Sumy State University, Ukraine

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9 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION IN NIGERIA AND MANAGEMENT PROSPECTS



Uzoigwe Kingsley Chukwuemeka, Kostyuchenko Nadiya

Sumy State University, Ukraine


Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air,
water
and soil; the destruction of ecosystems and the extinction of wildlife.

The environment surrounds and affects man, while man also affects the environment. In view of the fact that man
affects the environment, the responsibility of taking purposeful c
ollective action that may harmonise human existence with
the rest of the environment falls on man.

Nigeria, a rapidly urbanizing and industrializing society, is currently faced with many environmental problems. As a
result of rapid urbanization and indust
rialization, there is an increased demand for goods, land services, thereby leading to
irretrievable changes in physical landscape. The two most important of the numerous problems resulting from the
urbanization of water basins, are floods and pollution. C
onstruction of roads, houses and industrial buildings causes
environmental problems.

That’s why a comprehensive environmental planning/management strategy is extremely needed.

There are three major threats to effectively managing Nigeria’s environment:

1)

The

unsustainable use of renewable natural resources.

The lack of inadequacy in management of natural resources by the government, having been making huge money from all
those natural resources, but has failed to maintain the environments where those natural

resources in been located.

2)

Unplanned urban development.

The failure of the government to enforce at the initial stage the full master plan of the urban development programme, has
resulted to a massive demolition of properties and this demolition has cause
d many environmental hazards to the citizenry.

3)

Petroleum industry operations.

The petroleum industry has also contributed to the environmental problems faced by Nigerians. The inability of oil
refineries to implements the environmental policies approved by

the government of Nigeria has made the environment,
where those oil refineries is situated, infertile.

To plan for effective activities and to manage the environment in a more sustainable manner, the Government of
Federal Republic of Nigeria (GFRN) needs
to address and mitigate these threats and the underlying causes of
environmental degradation: increasing poverty, population growth and migration, and political and institutional
constraints. To help improve environmental management and governance priority

actions are to be made in the areas of:

1)

Legal and policy reform.

Although the federal framework needs work in some areas, it is the states, due to the highly varied nature of the most
pressing environmental threats they face, that need to be empowered to
develop and enforce legislation promoting
sustainable use of environmental resources. Sectoral policies are highly centralized and also suffer from lack of
coordination. There‘s needs to be an integrated, multisectoral approach to policy development and im
plementation at both
the national and state levels.

2)

Economic incentives.

In Nigeria, the lack of effective resource valuation has strong negative impacts on the management of renewable natural
resources and on the sustainable use of water and soils that ef
fect overall quality and production potential. More complete
knowledge of markets, better access to markets and use options for resources and their associated risks are unknown, or
incomplete. There is considerable room for improvement in just about every
economic activity that depends on clean and
abundant sources of water, fertile soil, protection of infrastructure and populations from erosion, construction material
from trees, food from plants and animals, etc.