# Performance Benchmark P.12.B.2

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16 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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Performance Benchmark P.12.B.2

Students know magnetic forces and electric forces can be thought of as different aspects of
electromagnetic force. I/S

Electromagnetic force is one of the four fundamental forces of the universe. It is a force that
involve
s the interactions between electrically charged particles that occur due to their charge and
for the emission and absorption of photons. An electromagnetic force generates
an
electromagnetic field, which exerts on electrically charged particles.
Electricit
y and magnetism
are two aspects of a single electromagnetic force.

O
n the macro
scopic
scale
,
both electric and
magnetic forces behave differently, even though they
are identical at the subatomic scale, where
moving charges create both electrical and magnet
ic fields
.

Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell was able to
deduce
that electric
ity

and magneti
sm
are
mut
u
al
manifestations of
the same
force involving the exchange of

photons
.
By means of his
mathematical equations, he was able to integrate light and
wave phenomena into
electromagnetism; illustrating how electric and magnetic fields travel together through space as
waves of electromagnetism with changing fields reciprocally sustaining one another.

http://www.clerkmaxwellfoundation.org/

Excluding gravity, e
lectromagnetic forces are responsible for

nearly
all the phenomena
encountered in daily life. It is a force that acts on electrically charged particl
es
,

such as protons
and electrons.
Electrically charged particles are influenced by and create electromagnetic fields.
Consequently, electric and magnetic forces may be acknowledged in regions called electric and
magnetic fields. The interaction between a
moving charge and the electromagnetic field is the
primary source of the electromagnetic force.
Thus electricity and magnetism are ultimately
inextricably linked. However, in many cases, one aspect may dominate, and the separation is
meaningful.

To learn
more about the physics of electromagnetic forces and fields, go to

http://www.chemistrydaily.com/chemistry/Electromagnetism

Electric Force

The heart of the electric force lies with

charge
, which like mass, is
an intrinsic property of
matter.
However, unlike mass, there are two kinds of charges, commonly referred to as positive
and negative.
In the 1900s, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr proposed a simple model of the
atom illustrati
ng that
ordinary matter is made up of atoms, which have positively charged nuclei
and negatively charged electrons surrounding them
.

An electron has a fundamental negative charge and a proton has a fundamental positive charge.
The unit of electric charge
is the
C
oulomb, which
is

6.2
4 x
10
18

natural units of electric charge

(i.e.,
6.2
4 x
10
18

times greater than the charge on an electron or proton)
.
Therefore, c
harges on an
electron are negative and very small (
-
1.6

x
10
-
19

Coulombs) and c
harges on a proton
are positive

and very small (
+1.6

x
10
-
19

Coulombs)
. A positive charge can join with a negative charge and
result in a net charge of zero. Most importantly, charge is always conserved

in a system. In o
ther
words, charge cannot be created or destroyed, and
the net charge in an isolated system will not
change
.

Figure 1
. Charge Interactions (from
http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/estatics/u8l1c.html
)

T
he
ancient Greeks discovered that
by rubbing amber together, it attracted small, light objects.
Greek philosopher, Thales of Miletus, believed that amber had a soul as well as another Greek
philosopher three centuries later, Theoprastus. Though little prog
ress in the study of electricity
occurred within the 2,000 year period after Theoprastus; however, an English physician, William
Gillbert published
in which declared many other substances

other than amber
could be charged
by rubbing as well.
He coined thes
e substances with a
Latin name
electrica
, which is derived
from the Greek word

elek
tron
, which means “amber”.

In 1646, English writer and physician Sir
Thomas Browne, first used the word
electricity
.

A common day example of electric charge
be
ing

transferre
d between two objects
would be by rubbing them together plastic and fur. This would
result

in electrons from the fur being rubbed off onto the plastic and leaving the fur positively
charged, meanwhile the plastic negatively charged.

Figure 2
.

Electric Charge (from
http://www.physics.sjsu.edu/becker/physics51/elec_charge.htm
)

The fundamental rule at the base of all electrical phenomena is that “
l
ike charges repel an
d
unlike charges attract.”

Figure 3
. Charge Interactions (from
http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/estatics/u8l1c.html
)

The law that describes
how strongly charges push and pull each other is called Coulomb’s
L
aw.
The equation consists of two charges
Q
1

and
Q
2

separated by a distance
r

with the magnitude of
the force proportional to the charges, and, as with gravitation, inversely proportional to

the
square of the distance between them. Between any two charged particles, electric force is
infinitely greater than the gravitational force. Most observable forces such as those exerted by a
coiled spring or friction may be directed to electric forces a
cting between atoms and molecules.
The electric force, in particular, is responsible for most of the physical and chemical properties
of atoms and molecules.

Fig
ure 4
.

Illustration of Coulomb’s Law (from
)

http://hyperphysics.phy
-
astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/elefor.htm
l

Electric Field

F
ield
s of electric forces

are

a
common
way to depict the effects that
c
harges have on one another.
Instead of looking at the force between two charges, we look at how a charge creates a f
orce
"field" in the empty space around it.
For ex
ample, an electric field will surround an isolated
positive change and a

negative charge
placed anywhere in this force field is
attracted toward the
positive
charge. Similarly,

a positive charge placed in identical location
will be repelled
.
Furthermore, t
he motion of an individual charge may be affected by its interaction with the
electric field and, for a moving charge, the magnetic field. Hence, a moving electric charge will
produce a magnetic field and a charge moving in a magnetic field will experience

an electric
force.

Figure 5
.

Electric Field: Positive and Negative Fields
(from
http://www2.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/estatics/u8l4c.html
)

Th
e strength of an electric field E at any point is defined as the electric force F exerted per unit
positive electric charge q at that point, or E = F/q. An electric field collectively has direction and
magnitude and can be characterized by lines of forces,

or field lines, that start on positive charges
and expire on negative charges. The electric field is stronger where the field lines are close
together than where they are farther apart. The value of the electric field has dimensions of force
per unit char
ge and is measured in units of Newton
’s per C
oulomb

(N/C)
.

wavpart3.html

-

+

Figure 6
.
Electric Field: Field lines near equal but opposite charges (from
htt
nced%20Physics/Fields/Electrical%20Fields/page_4802.html
)

Magnetism and Electromagnetism

Magnetism is another aspect of an electromagnetic force.
R
ecall that an

electric field
acting

on a
charge occurs from the presence of other charges and from a varying magnetic field. Reversely,
the magnetic fi
eld acting on a moving charge arises from the motion of other charges and from
an alternating electric field. Though they may be interrelated
,
they behave quite differently.

Magnetic Force

A magnetic force is an attraction or repulsion that occurs betwee
n electrically charged particles
that are in motion. Whilst only electric forces exist among stationary electric charges, both
electric and magnetic forces reside among moving electric charges. The magnetic force between
two moving charges is the force exe
rted on one charge by a magnetic field created by the other.
This force is zero if the second charge is traveling in the direction of the magnetic field due to
the first and is greatest if it travels at right angles to the magnetic field. Magnetic force is

responsible for the action of electric motors and the attraction between magnets and iron.

Figure
8
.

Magnetic f
orce
acting on a charged
particle that is moving perpendicular to a magnetic
field.

(from
http://www.windows.uc
ar.edu/physical_science/mag
netism/images/force_charge_vel_mag_field_vectors.
jpg
)

Figure 7
.

Magnetic Force: force between small
permanent bar magnets (from
http://www.swe.org/iac/images/Ne
wMagnet.jpg
)

The magnetic

field is the resultant of moving electrically charged particles or intrinsic within
magnetic objects such as a magn
et.
In a magnet, the atomic structure is such that the magnetic
fields around individual atoms (due to moving electrons) are aligned together to create an overall

magnet is an object that demonstrates a s
trong
magnetic field and will a
ttract materials like iron
. Magnets are dipoles, having two poles called
the north seeking pole (N) and south seeking pole

(S)
. Two magnets will be attracted by their
opposite poles, and each will repel the like

pole of the o
ther magnet. The north and s
outh
magnetic poles of a magnetic object are related to the
Earth's north and s
outh magnetic poles.
The magnetic flux is defined as moving from North to South. Magnetism has countless uses in
modern life

such as:
a can opener,
a

compass,
refrigerator magnets, motors,
compu
ter diskettes, speakers, VCR/VHS

tape, refrigerator, clothes dryer, etc.

Figure 9
.
Magnetic Flux

(from
http://www
-
spof.gsfc.
nasa.gov/Education/wmfield.html
)

http://www
-
spof.gsfc.nasa.gov/Education/Imagnet.html

Magnetic Field

Magnetic forces can be detected in regions c
alled magnetic fields. A changing electric field may
produce a magnetic fiel
d and vice versa, independent of

exterior change. A magnetic field is part
of an electromagnetic field that exerts a force on a moving charge. A magnetic field is a region
around a

magnet, moving charge such as an electric current or by a changing electric field. The
effects of such forces are unmistakable in the deflection of an electron beam in a cathode
-
ray
tube and the motor force on a current
-
gnetic fields such as
that of Earth can cause magnetic compass needles and other permanent magnets to line up in the
direction of the field.

Figure 10
.

Magnetic field or lines of flux of a moving charged particle.

(from
http://www.school
-
for
-
champions.com/science/magnetism.htm
)

Electromagnetic Waves

The basis of electromagnetism lies with Maxwell’s equations, stating that

“an electric field is
created
when a magnetic field
changes,
” “
a
magnetic field

is created when an electric field
changes
,
” and “the direction of the created magnetic field is perpendicular to the changing
electric field.”
Anytime an electron is accelerated, an electric field is created, thus beginning the
process of creating sustained electromagnetic fields which propagate energy even in the vacuum
of deep space. For convenience, we call these electromagnetic waves or simply light. Visible
light represents only a small part
of

the

electromagnetic spectrum,
but is most common to use
because we observe visible light with our eyes. Other portions of electromagnetic spectrum
-
rays, and gamma
rays.

ves, go to

Performance Benchmark P.12.B.2

Students know magnetic forces and electric forces can be
thought of as different aspects of
electromagnetic force. I/S

Common misconceptions associated with this benchmark:

1.

Students
incorrectly
ass
ume that neutral objects have no charge.

Matter is commonly referred to only having the passing relation to ele
ctrical effects. Y
et, the
nature of matter itself also encompasses
physical substances such as molecules, atoms,
and
positive and negative electric charges.

Since matter contains electric charges being a foremost
component
of all atoms, it is electrical. N
eutral objects have a net charge of zero, a net charge
being the sum of an equal exchange of positive protons and negative electrons.
All neutral
objects are an exchange of cancelled electric charges;
equally between
positive and negative
charges
, yi
elding

mater
ial substance of neutral atoms.
The electrical interaction is a force which
c
an be analyzed using a free
-
body diagram, utilizing Newton’s Laws of Motion, and Coulomb’s
Law.
In essence, p
hysical objects
or material
substances are the charge, a charge
not necessarily
holding new protons and neutrons in the material, but
two

neutral objects gaining a positive or
negative charge, thus changing from a no net charge to some net charge.

how neutral objects having a charge
, go to
http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/GBSSCI/PHYS/CLASS/estatics/u8l1b.html

2.

Students
incorrectly
think that the magnetic pole of the earth in the northern
hemisphere is a north pole,
and the pole in the southern hemisphere is a south pole.

Diagrams found in many textbooks
illustrate

a bar magnet extending beneath
the
earth’
s surface
.
These diagrams are depicting earth’s magnetic field lines to be radiating from spots on the
earth’s su
rface. Actually, the earth’s magnetic poles radiate deep within t
he earth, down inside
the core. The earth’s magnetic field does not originate from a giant bar magnet nor do any
magnetic fields surface near the earth’s North Pole and South Pole.
The Geomag
netic “poles” on
the earth’s surface are not places where the field is stronger but points on the landscape where
the field lines are vertical.

the poles inside the earth’s core and field

lines around the northern and southern area of the
earth’s surface vertical and parallel, not radial or at specific points on the earth’s surface.

The
magnetic and geographic north pole of the earth is

not located in the same place; o
pposite poles
attract
.

Earth’s magnet
ic poles
, go to
http://www.phy6.org/earthmag/demagint.htm

3.

Students incorrectly think that for an object to become positively charged it
only
gains
protons.

All objects are made of atoms consisting of protons, electrons, and neutrons. Each atom contains
positive charges in the center which are surrounded by negative charges.

Most often the numbers
of two charges in the atom is equivalent and therefore balance
each other out. An object with
identical numbers of positive and negative charges is said to be neutral.
We have learned that
protons carry positive charges whilst e
lectrons carry negative charges.
It is

possible for electrons
to transfer

from one material

to another when placed in contact with each other

and separated
.
If
an object receives extra electrons, it
will become negatively charged. As a result, the object
losing the electrons will become positively charged.

nd the imbalance of protons and electrons, go to

http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/Phys/Class/estatics/u8l1b.html

4.

Students incorrectly think that t
he magnetic and
geographic
north pole of the earth is

located at the same place.

The magnetic and geographic north
pole of the earth is

not located in the same place.

Opposite
poles attract. For example, hold two bar magnets near each other, the “N” pole of one magnet is

attracted by the “S” pole of another. If the bar magnet is balanced by a thread,
however,
the
n the

“N” pole of that magnet will point toward the Earth’s north.

So why does this occur? Physi
cists
classify “N

magnetic poles as being north
-
pointin
g ends of
magnets and compasses which is a
characteristic of Maxwell’s equation. For example, wind an electromagnetic coil, and observe
which end points towards the Earth’s North Pole. The end that points to the earth’s North Pole is
the “N” pole of the electromagne
t. Hence, the magnetic pole located inside the northern
hemisphere of the Earth is actually a south
-
type magnetic pole. In other words, the Earth’s
northern magnetic pole is the “S” pole. This

is necessary
, otherwise it would not attract the “N”
pole of a
compass.

Perfor
mance Benchmark P.12.B.2

Students know magnetic forces and electric forces can be thought of as different aspects of
electromagnetic force. I/S

Sample Test Questions

1.

Which of the diagrams below best represents the charge distribution on a metal
sphere
when a positively
-
charged plastic tube is placed nearby?

2.

What does the movement of an electric charge produce?

a.

A magnetic field

b.

An electron or proton

c.

An electric field

d.

Movement of a magnetic charge

3.

Electrical force
s

_____________.

a.

have no affect

on objects.

b.

can cause objects to only attract each other.

c.

can cause objects to attract or repel each other.

d.

can cause objects to only repel each other.

4.

A physics student observes two balloons suspended from the ceiling upon entering
the classroom. He not
ices that instead of hanging straight down vertically, the
balloons appear to be repelling each other. He conclusively says …

a.

one balloon is charge positively and the other negatively.

b.

both balloons have a negative charge.

c.

both balloons are charge
d with the same type of charge.

d.

both balloons have a positive charge.

a.

b.

c.

d.

5.

Two balloons are charged as shown below. Balloon X will _______ balloon Y.

a.

attract

b.

repel

c.

not affect

d.

first attract then repel

6.

Balloons X, Y and Z are suspended from strings as shown

below. Negatively charged
balloon X attracts balloon Y and Balloon Y attracts balloon Z. Balloon Z _____.

a.

May be positively
-
charged

b.

May be negatively
-
charged

c.

Must be positively
-
charged

d.

Must be ne
utral

7.

When magnets are broken into small bits,

a.

t
he bits themselves can become small magnets
.

b.

the bits themselves can become larger magnets.

c.

the bits themselves will no longer have a magnetic pole.

d.

the bits themselves
will lose their magnetic field.

8.

Where is the magnetic north pole of this magnet?

a.

Top

b.

Bottom

c.

Left

d.

Right

Performance Benchmark P.12.B.2

Students know magnetic forces and electric forces can be thought of as different aspects of
electromagnetic force. I/S

1.

(d
)

2.

(a
)

3.

(c
)

4.

(c
)

5.

(b
)

6.

(b
)

7.

(a)

8.

(c)

Performance Benchmark P.12.B.2

Students know magnetic forces and electric forces can be thought of as different aspects of
electromagnetic force. I/S

Intervention Strategies and Resources

The following is a list of intervention strategies and resourc
es that will facilitate student
understanding of this benchmark.

1.

Earth’s North Magnetic Pole Interactive

This is an interactive program online illustrating how a compass is used
to
find
north. It as
well demonstrates
how a compass may allow for false rea
dings because the North Magnetic
Pole is no
t

exactly located in the same place as the Geographic North Pole.

The students will
need to drag the compass around
the map in order to see how
it identifies the Geographic
North.

If unable to view this site’s ani
player.

To access this site, go to

ience/magnetism/north_mag_pole_inter
active.html

2.

Electric Force Field

This is an applet illustrating the concepts of electric force fields and lines of force. Students
will click on “test” electrons using the mouse to observe which direction the field p
oints and
how strong it is. The line will point in the direction that the electron will move as its length of
the line will denote the strength of the force at its location.

They will be able drag the mouse
to place the electrons down.

The lines in the pat
terns created by the students are known as
“lines of forces.” The force field lines coming out of the positive charge entering the negative
charge are both connected by field lines.

To access this site, go to
Electric Force Field applet

A
nother interactive site that allows the students to manipulate the atoms by adding test
charges and observe how the force
s change

is found at

3.

Magnetic Interactions with Moving Charge

This is a site which
provides students the oppor
tunity to
choose an active graphic which will
illustrate and explain the following:

Positive charge moving through magnetic field

http://hyperphysics.phy
-
astr.gsu.
edu/hbase/magnetic/forchg.html#c1

Positive charge moving through a stationary wire in a magnetic field.

http://hyperphysics.phy
-
astr.gsu.edu/hbase/magnetic/forwir
.html#c1

Wire moved through magnetic field by external force

http://hyperphysics.phy
-
astr.gsu.edu/hbase/magnetic/genwir.html#c1

To access the site, go to

http://hyperphysics.phy
-
astr.gsu.edu/hbase/magnetic/magint.html#c1

4.

Magnetism/
Electromagnetism

(Quia.com)

Flashcards

Students will be able to practice vocabular
y terms for
ma
gnetism/
electromagnetism
.

You can view this flashcards at
http://www.quia.com/jfc/313985.html

For more Quia activities:

Concentration

students will uncover matching pairs of cards

http://www.quia.com/cc/313985.html

Matching

students will find the matching squares

http://www.quia.com/mc/313985.html

5.

E
lectrostatics PhysicsQuest

This
sit
e developed by Dolores Gende for physics online investigations is
the ultimate
educational resource, which provides students with numerous
physicsquests (web quests)
for
study
ing high school physics
.
Specifically, the follow
and
Magnetism
:

Electrostatics
-

students will investigate various applications of electrostatics.

Electricity

students
will take a look
at the basic elemen
ts of circuits and how they
function

and the

hazards of electricity and the various factors affecting them
.