без
закрытия приложения


IV.

Fill in the gaps with the right Passive form of the verb:

Were invited, is expected, are being taught

1.

Thousands of foreign guests … to attend the Winter Music Festival
in Moscow

2.

Young people from many foreign countries … at Moscow
University.

3.

It … that his new novel will be a great success.


Контрольная работа для студентов 2 курса

Parts

of

a

Window

II
-
вариант


Most windows have certain elements in common, such as a title bar and a menu
bar. Not al windows hove every element.

The
Control
-
menu box is in the upper
-
left corner of each window. It is most
useful if you use your keyboard to move, size, and close a window.

The title bar shows the name of the application or document. If more than one
window is open, the title bar of the ac
tive window is usually a different color or
intensity than other title bars.

The window title shows the application name, the document name, or the name
of a group , directory, or a file.

The menu bar lists the available menus from which you can cho
ose
commands.

The scroll bars enable you to move through the document or list when the
entire documents does not fit in the allotted space.

17


Clicking the Maximize button with the mouse enlarges the active window so
that it fills the entire desktop. C
licking the Minimize button reduces the window to
an icon.

The window border is the outside edge of a window.






Vocabulary

Title bar




строка

заголовка

Menu bar




главное

меню

Control
-
menu box



командная

кнопка

системного

меню

Keyboard




клавиатура


Window title



заголовок

окна


Scroll bar




полоса

прокрутки

Maximize button




кнопка

развертывания

окна

Minimize button



кнопка

свертывания

окна

Window border



граница

окна



I.

Answer the questions:



1. What elements do most windows have in

common?


2. What is the control
-
menu box?


3. How can we use the menu bar?


4. What can we do with the help of scroll bars?


II.

Translate into English and mach with English equivalents:


1.
Верхний

левый





a) the entire document


2. Однако



b
)
dire


3. Рабочая территория



с)
intensity


4. На вашем экране



d
)
however


5. Организовывать приложения


e
)
common

elements




6.
Запускать

их




f) to enlarge


7.
Сокращать





g) upper
-
left


8.
Значок

приложения



h) move


III.

Find English equivalents in the text

1.

определенные общие элементы

2.

перечисляет доступные меню

3.

не входит в окно

4.

увеличивает активное окно


IV.

Fill in the gaps with the right Passive form of the

verb:

Is reported, had been scored, has been heard

1.

Nothing … of him since he left New York.

2.

Now many goals … by the teams before the end of the first period?

3.

It … that his novel is popular with the readers.

18


Контрольная работа для студентов 2 курса

Opening

and

Saving

Files

III
-
вариант


Choosing the Open command from an application’s file menu opens a dialog
box that is often the same regardless of which application you are using. This
dialog box is designed to save your time because you can select the
drive,
directory, file type from the ones displayed in the list boxes.

In many applications the file menu contains two commands for saving files:
Save and Save as.

You use the Save command to save changes to an existing file. You use the
Save as command t
o name and save a new file or to save an existing file under new
name and save a new file or to save an existing file. Under a new name. For
example before you began working on it. By using the Save as command, you
save another copy of the origin
al file by giving it a different name.

To save an existing file, chose Save from the application’s file menu.






Vocabulary

Dialog

box



диалоговое окно

Regardless



нее зависимо от

Drive





диск

The

Save

command

команда

Сохранить

The

Save

as

command


команда Сохранить как

Exist




существовать



I.

Answer the questions:



1.What can you do with the items on the desktop?


2. How can you use program manager?


3. Can you reduce any open application window to an application icon?


4. What is an application icon?


II.

Translate into English and mach with English equivalents:

1.

Открытое диалоговое окно


a
)
regardless

2.

Так же






b) directory

3.

Диск









c) keep a copy

4.

Содержит две команды



d
)
opens

a

dialog

box

5.

Сохранить изменения




e
)
the

same


6.

Каталог






f) drive

7.

Несмотря

на





g) contains two commands

8.

Сохранить

копию




h) to save changes




19


III.

Find English equivalents in the text:

1.

Спроектировано, чтобы сэкономить выше время.

2.

Вы можете выбрать диск, каталог,
файл.

3.

Сохранить изменения в существующем файле.

4.

Как он существовал до того.


IV.

Fill in the gaps with the right Passive form of the verb:

Is believed, was discovered, was won

1.

When … America …?

2.

Do you know if the last match … by Spartak?

3.

It … than they went
the wrong way.


Контрольная работа для студентов 2 курса

Drives
,
directories
,
and

Files

IV
-
вариант


MS
-
DOS organizes information in your computer using drives, directories and
files. This system of organizing information is hierarchical: files populate
directories and directories populate drives.

In most computers then non
-
removable hard disc is the C drive. The floppy
disc you use to install programs and copy files is the A drive. In addition, many
computers today have a B drive, another floppy drive
.

Each drive contains at least one directory. All drives have a root directory, a
directory that is used by the computer when it is powered up. A computer may
have many other directories, too.

If you need further organization, you may create subdirector
ies.

Files are the most basic units of organization on your computer. There are
basically two types of organization on your computer: executable (program) and
non
-
executable (data) files.






Vocabulary

Drive





диск

Directory




каталог

Hard

disc




жесткий

диск

Floppy disk




дискета

Root

directory



корневой

каталог

Power

up




включение питания

Subdirectory



подкаталог

Data





данные



I.

Answer the questions:

1.

In what way does MS
-
DOS organize information?

2.

Now many directories does each driv
e contain?

20


3.

Can a computer have many other directories too?

4.

What should you do if you need further organization?


II.

Translate into English and mach with English equivalents:

1.

Иерархическая




a) units of organization

2.

Не удаляемый




b) directory

3.

Диск






с)

basically

4.

В дополнение




d
)
non
-
removable

5.

Многие другие каталоги


e) hierarchical

6.

Каталог





f) drive

7.

В

основном





g) in addition

8.

Элементы

организации




h) many other directories


III.

Find English equivalents in the text:

1.

Файлы

соста
вляют

каталоги


2.

Когда

он

включен

3.

Если вам нужна дальнейшая организация

4.

Основные элементы организации


IV.

Fill in the gaps with the right Passive form of the verb:

Is known, are being laughed, had been built

1.

I hate it when people … at

2.

It … that Aitmatov’s

new novel made a great impression on everyone.

3.

Six Olympic complexes … in Moscow before the 22
nd
Olympic Games.



Контрольные работы для студентов
III

курса

специальностей

2201, 2202, 2203.

I
-
вариант

There are many different kinds of com
puters in the wo
rld today. Computers are
operating at the bank, in your car, and at the grocery store. Many of these
computers are special
-
purpose computers; that is, they serve specific functions.
There are also gen
eral
-
purpose computers in the office, at home, and at s
chool,
versatile enough to handle all kinds of tasks. The existence of all these different
types of computers raises an im
portant question: What is a computer? Sim
ply put,
a computer is a device that proc
esses raw data into useful information. But from
that perspective, a typewriter, a calcu
lator, or even an abacus could be called a
computer. What distinguishes a computer from other information
-
processing
devices are three basic characteristics:



A computer is completely electronic. That is, all its func
tions are carried out
with electrical signals.

21




A computer can remember informa
tion and hold it for future use. Computers
do this on a temporary basis with memory circuits and permanently with
storage de
vices such as magnetic disk and tape.



A computer is
programmable. Unlike other devices built to perform a single
func
tion or limited range of functions a compu
ter can be instructed to do
whatever task we tell it to do. This opens up a vast realm of possibilities for
computers to solve prob
lems for us in
everyday life: at home, at school, or at
work.

The most common kind of general
-
pur
pose computer in use today is the
personal computer or microcomputer. It gets the name microcomputer from the
tiny electronic de
vice, called the microprocessor that does th
e actual processing.
The use of personal computers has grown greatly during the last ten years.


I.

Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

1.

What is a computer?

2.

Where are computers operating?

3.

What are the basic computers characteristics?

4.

What is the most common kind
of general


purpose computer?

II.

Найдите эквиваленты в тексте:

1.

многие из этих компьютеров


2.

различные типы компьютеров



3.

компьютер


это устройство…
-


4.

полезная информация



5.

умеет запоминать информацию


6.

схемы памяти


7.

устройства хранения информации


8.

чтобы решать проблемы


9.

компьютер общецелевого назначения


III.

Выпишите из текста предложения в страдательном залоге,
определите временную форму сказуемого и переведите
предложения на русский язык.

IV.

Выберите правильный вариант:

1.

The computer is:

a)

An electric mac
hine

b)

An electronic machine

c)

A racing machine

d)

An ambulance machine




2.

The software is:

a)

Information in the form of data and programs

b)

A gallery of pictures

c)

A musical performance

d)

Selected stories

22


3.

The CPU is:

a)

The “stomach” of the computer

b)

The “lever” of the
computer

c)

The “eyes” of the computer

d)

The “brain” of the computer

4.

The main memory is:

a)

The selection which holds factories

b)

The selection which holds the instruction of data which are currently
processed by the CPU

c)

The selection which holds entertainments

d)

The
selection which holds the automatic cash dispensers



II
-
вариант

Microcomputers form the most com
mon of the four classes of general
-
pur
pose
computers; the other three classes are minicomputers, mainframe computers, and
supercomputers. Microcomputers, be
sides relying on a microprocessor, are the
smallest and are generally designed for a single user. Minicomputers, mainframes,
and supercomputers all use processors built from a large number of components.
Minicomputers, larger than microcomput
ers (up to th
e size of a refrigerator) are
generally intended for small
-

to medium
-
sized groups of users in businesses and
other organizations; their processing abili
ties are more robust than those of micro
-
computers. Mainframe computers can take up a whole room and c
an handle the
needs of many simultaneous users while process
ing large volumes of data; they are
most often used in large organizations and in
stitutions. Supercomputers, the most
so
phisticated computers, are designed for ex
tremely high
-
speed processing
of huge
amounts of data, often using multiple processors working together. They are most
often used for performing complex com
putations by the government, research or
-
ganizations, and large industrial groups.

As the microcomputer industry grew, computer m
akers constantly tried to lure
new customers with more powerful machines. The typical microcomputer sold
today can work with more than 200 times as much data as the first IBM PC, and it
can work with that data at least 200 times as fast. In fact, many of t
oday's laptop
and desktop micro
computers are more powerful than the minis and mainframes
that dominated the market only fifteen or twenty years ago.

II.

Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

1.

What are the four classes of general


purpose computer?

2.

Which computers
are the smallest and designed for a single user?

3.

Where are main frame computers most often used?

4.

Which computers are the most sophisticated?

III.

Найдите эквиваленты в тексте:

1.

большое количество компонентов



2.

в основном предназначены


3.

возможности обработки


23


4.

обработка большого объема данных


5.

самые сложные компьютеры


6.

выполнение сложных вычислений


7.

более мощные машины


8.

продаваемые сегодня


9.

производители компьютеров


V.

Выпишите из текста предложения в страдательном залоге,
определите временную форму сказуемо
го и переведите
предложения на русский язык.

VI.

Выберите правильный вариант:

1.

The peripherals are:

a)

Physical units attached to computer

b)

Physical units attached to airplanes

c)

Physical units attached to cars

d)

Physical units attached to irons

2.

The input devi
c
e is:

a)

The fax

b)

The monitor

c)

The mouse

d)

The printer


3.

The output devise is:

a)

The keyboard

b)

The scanner

c)

The monitor

d)

The mouse

4.

Multitasking means:

a)

Access to a minicomputer through terminals

b)

Doing a number of tasks at the same time

c)

Connection to a “host” computer by a net
work so that many users
have access to data and programs

d)

Results produced by a computer


III
-
вариант

All computers consist of hardware. This includes the computer itself and all
other related physical devices. The other pieces of the computer system
include
soft
ware, the instructions that tell the compu
ter what tasks to perform; data, the
infor
mation the computer works on; and you, the user, who ultimately tell the
computer what to do, and for whom the computer does all its work.

All computers use
the same basic tech
niques for carrying out the tasks we give
them. The computer takes in data through input devices, it manipulates the data ac
-
cording to its instructions, it outputs the re
sults of its processing, and it stores data
for later use. These

four processes together are known as the computing cycle.

24


Input is the process of entering data into the computer. The most common
device used for input on microcomputers is the keyboard. Computer keyboards
include many special command
s


and function keys

to perform spe
cialized input
tasks as well as the usual type
writer layout. Other input devices include a mouse,
which manipulates a pointer on the computer screen for giving commands and
entering data; a scanner, which reads graphic images and pages of
text and sends
them to the computer; a modem, which receives data over phone lines; and several
other devices.

Once data is in a microcomputer, it is processed by the microprocessor and its
as
sociated integrated circuit chips. Microproc
essors perform all

calculations and
manipu
lations necessary to transform data into meaningful information. Associated
with the processor is the computer's memory, which is used for storing data and
programs while they're being used by the processor.

Getting processed data
out of the com
puter is the job of output devices. The
com
puter can display the data on a monitor screen, of whic
h there are several
types: colo
r or monochrome, flat
-
panel or picture tube, desktop or portable.

III.

Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

1.

What does a ha
rd ware of all computers consist of?

2.

What processes are known as the computing cycle?

3.

What are the functions of microprocessors?

4.

Where can the computer display the data?

IV.

Найдите эквиваленты в тексте:

1.

состоит из аппаратного обеспечения


2.

физические устройст
ва


3.

программное обеспечение


4.

базовая технология


5.

клавиатура


6.

другие устройства ввода


7.

обрабатываются микропроцессором


8.

выполняют все вычисления


9.

память компьютера


VII.

Выпишите из текста предложения в страдательном залоге,
определите временную форму
сказуемого и переведите
предложения на русский язык.

VIII.

Выберите правильный вариант:

1.

What is RAM?

a)

Random Access Memory

b)

Read American Memory

c)

Read Apple Memory

d)

Read Advanced Memory





25


2.

What is ROM?

a)

Temporary memory

b)

Constant memory

c)

Slow memory

d)

Quick memory

3.

What
is a bit?

a)

Basic unit of memory

b)

Secondary unit of memory

c)

Light unit of memory

d)

Hard unit of memory

4.

What is the ASCII code?

a)

The American Code of Standard for Information Intercha
n
ge

b)

The American of the Standard Code for Intercharge Information

c)

The American Standard Code for Intercharge Information

d)

The American Standard Code for Information Intercha
n
ge



IV
-
вариант

What do you do if you want to keep the data in a permanent form? That's what
stor
age devices are for. Storage devices hold data per
manently, so you can save it
and retrieve it later. All microcomputers use disks to store data magnetically. Each
type at disk is used by its corresponding disk drive to read and write information.
Floppy disks are used for easy, portable storage, and buil
t
-
in hard disks are used
for more permanent storage of larger amounts of data and programs for fast access.
Other com
mon storage devices include optical discs (such as CD
-
ROM) and
magnetic tape.

A program is a group of instructions that tells the processi
ng devices what to do.
Software can be a single program or a set of programs that work together. Because
their meanings are very similar, the terms soft
ware (or a piece of software) and
program are often used interchangeably.

Two types of software are nec
essary to make the computer capable of
performing useful work. They are the operating system and application software.
The operating system contains basic instructions that tell the CPU* how to use
other hardware de
vices, where to find programs, and how t
o load and keep track of
programs in memory. Because it includes basic instructions that are vital to the
internal functioning of the computer, the operating system is the first program to be
processed after the computer is turned on, and it remains in mem
ory until the
computer is turned off.

For the computer to perform useful tasks, it needs application software in addi
-
tion to the operating system. An application is a job that a computer can perform,
such as creating text documents, manipulating sets of
numbers, creating graphic
images, and communicating with other computers. Ap
plication software is the term
used to de
scribe programs that tell the computer how to perform such jobs. The six
most common types of application software are

26




Word processing so
ftware



Graphics software



Desktop publishing software



Spreadsheet software



Database management software



Communications software

IV.

Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

1.

What are storage devices for?

2.

What is used to store data magnetically?

3.

What is a program?

4.

What
does the operating system contain?

V.

Найдите эквиваленты в тексте:

1.

сохранить информацию


2.

устройства хранения


3.

гибкие диски


4.

встроенные жесткие диски


5.

программное обеспечение


6.

операционная система и прикладное программное обеспечение


7.

внутренняя работа
компьютера


8.

создание текстовых документов


9.

термин, используемый для описания программ


IX.

Выпишите из текста предложения в страдательном залоге,
определите временную форму сказуемого и переведите
предложения на русский язык.

X.

Выберите правильный вариант:


1.

How many bits together are called byte?

a)

11 bits together

b)

10 bits together

c)

9 bits together

d)

8 bits together

2.

What does SIMMS (Single In
-
Line Memory Modules) mean?

a)

Current boards contain RAM chips

b)

Current boards contain ROM chips

c)

Keyboards contain letters,
numbers and other symbols

d)

Chessboards contain chess figures

3.

Floppy disk are so called because:

a)

They consist of wooden material

b)

They consist of metallic material

c)

They consist of fabric material

d)

They consist of flexible plastic material

4.

What does “CD
-
ROM” st
and for?

a)

It stands for Compact Read
-
Only Memory Disk

b)

It stands for Compact Disk Memory Read
-
Only

27


c)

It stands for Compact Memory Read
-
Only Disk

d)

It stands for Compact Disk Read
-
Only Memory



Контрольные работы для студентов IV курса

I
-
Вариант

Database
Systems

A database is an organised collection of related data. A database management
system (DBMS) is software that helps organise data in a way that allows fats and
easy access to the data. With a database program a user can create, mo
d
ify, store,
and
retrieve data in a variety of ways.

Database system is different from word processing or spreadsheet software, in
which users enter and use the same form as it resides on disk. Data in databases
could reside on the disk in ways unknown to a user. In partic
ular, sophisticated
database systems, particularly those designed for a mainframe computer
environment, are complex, and must be planned and managed by computer
professionals. Users of such systems are trained to input data to and retrieve data
from the da
tabase system,

using appropriate software; they can do this successfully
without ever having to underst
a
nding the underlying technol
o
gy. On the other
hand, database software is available for personal computers that a trained user can
apply to simple or mod
erately complex probl
e
ms.

I.
Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.

1. What is a d
a
tabase?

2
. What can a user do with a data
base program?

3. What is the difference between d
at
abase system and word proce
ss
ing?

4. What can a trained user apply to simple or moderately

complex problem?

II.
Найдите зквиваленты в тексте.

1. упорядоченная совокупность
-

2. система управления ба
з
ами данных
-


3. текстовый процессор
-


28


4. хранить на диске
-


5. сложные базы данных
-


6. вводить выбирать информацию из базы данных
-


7. используя соответствующее программное обеспечение
-


8. применять для решения простых и средней сложности задач


II
-

Вариант

Advantages of Databases

Several advantages are generally associated with databases. Reduced redundancy.
Data carried in separa
te files, as opposed to a database, tends to repeat some of the
same data over and over, in a database, information generally appears just once

.Integrated data. Rather than begin in separate and independent files, data in a
database is con
s
idered integrat
ed because any item of data can be used to satisfy an
inquiry or a report. Integrity. Integrity concerns increase as the sophistication of
the data increases. Raduced redundancy increases the likelihood of data
integrity.The way the database organises data

depends on the type, or model, of the
database. There are three database models
-

hierarchical, network, and relational.
Databases on personal computers are usually relational. A relational database
organises data in a table format consisting of related r
ows and columns. In a
relational system, data in one file can be related to data in another, allowing you to
tie together data from several files.

I.
Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.

1. What advantages are generally associated with databases?

2. How many time
s does information generally appear in a database?

3. What are three database models?

4. In what way does a relational database organise data?

II.
Найдите эквиваленты в тексте.

1. уменьшенная избыточность
-


2. в отдельных файлах
-


3. интегрированные данные
-


4. при выполнении запроса или составления отчета
-


29


5. целостность данных
-


6. иерархическая, сетевая и реляционная
-

7. организует информацию в
форм
е

таблиц
-


8. позволяя соединять вместе данные из нескольких таблиц
-



III
-
Вариант

How PGP works.
PGP combines some of the best features of both conventional and
public key cry
p
tography. PGP is a
hybrid cryptosystem.
When a user encrypts
plaintext with PGP,
PGP
first compresses the plaintext. Data compression saves
modem transmiss
ion time and disk space and, more importantly, strengthens
cryptographic security. Most cryptanalysis techniques exploit patterns in the
plaintext, there
b
y greatly enhancing resistance to cryptanalysis. (Files that are too
short to
compress or which don't

compress well aren't compressed.)PGP creates a
session key,

which is a one
-
time
-
only secret key. This key is a random number
generated from the random movements of your mouse and the keystrokes you type.
This session key works with a very secure, fast con
ventional encryption algorithm
to encrypt the plaintext; the result is cip
h
ertext. Once the data is encrypted, the
session key is then encrypted to the recipient's public key. This public key
-
encrypted session key is transmitted

along

wit
h
the ciphertext t
o the recipient.

I
.
Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.

1. What does PGP combine?

2. What
are the advantages of data comp
ression?

3. What is a session key?

4. How does this session key work?

II.

Найдите эквиваленты в тексте.

1. Т
радиционное шифрование и шифрование с открытым ключом
-


2. Г
ибридная криптосистема
-


3. сжатие данных
-


4. сокращает время передачи данных через модем
-


30


5. большинство методов криптоанализа
-


6. создаёт сеансовый ключ
-


7. случайное число, генерируемо
е на основе случайных перемещений мыши
и нажатий на клавиши и на клавиатуре
-

8.
после

шифрования

данных

-



IV
-

Вариант

Image Compression
A common characteristic of most images is that the
neighboring pixels are correlated and therefore contain redundant
infor
m
ation. The
foremost task then is to find less correlated representation of the image. Two
fundamental components of compression are redundancy and irrelevancy
reduction.
Redundancy reduction
aims at removing duplication from the signal
source
(image/video).
Irrelevancy reduction
omits parts of the signal that will not
be noticed by the signal receiver, namely the Human Visual S
y
stem (HVS)In
general, thr
ee types of redundancy can be i
dentified:
Spat
i
al Redundancy

or
correlation between neighboring

pixel values.
Spati
al Redundancy
or correlation
between different color planes or spectral bands.
Tmporal

Redundancy
or
correlation between adjacent flames in a sequence of image (in video
applications).Image compression research aims at reducing the number

of bits
needed to represent an image by removing the spatial and spectral redundancies as
much as po
ssi
ble.
Since we focus
only still image compression, we
will not worry
about temporal redundancy.

I.
Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.

1. What is a common
characteristic of most image?

2. What are two fundamental components of compression?

3. What does irrelevancy reduction omit?

4. What does image compression research aim?

II.
Найдите зквиваленты в тексте.

1. общие свойства большинства изображений
-

2. содер
жат избыточную информацию
-

3. найти менее коррелированное представление изображения
-

31


4. устранение избыточности
-

5. пространственная избыточность
-

6. зрительная система человека
-

7. ис
с
ледования в области сжатия



8. устранение несущественной информации
-




Ключи для проверки контрольных работ

II

курс

I
вариант

I

1.You can m
ore items around on the

desktop ,
add new ones and remove you do
not need.

2.

You can use program manager to organize your applications and s
tart them.

3.

Yes, I can.

4.
An application icon is a small picture representing an application

II

1c

2d

3h

4a

5f

6b

7e

8g

III

1.r
emo
v
e
those

you don’t need

2

.appears on your screen

3.

manage easily and efficiently

4

.without quitting the application

32


IV

1.were invited

2.are being taught

3.is expected





II
вариант

I


1.

Most windows have a title bar and a menu bar.

2.

The Control
-
menu box is most useful if you use your key board to move, size
and close a window

3. T
he menu bar lists the available me
nus from which you can choose commands

4. The scroll bars enable you to more through the document.


II

1) g

2) d

3) e

4) h

5) c

6) b

7) a

8) f


III

1. Certain elements in common;

2. Lists the available menus;

3. Does not fit in the space;

33


4. Enlarges the
active window;


IV

1. Has been heard;

2. Had been scored;

3. Is reported;



III
Вариант

I

1.

The dialog box save time because you can select the directory, file type from
ones displayed

in the list boxes.

2. The file menu contains two comman
d
s for saving f
iles: save and save as.

3. You use the save command to save changes to an existing file.

4. To save an existing file chose save from the application file menu.


II

1) d

2) e

3) f

4) g

5) h

6) b

7) a

8) c



III

1. Designed to save your time;

2. You can
select the drive, directory,


file;

3. To save changes to an existing file;

34


4. As

it existed before;



IV
Вариант

I

1.

MS
-
Dos organizes information in your computer hierarchically: files populate
directories and directories populate drives.

2.

Each drive
contains at least one directory.

3.

A computer may have many other directories.

4.

It you need further organization, you may create subdirectories.


II

1) e

2) d

3) f

4) g

5) h

6) b

7) c

8) a


III

1.

Files populate
directories
;

2.

When it is powered up;

3.

It you need further organization;

4. Basic units of organization;

IV

1. Are being laughed;

2. Is known;

3. Had been built;

35


Ключи для проверки контрольных работ

III

Курс

I
вариант

I

1, A computer is a device that processes raw data into useful information.

2. Computers are operating at the bank, in your car and at the grocery store.

3. A computer is completely electronic.


A computer can remember information.


A computer is programmable.

4.
The
y

are personal computers, or microcomputers.


II

1. Many
of these computers.

2. Different kinds of computers.

3. Computer is a device.

4. Useful information.

5. Can remember information.

6. Memory circuits.

7. Storage devices.

8. To solve problems.

9. General


purpose computer.


III

1) b

2) a

3) d

4) b




36


II
вариант

I

1.

They are microcomputers minicomputers, mainframes, supercomputers.

2. They are microcomput
e
r
s.

3. They are most often used in large organizations and institutions.

4. They are supercomputers.


II

1. Large number of components;

2. Are generally

intended;

3. Processing abilities;

4. Processing large volumes of data;

5. The most sophisticated computers;

6. Performing complex computations;

7. More powerful machines;

8. Sold today;

9. Computer makes;


III

1) a

2) d

3) c

4)
b






37


Ключи для проверки
контрольных работ.

IV

курс

I
-
Вариант

I
.

1.

A database is an organised collection of related data.

2.

A user can create, modify, store and retrieve data in a variety of ways.

3.

In word processing or spreadsheet software users enter and use data in the same
from as
it resides on disk.

4.

A trained user can apply database software to simple or moderately complex
problems.

II.

1.

organised collection
-

2.

database management system
-

3.

word processing
-


4.

reside on the disk
-


5.

sophisticated database systems
-


6.

input data to and retrieve data from the database system
-


7.

using appropriate software
-


8.

apply to simple or moderately complex problems
-

III.

1.

had, would buy.

2.

had told, would have been.

3.

were, would train.

4.

knew, would phone.

II
-
Вариант.

I.

1.

The advantages
generally associated with database are: reduced redundancy,
integrated data and integrity.

2.

In a database, information generally appears just once.

3.

They are hierarchical, network, and relational database models.

4.

A relational database organises data in a tab
le format consisting of related rows
and columns.


38


II.

1.

reduced redundancy
-

2.

in separate files
-


3.

integrated data
-


4.

to satisfy an inquiry or a report
-


5.

integrity
-


6.

hierarchical, network, and relational
-


7.

organises data in a table format
-


8.

allowing to t
ie together data from several files
-


III.

1.

hadn't reminded, would have forgotten..

2.

had played, would have won.

3.

hadn't told, would have found out.

4.

had studied, wouldn't have failed.

III
-
Вариант.

I.

1.

PGP combines some of the best features of both
conventional and pudlic key
cryptography.

2.

Data compressor saves modem transmission time and disk space and, more
importantly, strengthens cryptographic security.

3.

This key is a random number generated from the random movements of your
mouse and the keystrok
es you type.

4.

This key works with a very secure, fast conventional encryption algorithm to
encrypt the plaintext.

II.

1.

conventional and public key cryptography
-

2.

a hybrid cryptosystem
-


3.

data compressor
-


4.

saves modem transmission time
-

5.

most cryptanalysis t
echniques
-

6.

creates a session key
-

7.

a random number generated from the random movements of your mouse and
the keystrokes your type
-

8.

once the data is encrypted
-


39


III.

1.

were, would join.

2.

had, would travel.

3.

didn't love wouldn't visit.

4.

hadn't forgotten.

IV
-
Вариант.

I.

1.

A common characteristic of most images is that the neighboring pixels are
correlated and therefore contain redundant information.

2.

Two fundamental components of compression are redundancy and irrelevancy
reduction.

3.

Irrelevancy reduction omits pa
rts of the signal that will not be noticed

by the signal receiver, namely the Human Visual System (HVS).

4.

Image compression research aims at reducing the number of bits needed to
represent at image by removing the spatial and special redundancies as much a
s
possible.

II.

1.

a common characteristic of most image
-

2.

contain redundant information
-

3.

to find less correlated representation of the image
-

4.

redundancy reduction
-

5.

spatial redundancy
-

6.

the Human Visual System
-

7.

image compression research
-

8.

irrelevancy
reduction
-

III.

1.

hadn't forgotten, would have had.

2.

didn't have, would go.

3.

wouldn't buy, were.

4.

weren't.





40


Использованная литература

1)

http
://
translate
.
google
.
ru




Google

переводчик”

2)

http
://
en
.
wikipedia
.
org




Wikipedia


3)

Г.В. Лоскутова. О компьютере по
-
английски [Текст]: Учебное пособие
/ Г. В. Лоскутова, Ю. В. Масленникова.
-
СПб.: Каро, 2007.
-
192 с.

4)


Т.В. Смирнова. English for Сomputer Science Students: Учебное пособие


М.: Флинта: Наука 2006.


128 с.

5)


Д.Н.
Колисниченко. Англо
-
русский толковый словарь компьютерных
терминов / Под ред. М.В. Финков. Серия «Просто о сложном».


СПБ.:
Наука и Техника, 2006.


288 с.