Chapter 1 - Study Windsor

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20 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Microbial World and You

DR SAMUEL AGUAZIM

What is Microbiology?


Micro
-

too small to be seen with the naked
eye


Bio
-

life


ology
-

study of

Organisms included in the study
of Microbiology


1. Bacteria


2. Protozoans


3. Algae


4. Parasites


5. Yeasts and Molds


Fungi


6. Viruses


Bacteriology


Protozoology


Phycology


Parasitology



Mycology


Virology

Microorganisms
-

Microbes
-

Germs

5 Kingdoms of Living Organisms


1. Animalia


2. Plantae


3. Fungi


4. Protista


5. Monera
-

Bacteria and Cyanobacteria




Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic



5 Characteristics of Life


1. Cells


2. Maintain structure by taking up
chemicals and energy from the environment


3. Respond to stimuli in the external
environment


4. Reproduce and pass on their organization
to their offspring


5. Evolve and adapt to the environment

Taxonomic Classification


Kingdom


Phylum


Class


Order


Family


Genus


species



Man


Animalia


Chordata


Mammalia


Primate


Hominidae


Homo


sapien


Taxonomic Classification


Kingdom


Phylum


Class


Order


Family


Genus


species


Cat


Animalia


Chordate


Mammalia


Carnivora


Felidae


Felis


domestica

Binomial System of Taxonomic
Classification


Use only the Genus and species


Homo sapien


Felis domestica


Escherichia coli


Genus and species are either
underlined
or
italicized


Genus is always capitilized


species is never capitilized



Classification System


3 Domains 1978 Carl Woese


1. Bacteria


Unicellular prokaryotes with cell wall containing
peptidoglycan


2. Archaea


Unicellular prokaryotes with no peptodoglycan in
cell wall


3. Eukarya


Protista


Fungi


Plantae


Animalia

Branches of microbiology


1.
Phycology
: deals with the study of autotrophic eukaryotic organisms.
Members are generally called algae.


2.
Mycology
: is the branch of

biology

concerned with the study of

fungi,
including their

genetic

and

biochemical

properties,
their

taxonomy

and

their use to humans as a source
for

tinder,

medicinals

(e.g.,

penicillin), food
(e.g.,

beer,

wine,

cheese,

edible mushrooms) and

entheogens, as well as
their dangers, such as

poisoning

or

infection.


3.
Virology
:
Virology

is the study of

viruses

and virus
-
like agents: their
structure, classification and evolution, their ways to infect and
exploit

cells

for virus reproduction, the diseases they cause, the
techniques to isolate and culture them, and their use in research and
therapy. Virology is often considered a part of

microbiology

or
of

pathology.


Protozoology
: Study of protozoans in all aspects comes under the
perview of protozoology. Protozoans are known to cause many
diseases like malaria, amoebic dysentery, sleeping sickness.etc.


Parasitology

is the study of

parasites, their

hosts, and the relationship
between them. As a

biological discipline, the scope of parasitology is
not determined by the organism or environment in question, but by
their way of life. This means it forms a synthesis of other disciplines,
and draws on techniques from fields such as

cell
biology,

bioinformatics,

biochemistry,

molecular
biology,

immunology,

genetics, evolution

and

ecology.


Bacteriology
: this is the largest group among microbes not only in
numbers but also in importants. Bacteria have a profound influence on
various human endeavours including health, industry, agricultutre. Etc.


Medical microbiology
: The study of the

pathogenic microbes

and the
role of microbes in human illness. Includes the study of
microbial

pathogenesis

and

epidemiology

and is related to the study of
disease

pathology

and

immunology.


Microbial physiology
: The study of how the microbial
cell functions biochemically. Includes the study of
microbial growth, microbial

metabolism

and

microbial cell
structure.


Microbial genetics
: The study of how

genes

are organized
and regulated in microbes in relation to their cellular
functions. Closely related to the field of

molecular biology.


Agriculture microbiology
: in this branc the role of
microbes is studied from the point of view of both harm
and usefulness.


Industrial

microbiology
: The exploitation of microbes for
use in industrial processes. Examples include

industrial
fermentation

and

wastewater treatment. Closely linked to
the

biotechnology

industry. This field also
includes

brewing, an important application of
microbiology.



Food microbiology
: The study of microorganisms causing
food spoilage and foodborne illness. Using
microorganisms to produce foods, for example by
fermentation.


Aeromicrobiology
: The study of airborne
microorganisms.


Immunology
: studied in this branch are the immune
responses in organisms. How toxins are produced? How
the anitgens influence the formation of antibodies? How
protective vaccination helps in combating the diseases.


Soil Microbiology
: The study of those microorganisms
that are found in soil.


Water microbiology
: The study of those microorganisms
that are found in water



Bacteria
-

what comes to mind?


Diseases


Infections


Epidemics


Food Spoilage


Only 1% of all known bacteria cause human
diseases


About 4% of all known bacteria cause plant
diseases


95% of known bacteria are
non
-
pathogens


Microbes Benefit Humans


1.Bacteria are primary decomposers
-

recycle nutrients back into the environment
(sewage treatment plants)


2. Microbes produce various food products


cheese, pickles, sauerkraut, green olives


yogurt, soy sauce, vinegar, bread


Beer, Wine, Alcohol

3. Microbes are used to produce Antibiotics


Penicillin



Mold


Penicillium notatum



1928 Alexander Fleming

4. Bacteria synthesize chemicals that our
body needs, but cannot synthesize


Example:
E. coli


B vitamins
-

for metabolism


Vitamin K
-

blood clotting




Escherichia coli


Dr. Escherich


Colon (intestine)

5. Biochemistry and Metabolism


Very simple structure


rapid rate of reproduction


provides “instant” data

6. Microbial Antagonism


Our normal microbial flora prevents
potential pathogens from gaining access to
our body



7. Insect Pest Control


Using bacteria to control the growth of
insects



Bacillus thuringiensis


caterpillars


bollworms


corn borers

8. Bioremediation


Using microbes to clean up pollutants and
toxic wastes


Exxon Valdez
-

1989



2 Genera


Pseudomonas sp.


Bacillus sp.

9. Recombinant DNA Technology


Gene Therapy


Genetic Engineering


Bacteria can be manipulated to produce
enzymes and proteins they normally would
not produce


Insulin


Human Growth Hormone


Interferon

10. Microbes form the basis of
the food chain


Marine and fresh water microorganisms

Microbes do benefit us, but they
are also capable of causing many
diseases


Pneumonia

Whooping Cough


Botulism


Typhoid Fever


Measles


Cholera



Scarlet Fever


Mumps


Syphilis



Gonorrhea


Herpes 1


Chlamydia


Tuberculosis


Herpes 2


Meningitis


Tetanus



RMSV


Strep Throat


Lyme Disease


AIDS


Black Plague


Diarrhea




Gangrene

History of the Study of
Microorganisms


1665 Robert Hooke


“little boxes”
-

“cells”


Cell Theory
-

all living things are made up of
cells


Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1674


-

1st person to actually see living microorganisms


“wee animalcules”

Spontaneous Generation


Theory that life just “spontaneously”
developed from non
-
living matter



Example:


toads, snakes and mice
-

moist soil


flies and maggots
-

manure and decaying flesh

Experiments to disprove
Spontaneous Generation


Francesco Redi 1668


Lazaro Spallanzani 1729
-
1799


Rudolph Virchow 1858


Theory of Biogenesis


Cells can only arise from preexisting cells



Louis Pasteur 1861



Pasteur designed special “swan
-
necked flasks”
with a boiled meat infusion

Shape of flask allowed air in (vital force) but trapped
dust particles which may contain microbes

Germ Theory of Disease


Hard for people to believe that diseases
were caused by tiny invisible “wee
animalcules”


Diseases, they thought, were caused by:


demons


witchcraft


bad luck


the wrath of God


curses


evil spirits

Robert Koch

-

1st to prove that
bacteria actually caused diseases


1876


Microbial Etiology of Infectious Disease


etiology
-

the cause of a disease


Established “scientific rules” to show a
cause and effect relationship between a
microbe and a disease


Koch’s Postulates

Koch’s Postulates


1. The same organisms must be found in all
cases of a given disease.


2. The organism must be isolated and grown
in pure culture.


3. The isolated organism must reproduce
the same disease when inoculated into a
healthy susceptible animal.


4. The original organism must again be
isolated from the experimentally infected
animal.


Exceptions to Koch’s Postulates

1. Some organisms have never been grown in
pure culture on artificial media

Treponema pallidum
-

Syphilis

Mycobacterium leprae


Leprosy

Never been grown in pure culture on artificial media

Abdominal cavity of the Seven Banded Armadillo

Exceptions to Koch’s Postulates

Exceptions to Koch’s Postulates


In exclusively human diseases, it is not
morally acceptable to inoculate a deadly
pathogen into a “human guinea pig”



HIV

Koch established the Microbial
Etiology of 3 important diseases
of his day


1. Cholera (fecal
-
oral disease)


Vibrio cholerae


2. Tuberculosis (pulmonary infection)


Mycobacterium tuberculosis


3. Anthrax (sheep and cattle)


Bacillus anthracis

Anthrax


Bacillus anthracis


Gram (+), non
-
motile, aerobic, spore forming rod


Streptobacilli with central spores


Livestock


Sheep, cattle, goats


Humans


Handle hides, wool, goat hair, handicrafts from the Middle
East made from animal products

3 Forms of Human Anthrax


1. Cutaneous Anthrax


Enters thru cut or
abrasion


Results in painless
ulcer (1
-
3 cm) with
black (necrotic) center


About 20% mortality
rate in untreated cases


2. Gastrointestinal Anthrax


Contaminated meat


Abdominal pain, fever,
vomiting blood, severe
diarrhea


25% to 60% mortality rate


3. Inhalation Anthrax


Initial symptoms
resemble common cold


Progress to severe
breathing problems and
shock


Usually results in death
1
-
2 days after onset of
acute symptoms


Mortality rate 99% in
untreated cases


Treatment usually not
effective after
symptoms are present

Anthrax as a Biological Weapon


Deadly if not treated early


Spores can be produced in large quantities using basic
knowledge of biology


Spores may remain viable for years (60 at least)


Spores can be spread


Missiles, rockets, bombs, mail, crop dusters ?


No cloud or color


No smell


No taste


Antibiotics


only effective if administered early (within
24

48 hours)

Koch
-

1st to use Agar to solidify
culture media

Golden Age of Microbiology

1857
-

1914


Pasteur


Pasteurization


Fermentation


Joseph Lister


Phenol to treat surgical wounds


1
st

attempt to control infections
caused by microoganisms


Robert Koch


Koch’s Postulates


Edward Jenner


Vaccination against small pox


Paul Erlich
1854
-
1915


1
st

synthetic drug used to treat infections


Salvarsan
-

arsenic based chemical to treat Syphilis


“salvation” from Syphilis


Develop the principle of chemotherapy to cure dz.


Elie metchnikoff
: discover the
phenomoenon of phagocytosis


Hans christian gram
” develop differential
staining of bacteria using gentian violet dye


N.winogradsky
: discovered N2 fixing
bacteria in the soil.


Willian welch
: discovered the relation of
anaerobic bacteria to gangrene


Walter reed
: discovered the transmission
of yellow fever by mosquito


Howard T.ricketts
: discovered rickettisiae


Theobald smith
: discovered that texas fever is
transmitted by ticks


Ronald ross
: discovered the sexual cycle of
malarial parasite in mosquito.


Jules bordet
: isolated the whooping cough
bacillus


David bruce
: discovered that sleeping sicknesss
dz causing microbe is transmitted by tse tse fly.


George gaffky
: isolated typhoid bacillus


Shiba saburo kitasato
: isolated tetanus bacillus


Emil von behring
: development of anti diptheria
toxin

Naming of Bacteria


Genus and species
-

Binomial System of
Taxonomic Classification



Information usually given:


1. Describes an organism


2. Identifies a habitat


3. Honors a scientist or researcher



Bacterial Morphology


Bacilli



Cocci



Spiral


Arrangements


Staphylo


Strepto


Diplo


Sarcinae


Tetrad



Vibrio



comma shaped


bacter




bacilli


bacterium



bacilli




Staphylococcus aureus


Staphylococcus
epidermidis


Streptococcus
pneumoniae


Vibrio cholerae


Rhodospirillium
rubrum


Bacillus subtilis


Micrococcus luteus



Escherichia coli


Bacillus anthrasis


Salmonella enteridis


Streptococcus
pyogenes


Steptococcus lactis


Streptococcus faecalis


Erlichia canis


Campylobacter jujuni


Helicobacter pylori


Enterobacter
aerogenes


THANK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!