Slide 1 - rajabillah

boardsimplisticΒιοτεχνολογία

20 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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I. PENDAHULUAN

Jadwal kuliah

Silabi dan Kontrak Kuliah

Dosen sebagai
fasilitator
, mahasiswa
dituntut
lebih aktif


Penilaian (
SK Rektor UNS No.
459/H27/PP/2007 tentang Peraturan Kredit
Semester & Perbaikan Peraturan Sistem
Kredit Semester
)


NA =

rata
-
rata

{
(
2*KD1 + 1*Prakt) +
(2*KD2 + 1*Prakt) + (2*KD3 +
1*Prakt) + (2*KD4 + 1 *Prakt)}

A
≥ 80


C = 60


69

B = 70
-

79

D = 59
-

50

E ≤ 49


TL

Mikrobia



潲条湩o浥m浩m牯獫潰楳




kelompok yg sangat besar



dan beragam (biodiversitas



sangat tinggi)




sel tunggal, kelompok sel,



non seluler (virus)






Microbiology


The study of of organisms too small to be
seen without magnification



bacteria


viruses


fungi


protozoa


algae

5

Branches of study within
microbiology


Immunology


Public health microbiology & epidemiology


Food, dairy and aquatic microbiology


Biotechnology


Genetic engineering & recombinant DNA
technology

Berbagai
Koloni
Mikrobia

(
colony forming
unit
,

cfu
)

BAKTERI

bintil
akar

FUNGI

(JAMUR)

Rhizopogon cokeri Amanita muscaria


truffle mushroom

Variable Mycorrhizal Infection

Gigasporum gigantea

Arbuscular Mycorrhizae

Spores

Extramatrical

Hypha

Arbuscule

Vesicle

PROTOZOA

ALGAE

Eutrofikasi / blooming algae

Microbes are involved in


nutrient production & energy flow


decomposition


production of foods, drugs & vaccines


bioremediation


causing disease

Mikrobiologi Industri

Impact of pathogens


Nearly 2,000 different microbes cause
diseases



10 B infections/year worldwide



13 M deaths from infections/year
worldwide

Tipe sel mikrobia

Characteristics of microbes

u
k
u
r
a
n

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek


First to observe living
microbes


his single
-
lens
magnified up to 300X

(1632
-
1723)

Scientific Method


Form a
hypothesis

-

a tentative
explanation that can be supported or
refuted by observation & experimentation



A lengthy process of experimentation,
analysis & testing either supports or
refutes the hypothesis



Results must be published & repeated by
other investigators.


If
hypothesis

is supported by a growing
body of evidence & survives rigorous
scrutiny, it moves to the next level of
confidence
-

it becomes a
theory



Evidence of a
theory

is so compelling that
the next level of confidence is reached
-

it
becomes a
Law or principle


Spontaneous generation

Early belief that some forms of life
could arise from vital forces present
in nonliving or decomposing matter.

(
flies from manure
, etc)

Louis Pasteur



Showed microbes
caused fermentation


Disproved spontaneous
generation of m.o.


Developed aseptic
techniques.


Developed a rabies
vaccine.

(1822
-
1895)

Aseptic technique
: methods for maintaining
steril culture media and
other steril objects free from
microbial contamination
during manipulation

Culture medium:
an aqueous solution of
various nutrients suitable for
the growth of m.o

Enrichment culture
: methods for isolating m.o.
from nature using specific
culture and incubation
condition


Robert Koch


Established a sequence
of experimental steps to
show that a specific m.o.
causes a particular
disease.


Developed pure culture
methods.


Identified cause of
anthrax, TB, & cholera.

(1843
-
1910)

Germ theory of disease

Many diseases are caused by the
growth of microbes in the body and
not by sins, bad character, or
poverty, etc.

Taxonomy

-

system for organizing,
classifying & naming living things

Domain: Archaea, Bacteria &



Eukarya

Kingdom: 5 (Monera, Protista,




Fungi, Plantae, Animalia)

Phylum or Division

Class

Order

Family

Genus

species

3 domains

Eubacteria
: true bacteria, peptidoglycan


Archaea
: odd bacteria that live in extreme




environments, high salt, heat, etc


Eukarya
: have a nucleus, & organelles

Kingdom Monera

Naming micoorganisms

Binomial (scientific) nomenclature

Gives each microbe 2 names

Genus

-

noun, always capitalized

species

-

adjective, lowercase

Both italicized or underlined

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)

Bacillus subtilis

(B. subtilis)

Escherichia coli

(E. coli)


Evolution:
living things change
gradually over millions of years

Changes favoring survival are retained &
less beneficial changes are lost.

All new species originate from preexisting
species.

Closely related organism have similar
features because they evolved from
common ancestral forms.

Evolution usually progresses toward
greater complexity.