Power Systems for Smart Grids

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16 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

53 εμφανίσεις

Thesis co
-
directors

M.
Paolone
, F.
Rachidi

Distributed Electrical System Laboratory


DESL

http
://desl
-
pwrs.epfl.ch



Reza
Razzaghi

Real
-
Time Simulation of

Power
Systems for Smart Grids
Protection and Control

Outline

o
Introduction


Motivation


State
-
of
-
the
-
art

o
FPGA
-
based
real
-
time simulator for power
systems


Optimal selection of switch parameter


FPGA
-
based real
-
time simulator

o
Fault
location in transmission lines using
EMTR


Time reversal process


Experimental validation


Simulation case studies


1

Outline

o
Introduction


Motivation


State
-
of
-
the
-
art

o
FPGA
-
based
real
-
time simulator for power
systems


Optimal selection of switch parameter


FPGA
-
based real
-
time simulator

o
Fault
location in transmission lines using
EMTR


Time reversal process


Experimental validation


Simulation case studies


2

Smart Grids


Progressive

installation

of distributed energy resources (DERs)


Evolution
of distribution networks

passive


active


Planning


Operation


Control

Challenges


Distribution
network
protection and fault location


Optimal
voltage and power flow
controls



Introduction

Motivation

3

Real
-
time
monitoring and
control
functionalities

Introduction

State
-
of
-
the
-
Art

5

Existing

real
-
time

simulators

are

based

on

various

types

of

processors
:


General

purpose

processors

(GPPS
)


Digital

signal

processors

(DSPs)



Computer

clusters


However,

existing

real
-
time

simulators

have

limitations

such

as
:


L
ower
-
bound

limitation

of

the

minimum

simulation

time
-
step


Limitation

in

simulation

of

high

frequency

phenomena

(power

converters,

short

transmission

lines)


Inherent

complexity

of

the

hardware

architecture

characterized

by

several

layers

each

one

devoted

to

a

specific

function

(i
.
e
.

A/D

and

D/A

conversions,

CPU

computation,

data

transfer

and

storage,

etc
.
)
.




FPGA
-
based

real
-
time simulators

Introduction

State
-
of
-
the
-
Art

6


Introduction

State
-
of
-
the
-
Art

7

FPGA
-
based real
-
time simulator



FPGA
-
based real
-
time simulator for
electromagnetic transients study of power
electronics [5]


FPGA
-
based real
-
time simulator for
electromagnetic transients study
of AC
machines [17
]



FPGA
-
based real
-
time
simulator for
electromagnetic transients
studies of power
systems including transmission lines [7]




Classical nodal analysis

Lumped elements

Classical nodal analysis

Not
-
fixed admittance matrix

Fixed Admittance Matrix

Nodal
Method (FAMNM)

Transmission lines model

Outline

o
Introduction


Motivation


State
-
of
-
the
-
art

o
FPGA
-
based
real
-
time simulator for power
systems


Optimal selection of switch parameter


FPGA
-
based real
-
time simulator

o
Fault
location in transmission lines using
EMTR


Time reversal process


Experimental validation


Simulation case studies


8

9

1
-

Network
solution
method


M
odified nodal analysis (MNA)


State
-
space method


2
-

Numerical integration method


Trapezoidal method


Euler methods


3
-

Network components model


Lumped elements (R,L,C,…)


Transmission lines









n n n
A x b

k k
x A x B u
 
FPGA
-
based real
-
time simulator for power
systems

FPGA
-
based real
-
time simulator for power
systems

10

Methodology

Modified nodal analysis (MNA)



















11 12 1
1 1
21 22 2
2 2
1 2
...
...
............
......
...
n
n
n n nn
n n
A x b
a a a
x t b t l t
a a a
x t b t l t
a a a
x t b t l t
 
 
   
 
   
 
 
   
 

   
 
   
 
 
 
   






,
1
1
[0]
i
ii
k n
k n
i
k n
v i j
h n
n
h n
h n
n n
n
x
a
b
T x









 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 






1
1
1
,
1
1
1
1
[0]
i
ii
k
k n
i
k
j v i
h
n
h n
h
n n
n
x
a
b
x T










 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 






1 ( ) ( ) 1
i i
n n n h n h
x H b
    
 
FPGA
-
based real
-
time simulator for power
systems

11

Methodology

Fixed Admittance Matrix Nodal Method (FAMNM)




V
s
i
s
V
s
n
+
1
i
s
n
+
1
j
s
n
+
1
a
b
Gs
1
for the 'on' state
for the 'off' state
n
s
n
s
n
s s
i
J
G v








system nodal
matrix remains

unchanged during switching transitions

Pejovic
, P.;
Maksimovic
, D, “A Method for Fast Time
-
Domain Simulation of Networks with Switches,”
IEEE Trans. Power Electron.

1994, 9, 449

456.

FPGA
-
based real
-
time simulator for power
systems

12

Optimal selection of discrete
-
time switch model

FPGA
-
based real
-
time simulator for power
systems

13

Optimal selection of discrete
-
time switch model





,1,2,...,
p p
i s n
G eig A i n

 
 
 


,1,2,...,
c c
i n
eig A i n

 
 
 


,1,2,...,
o o
i n
eig A i n

 
 
 










2 2
Re Re Im Im
c p c p c
i s i s i i s i
G G G
    
       
   
       










2 2
Re Re Im Im
o p o p o
i s i s i i s i
G G G
    
       
   
       






i
o c
s i s i s
G G G
  
 








1
max
n
i s
s
i
i s
G
G
G



 
 
 
 
 

Objective function





2
*
0
,
m
I
s s k
k
k
T
E G i G i m
t

 
  
 






2
*
0
,
m
V
s s k
k
k
T
E G v G v m
t

 
  
 
















max max
I V
s s
s
I V
s s
E G E G
G
E G E G
 
 
  
 
 
 








0
,
m
O o o
s s s
k k
k
T
P G v G i G m
t

  










0
,
m
C c c
s s s
k k
k
T
P G v G i G m
t

  
















max max
O C
s s
s
O C
s s
P G P G
P G
P G P G
 
 
 
 
 
 
Error function

Losses function

FPGA
-
based real
-
time simulator for power
systems

14

Optimal selection of discrete
-
time switch model

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Gs


Objective function
Error function
Losses function
FPGA
-
based real
-
time simulator for power
systems

15

Optimal selection of discrete
-
time switch model

AC
L
1
=
10
mH
R
1
=
1

R
2
=
0
.
5

C
1
=
10
uF
R
3
=
1

R
4
=
5

SW
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Gs


Objective function
Error function
Losses function
FPGA
-
based real
-
time simulator for power
systems

16

System configuration

FPGA
-
based real
-
time simulator for power
systems

17

Proposed algorithm for FPGA
-
based real
-
time simulator

FPGA
-
based real
-
time simulator for power
systems

18

Application example

a
R
t
1
=
20
k


L
1
S
1
Va
S
2
S
3
b
c
Vb
Vc
R
t
2
=
20
k


R
t
3
=
20
k


Line Parameter

Phase a

Phase b

Phase

c

DC resistance

0.018 Ω/km

0.018 Ω/km

0
.
018


/km

Outside diameter

5.626 cm

5.626 cm

5.626 cm

Horizontal distance

-
7.4 m

0 m

7.4 m

Vertical height at tower

28.5 m

29.5 m

28.5 m

Vertical height at
midspan

28.5 m

29.5 m

28.5 m

0.033
0.034
0.035
0.036
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
time [s]
Va [pu]


FPGA-based real-time simulator
EMTP-RV
0.033
0.034
0.035
0.036
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
time [s]
Vb [pu]


FPGA-based real-time simulator
EMTP-RV
0.033
0.034
0.035
0.036
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
time [s]
Vc [pu]


FPGA-based real-time simulator
EMTP-RV
Simulation time step: 4
m
s

FPGA
-
based real
-
time simulator for power
systems

19

Application of the FPGA
-
based real
-
time simulator joined
with the EMTR

0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
time [s]
Va [pu]
Transients voltage signal recorded in OP1 [pu]
Fault Location

Outline

o
Introduction


Motivation


State
-
of
-
the
-
art

o
FPGA
-
based
real
-
time simulator for power
systems


Optimal selection of switch parameter


FPGA
-
based real
-
time simulator

o
Fault
location in transmission lines using
EMTR


Time reversal process


Experimental validation


Simulation case studies


20

FPGA
-
based real
-
time simulator for power
systems

21

Fault location in power systems transmission lines



Transmission system:
Power system security



Distribution system:
Power system quality

Fault location methods:

i
)
Analysis
of pre
-

and post
-
fault voltage/current phasors

ii
)
Analysis
of fault
-
originated
electromagnetic transients
of
currents and/or voltages

Active distribution networks:

Electromagnetic Time Reversal

Fault location in transmission lines using
EMTR

22

The time
-
reversal focusing procedure:



a
.

Transient

waveforms

generated

by

a

source

propagate

through

the

medium

and

are

recorded

by

sensors
.


b
.

T
he

recorded

signals

are

reversed

in

time

and

re
-
emitted

back

to

the

medium
.

In

view

of

the

reversibility

in

time

of

the

wave

equation,

travelling

waves

are

refocused

into

the

source

point


N.
Mora, F.
Rachidi
, M. Rubinstein, "Application of the Time Reversal of Electromagnetic Fields to Locate Lightning Discharges",
Journal of
Atmospheric Research
, Vol. 117, pp. 78
-
85, 2012.

Fault location in transmission lines using
EMTR

23

The time
-
reversal focusing procedure
:

Fault location in transmission lines using
EMTR

24

Electromagnetic
time reversal
(EMTR) in
transmission
lines



2 2
''
2 2
(,) (,)
0
u x t u x t
LC
x t
 
 
 
t t

2 2
''
2 2
(,) (,)
0
u x t u x t
LC
x t
   
 
 
Wave equation is time invariant





,,0,
s x t t T





,,
s x t s x T t

Fault location in transmission lines using
EMTR

25

Fault location algorithm

based on EMTR

Fault location in transmission lines using
EMTR

26

Application example HV transmission lines
(
simulation)



a
R
t
1
=
100
k


R
f
L
1
L
2
X
f
S
1
X
0
Guessed Fault Locations
OP
1
R
t
1
=
100
k


8
.
3
km
S
2
S
3
b
c
OP
2
OP
3
R
t
2
=
100
k


R
t
3
=
100
k


R
t
2
=
100
k


R
t
3
=
100
k


Line Parameter

Phase a

Phase b

Phase

c

DC resistance

0.018 Ω/km

0.018 Ω/km

0
.
018


/km

Outside diameter

5.626 cm

5.626 cm

5.626 cm

Horizontal distance

-
7.4 m

0 m

7.4 m

Vertical height at tower

28.5 m

29.5 m

28.5 m

Vertical height at
midspan

28.5 m

29.5 m

28.5 m

0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
time [s]
Vb[pu]
Transients voltage signal recorded in OP2 [pu]
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
time [s]
Vc [pu]
Transients voltage signal recorded in OP3[pu]
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
time [s]
Va [pu]
Transients voltage signal recorded in OP1 [pu]
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
-1
-.8
-.6
time [s]
Va [pu]
Time-reversed transients voltage signal injected from OP1 [pu]
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
time [s]
Vb [pu]
Time reversed transients voltage signal injected from OP2 [pu]
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
time [s]
Vc [pu]
Time reversed transients voltage signal injected from OP3[pu]
0
2
4
6
8
10
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Guessed fault location [km]
Normalized fault current energy
Fault location in transmission lines using
EMTR

27

Application example (reduced
-
scale experimental setup)

10
20
30
40
50
60
66
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Guessed fault location [m]
Fault current energy [p.u]
Real fault location
Xf = 26m
Fault location in transmission lines using
EMTR

28

A.
Inhomogeneous
network composed of
mixed
overhead
-
coaxial cable
lines.

a
R
t
1
=
100
k


R
f
L
1
L
2
X
f
S
1
9
km
OP
1
R
t
1
=
100
k


S
2
S
3
b
c
OP
2
OP
3
R
t
2
=
100
k


R
t
3
=
100
k


R
t
2
=
100
k


R
t
3
=
100
k


L
3
0
Overhead Line
Cable
,
2
km
3ph
fault
,
Xf
= 7km,
Rf
= 0


3ph fault,
Xf
=5 km,
Rf
=
100


0
2
4
6
8
10
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Fault Location [km]
Fault Current Energy [Normalized]


1 Ohm
10 Ohms
100 Ohms
0
2
4
6
8
10
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Fault Location [km]
Fault Current Energy [Normalized]


1 Ohm
10 Ohms
100 Ohms
Fault location in transmission lines using
EMTR

29

B. Radial
distribution
network: IEEE 34
-
bus test distribution feeder

3ph,
Xf
= 808,
Rf
=0


3ph,
Xf
=
812,
Rf
=100


Fault location in transmission lines using
EMTR

30

B. Radial
distribution
network: IEEE 34
-
bus test distribution feeder

1ph
,
Xf
=
810,
Rf
=0


1ph
,
Xf
=
806,
Rf
=100


800
802
804
806
808
810
812
814
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Bus Number
Fault Current Energy [Normalized]


1 Ohm
10 Ohms
100 Ohms
800
802
804
806
808
810
812
814
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Bus Number
Fault Current Energy [Normalized]


1 Ohm
10 Ohms
100 Ohms
Fault location in transmission lines using
EMTR

31

C. Series
-
compensated transmission line

a
R
t
1
=
100
k


100
km
100
km
X
0
Guessed Fault Locations
OP
1
R
t
1
=
100
k


200
km
b
c
OP
2
OP
3
R
t
2
=
100
k


R
t
3
=
100
k


R
t
2
=
100
k


R
t
3
=
100
k


Capacitor Bank
0
20
40
60
70
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Guessed Fault Location [km]
Fault Current Enegry [Normalized]


1 Ohm
10 Ohms
0
20
30
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Guessed Fault Location [km]
Fault Current Energy [Normalized]


1 Ohm
10 Ohms
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Guessed Fault Location [km]
Fault Current Energy [Normalized]


1 Ohm
10 Ohms
Three
-
phase
-
to
-
ground fault

Double
-
phase
-
to
-
ground fault

Single
-
phase
-
to
-
ground fault




Thanks for your attention

Questions?