Chapter 8 Strategic Management

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9 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Chapter 8 S
trategic Management


ANNOTATED OUTLINE



1.

INTRODUCTION


Effective managers recognize the role that strategic management plays in their
organization’s performance. Throughout this chapter, students discover that good
strategies can lead to hig
h organizational performance.

2.

THE IMPORTANCE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT


Managers must carefully consider their organization’s internal and external
environments as they develop strategic plans. They should have a systematic means
of analyzing the environm
ent, assessing their organization’s strengths and weaknesses,
identifying opportunities that would give the organization a competitive advantage,
and incorporating these findings into their planning. The value of
thinking
strategically

has an important imp
act on organization performance.

A.

What Is Strategic Management?

1.

Strategic management

is what managers do to develop the
organization’s strategies.

2.

Strategic management involves all four of the basic management
functions

planning, organizing, leadi
ng, and controlling.

B.

Why Is Strategic Management Important?

1.

Strategic management has a significant impact on how well an
organization performs.

2.

In today’s business world, organizations of all types and sizes must
manage constantly changing situati
ons.

3.

Today’s companies are composed of diverse divisions, units,
functions, and work activities that must be coordinated.

4.

Strategic management is involved in many of the decisions that
managers make.

3.

THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS


The
strategi
c management process

is a six
-
step process that encompasses strategic
planning, implementation, and evaluation. (See
Exhibit 8
-
1

and

PowerPoint slide
8
-
8
.)

A.

Step 1: Identifying the Organization’s Current Mission, Objectives, and
Strategies

1.

Every organiz
ation needs a
mission,

which is a statement of the
purpose of an organization. The mission statement addresses the
question: What is the organization’s reason for being in business?
(See
Exhibit 8
-
2

and

PowerPoint slide 8
-
10
.)

2.

The organization must ide
ntify its current objectives and strategies,
as well.

B.

Step 2:

External Analysis

1.

Managers in every organization need to conduct an external analysis.
Influential factors such as competition, pending legislation, and labor
supply are included in the e
xternal environment.

2.

After analyzing the external environment, managers must assess what
they have learned in terms of opportunities and threats.
Opportunities

are positive trends in external environmental factors;
threats

are negative trends in enviro
nmental factors.

3.

Because of different resources and capabilities, the same external
environment can present opportunities to one organization and pose
threats to another.

C.

Step 3:

Internal Analysis

1.

Internal analysis should lead to a clear assessme
nt of the
organization’s resources and capabilities.

2.

Any activities the organization does well or any unique resources that
it has are called
strengths
.

3.

Weaknesses

are activities the organization does not do well or
resources it needs but does not po
ssess.

4.
The organization’s major value
-
creating skills and capabilities that
determine its competitive weapons are the organization’s
core
competencies
.

5.
Organizational culture is important in internal analysis; the company’s
culture can promote

or hinder its strategic actions.

6.
SWOT analysis

is an analysis of the organization’s strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

D.

Step 4: Formulating Strategies

1.

After the SWOT, managers develop and evaluate strategic
alternatives and sel
ect strategies that are appropriate.

2.

Strategies need to be established for corporate, business, and
functional levels.

E.

Step 5: Implementing Strategies

1.


A strategy is only as good as its implementation.

F.

Step 6:

Evaluating Results

1.


How effectiv
e have the strategies been? Are adjustments
necessary?

4.

TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIES


Strategic planning takes place on three different and distinct levels: corporate,
business, and functional. (See
Exhibit 8
-
4

and

PowerPoint slide 8
-
16
).

A.

Corp
orate Strategy


C
orporate strategy

is an organizational strategy that determines what
businesses a company is in, should be in, or wants to be in, and what it wants
to do with those businesses.

1.

There are three main types of corporate strategies:

a.

A
growth
strategy

is a corporate strategy that is used
when an organization wants to grow and does so by
expanding the number of products offered or markets served,
either through its current business(es) or through new
business(es).

b.

A
stability strategy

is a co
rporate strategy characterized by
an absence of significant change in what the organization is
currently doing.

c.

A
renewal strategy

is a corporate strategy designed to
address organizational weaknesses that are leading to
performance declines. Two such stra
tegies are retrenchment
strategy and turnaround strategy.

2.

Corporate Portfolio Analysis

is used when an organization’s
corporate strategy involves a number of businesses. Managers can
manage this portfolio of businesses using a corporate portfolio
matrix, s
uch as the BCG matrix.

a.

The

BCG matrix

is a strategy tool that guides resource
allocation decisions on the basis of market share and growth
rate of SBUs. (See
Exhibit 8
-
5

and
PowerPoint slide
8
-
23
.)

B.

Business (Competitive) Strategy

A
business strategy

(als
o known as a competitive strategy) is an
organizational strategy focused on how the organization will compete in each
of its businesses.

1.

The Role of Competitive Advantage. A
competitive

advantage

is
what sets an organization apart, that is, its distinctiv
e edge. An
organization’s competitive advantage can come from its core
competencies.

2.

Quality as a Competitive Advantage. If implemented properly,
quality can be one way for an organization to create a sustainable
competitive advantage.

3.


Sustaining Comp
etitive Advantage. An organization must be able to
sustain its competitive advantage; it must keep its edge despite
competitors’ action and regardless of major changes in the
organization’s industry.

4.

Michael Porter’s work explains how managers can crea
te and sustain
a competitive advantage that will give a company above
-
average
profitability.

a.

Industry analysis is an important step in Porter’s framework.
He says there are five competitive forces at work in an
industry; together, these five forces dete
rmine industry
attractiveness and profitability. (See
Exhibit 8
-
6

and
PowerPoint slide 8
-
29
). Porter proposes that the following
five factors can be used to assess an industry’s attractiveness:

1)

Threat of new entrants.

How likely is it that new
competi
tors will come into the industry? Managers
should assess barriers to entry, which are factors that
determine how easy or difficult it would be for new
competitors to enter the industry.

2)

Threat of substitutes
.

How likely is it that products of
other indu
stries could be substituted for a company’s
products?

3)

Bargaining power of buyers
.

How much bargaining
power do buyers (customers) have?

4)

Bargaining power of suppliers
.

How much
bargaining power do a company’s suppliers have?

5)

Current rivalry
.

How

intense is the competition
among firms that are currently in the industry?

5.

According to Porter, managers must choose a strategy that will give
their organization a competitive advantage. Porter identifies three
generic competitive strategies. Which st
rategy managers select
depends on the organization’s strengths and core competencies and
the particular weaknesses of its competitor(s).

a.

A
cost leadership strategy

is a business or competitive
strategy in which the organization competes on the basis of
having the
lowest costs

in its industry.

b.

A
differentiation strategy

is a business or competitive
strategy in which a company offers
unique products

that are
widely valued by customers.

c.

A
focus strategy

is a business or competitive strategy in
which a

company pursues a cost or differentiation advantage
in a
narrow industry segment
.

6.

An organization that has been not been able to develop either a low
cost or a differentiation competitive advantage is said to be “
stuck in
the middle
.”

7.

Subsequent re
search indicates that it is possible, though very difficult,
for organizations that are stuck in the middle to achieve high
performance.

C.

Functional Strategy


Funct
ional strategy

is the strategies used by an organization’s various
functional departments
to support the business or competitive strategy.

5.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT IN TODAY’S ENVIRONMENT

A.

The Rule of Three. Competitive forces in an industry, if kept relatively free
from government interference or other special circumstances, will inevitably
create a situation where three companies dominate any given market.

B.

New Directions in Organizational Strategies

1.

E
-
Business Strategies. Using the Internet, companies have created
knowledge bases that employees can tap into anytime, anywhere.
E
-
busin
ess as a strategy can be used to develop a sustainable
competitive advantage; it can also be used to establish a basis for
differentiation or focus.



2.

Customer Service Strategies. These strategies give customers what
they want, communicate effectively
with them, and provide
employees with customer service training.



3.

Innovation Strategies. These strategies focus on breakthrough
products and can include the application of existing technology to
new uses. An organization that is first to bring a pro
duct innovation
to the market or to use a new process innovation is called a
first
mover.