# Lecture 10 - Signal Processing V - PERFORM Alumni Home

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16 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Lecture 7:

Signal Processing
V

EEN 112: Introduction to
Electrical and Computer
Engineering

Professor Eric Rozier, 2/27/13

SCHEDULE

Schedule

Date

M

W

3/4

Wrap up signals

NASA Guest Speaker

3/11

Spring Break

Spring Break

3/18

Computer Engineering

Computer Engineering

3/25

Computer Engineering

Midterm II

4/1

EE/Circuits

EE/Circuits

4/8

EE/Circuits

EE/Circuits

4/15

EE/Circuits

EE/Circuits

4/22

Course Synthesis

Course Synthesis

No Lab this Week

Happy early Spring Break

CAPTURING SIGNALS

What we’ve done so far…

Why signals are important

How to sample signals

How to quantize signals

How to store signals in computers

collect

or
capture

signals?

We talked a bit about voltage so far, but what
is it really?

Electricity

The flow of electrons in a conductive material.

Typically we represent the flow of “holes”
rather than electrons.

This is due to historical

reasons, more on this in

other classes.

Voltage and Current

The most basic ways in which we discuss the
flow of electrical charge is
voltage

and
current
.

We will describe these and other EE terms
both as the flow of electrical charge, and using
the “hydraulic analogy”

Voltage

Voltage is the potential difference in electrical
charge between two points in a circuit.

Measured in Volts

In the Hydraulic analogy, we

envision this as water

pressure.

Current

Flow of electrons in a circuit.

Measured in Amperes or Amps

Hydraulic analogy, volume of flow of water
through a pipe.

Resistance

All wires resist the flow of electrical charge,
just as all pipes resist the flow of water

I

Current

V

Voltage

R
-

Resistance

Resistance

What happens if you were to keep pressure
constant, but pinch the pipe closed?

I

V
R
Resistance

What happens if you were to keep the flow
constant, but pinch the pipe closed?

V

I

R
Signals to Voltage

Signals are some physical phenomenon

How do we get from signal to voltage?

A quick note…

A lot of what we will talk about today you
won’t understand 100%

Being an Electrical and Computer Engineer
means learning a lot of specialized

(but useful!) information

It takes time

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Cr
.

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n
g
l
i
s
h

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om
p
o
s
i
t
i
on
I

E
N
G
1
0
7

-

3
Cr
.

W
r
itin
g
A
b
o
u
t

S
ci
e
n
ce

M
u
s
i
c
o
l
o
g
y

E
l
ect

3
Cr
.

A
dv
a
nc
e
d

H
A/
P
S

E
l
ect
i
v
e

3
Cr
.

A
dv
a
nc
e
d

H
A/
P
S

E
l
ect
i
v
e

3
Cr
.

E
E
N
4
1
5

-

1
Cr
.

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en
i
o
r
D
es
i
g
n

P
r
o
je
c
t I

E
E
N
4
1
6

-

2
Cr
.

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en
i
o
r
D
es
i
g
n

P
r
o
j
e
c
t I
I

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E
N
1
1
8

-

3
Cr
.

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n
tr
o
d
u
c
ti
o
n

to

P
r
o
gr
a
m
m
i
n
g

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E
N
2
1
8

-

3
Cr
.

D
at
a S
t
r
u
ct
u
r
e
s

E
E
N
3
0
4

-

3
Cr
.

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o
gi
c
D
e
s
i
g
n

E
E
N
3
1
6

-
1
Cr
.

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tr
u
c
tu
r
e
d
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ig
ita
l

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es
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g
n

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E
N
3
1
2

-

4
Cr
.

M
i
c
r
o
p
r
oc
e
s
s
o
r

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E
N
3
1
5

-

1
Cr
.

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ig
i
ta
l
D
e
s
ig
n

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b

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T
C
1
0
9

-

3
Cr
.

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s
i
c
T
h
e
o
r
y

S
k
i
lls

I

E
E
N
4
3
7

-

1
Cr
.

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ea
l
-
Ti
m
e

D
SP L
a
b

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E
N
5
4
0

-

3
Cr
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ig
i
ta
l
S
p
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c
h

&

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u
d
i
o P
r
o
c
.

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E
N
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0
2

-

3
Cr
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n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g

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co
u
s
t
i
cs

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M
I
4
3
6

-

3
Cr
.

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u
d
i
o

P
os
t
p
r
o
d
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n

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e
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pl
e
&

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c

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l
ect
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v
e

3
Cr
.

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M
I
2
0
1

-

3
Cr
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n
t
r
o t
o

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s
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c
R
e
c
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r
d
i
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M
I
1
7
2

-

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Cr
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u
d
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o
W
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k
s
h
o
p

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I
I

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H
M
1
5
1

3
Cr
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h
e
m
is
tr
y

fo
r E
n
g
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n
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e
rs

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H
M
1
5
3

1
Cr
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h
e
m
is
tr
y
L
a
b

fo
r E
n
g
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n
e
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rs

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H
Y
2
0
5

-

3
Cr
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n
iv
e
r
s
it
y
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h
y
s
i
c
s

I

P
H
Y
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0
9

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1
Cr
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n
iv
e
r
s
it
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h
y
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c
s
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I
I

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a
b

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H
Y
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0
6

-

3
Cr
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n
iv
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r
s
it
y

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h
y
si
c
s I
I

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H
Y
2
0
8

-

1
Cr
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n
iv
e
r
s
it
y

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h
y
s
i
c
s
I
I

L
a
b

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H
Y
2
0
7

-

3
Cr
.

U
n
iv
e
r
s
it
y

P
h
y
si
c
s I
I
I

A
u
d
io E
n
gin
e
e
r
in
g O
p
t
ion
(
E
A
N
)

2012

2013

J
u
n
e
2012

P
rereq
u
i
s
i
t
e

P
re
o
r C
o
req
u
i
s
i
t
e

P
e
o
pl
e
&

So
c

E
l
ect
i
v
e

3
Cr
.

A
u
d
i
o
/
T
ech

E
l
ect
.

2
/
3
C
r
.

M
M
I
5
0
1

-

3
Cr
.

T
r
a
n
s
d
u
c
e
r

Th
e
o
r
y

M
M
I
5
0
3

-

3
Cr
.

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ig
i
ta
l
A
u
d
i
o

I
I

M
M
I
5
0
2

-

3
Cr
.

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ig
i
ta
l
A
u
d
i
o

I

BS
EE C
o
r
e

H
u
m/
A
r
t
s

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l
ect
i
v
e

3
Cr
.

E
E
N
3
1
1

-

1
Cr
.

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l
e
ct
r
o
n
i
cs
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ab

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E
N
3
0
7

-

3
Cr
.

L
in
e
a
r

C
ir
c
u
its
a
n
d

S
i
g
n
a
ls

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E
N
2
0
1

-

3
Cr
.

E
l
e
ct
r
i
cal
C
i
r
cu
i
t

Th
e
o
r
y

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E
N
2
0
4

-

1
Cr
.

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l
e
c
tr
i
c
a
l
C
ir
c
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its

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b
.

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E
N
3
0
5

-

3
Cr
.

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l
e
ct
r
o
n
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cs
I

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E
N
3
0
6

-

3
Cr
.

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l
e
ct
r
o
n
i
cs
I
I

E
E
N
4
3
6

3
Cr
.

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n
tr
o
.
to

D
S
P

E
E
N
3
3
6

-

3
Cr
.

S
i
g
n
a
l
s
&

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ys
t
e
m
s

EE
C
o
re
E
l
ect

3
Cr

E
C
E
D
es
i
g
n

E
l
ect

3
Cr

ESN

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N
G
1
0
5

-

3
Cr
.

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n
gl
i
s
h
C
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
I

E
E
N
1
1
8

-

3
Cr
.

I
n
tr
o
d
u
c
ti
o
n

to

P
r
o
gr
a
m
m
i
n
g

M
T
H

1
5
1

-

5
Cr
.

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a
l
c
u
l
u
s
f
o
r

E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
s

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E
N
3
1
2

-

4
Cr
.

M
i
c
r
o
p
r
oc
e
s
s
o
r

P
eo
p
l
e &

S
o
ci
et
y

E
l
ect
i
v
e

3
Cr
.

E
E
N
4
2
4
o
r
C
S
C

3
2
2

S
y
s
t
e
ms
P
r
o
g
r
a
mmi
n
g

3

Cr
.

EEN
/

I
EN

3
1
0

-

3
Cr
.

E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g

P
r
o
b
a
b
il
ity

B
a
s
i
c S
ci
en
ce

E
l
ect
i
v
e +

L
a
b

3
C
r. +

1

C
r.

E
E
N
2
1
8

-

3
Cr
.

D
at
a S
t
r
u
ct
u
r
e
s

E
E
N
2
0
1

-

3
Cr
.

E
l
e
ct
r
i
cal
C
i
r
cu
i
t

Th
e
o
r
y

M
T
H
2
1
0

-

3
Cr
.

V
ec
t
o
r
s
&

Ma
tr
ic
e
s

E
N
G
1
0
7

-

3
Cr
.

W
r
i
tin
g
A
b
o
u
t

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

EEN

3
0
4

-
3
Cr
.

L
o
gi
c
D
e
s
i
g
n

M
T
H
1
6
2

-

4
Cr
.

C
a
lc
u
lu
s
I
I

v
.
H
A/
P
S

E
l
ect
i
v
e

3
Cr
.

v
.
H
A/
P
S

E
l
ect
i
v
e

3
Cr
.

H
u
m/
A
r
t
s

E
l
ect
i
v
e

3

Cr
.

EEN

5
7
0

-

3
Cr
.

N
et
w
o
r
k
C
l
i
en
t
-
S
er
v
er

P
r
o
gr
a
m
m
i
n
g

E
E
N
4
1
4

-

3
Cr
.

C
o
m
p
u
te
r
O
r
g
a
n
iz
a
tio
n

& D
e
s
i
g
n

P
eo
p
l
e &

S
o
ci
et
y

E
l
ect
i
v
e

3

Cr
.

E
E
N
5
6
7

D
at
ab
as
e
D
e
s
i
g
n

o
r

C
S
C
5
2
3

D
at
ab
as
e

D
es
i
g
n
&

M
a
n
a
g
em
en
t

3
C
r.

14

CR

15

CR

16

CR

17

CR

17

CR

16

CR

17

CR

16

CR

P
H
Y
2
0
5

-

3
Cr
.

U
n
iv
e
r
s
it
y
P
h
y
s
ic
s

I

P
H
Y
2
0
6
/
7

-

3
Cr
.
OR

P
H
Y
2
0
8
/
9

-

1
Cr
.

U
n
iv
e
r
s
it
y

P
h
y
si
c
s
I
I

o
r
II
I

+
La
b

B
.S
.C
p
.E
.
-

S
of
t
w
a
r
e

E
n
gin
e
e
r
in
g O
p
t
ion

2012

2013
J
u
n
e
2
0
1
2

P
rereq
u
i
s
i
t
e

P
re o
r C
o
req
u
i
s
i
t
e

E
E
N
4
1
9

-

2
Cr
.

S
en
i
o
r
P
r
o
j
ec
t

E
E
N
4
1
8

-

1
Cr
.

S
en
i
o
r
P
r
o
j
ec
t

P
l
a
n
n
i
n
g

E
E
N
1
1
1

-

3
Cr
.

I
n
t
r
o.

t
o

E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g
I

E
E
N
1
1
2

-

2
Cr
.

I
n
t
r
o.

t
o

E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g
I
I

P
H
I
1
1
5

S
o
ci
al
&

E
t
h
i
c
a
l
I
ssu
e
s

i
n
C
o
m
p
u
t
i
n
g

3
Cr
.

E
E
N
3
1
8

-

3
Cr
.

A
d
v
a
n
c
e
d
C
o
m
p
u
t
e
r

P
r
o
gr
a
m
m
i
n
g

EEN

3
1
6

-

1

Cr
.

S
tr
u
c
tu
r
e
d
D
ig
ita
l

D
es
i
g
n

E
E
N
5
1
2

-

3
Cr
.

S
o
ft
w
a
re

A
r
c
h
ite
c
t
u
r
e

E
E
N
5
1
3

-

3
Cr
.

S
o
f
t
w
a
r
e D
es
i
g
n

A
n
d
T
e
s
t
i
n
g

E
E
N/
CS
C
5
2
1

-

3
Cr
.

C
o
m
p
u
t
e
r
O
p
e
r
a
t
i
n
g

S
ys
t
e
m
s

S
.E
. T
ech
. E
l
ect
.

3
Cr
.

S
.E
. T
ech
. E
l
ect
.

3
Cr
.

S
.E
. T
ech
. E
l
ect
.

3
Cr
.

EEN
5
1
4
-

3
Cr
.

C
o
m
p
u
te
r
A
r
c
h
it
e
c
tu
r
e

EEN

2
0
4

-

1

Cr
.

E
l
e
ct
r
i
cal

C
ir
c
u
its

L
a
b
or
a
t
o
r
y

EEN

3
0
5

-

3
Cr
.

E
l
e
ct
r
o
n
i
cs
I

E
E
N
3
1
5

-

1

Cr
.

D
ig
i
ta
l
D
e
s
i
g
n

L
a
b
or
a
t
o
r
y

B
a
s
i
c S
ci
en
ce

E
l
ect
i
v
e

3
Cr
.

C
S
C
5
1
9

-

3
Cr
.

P
r
o
gr
a
m
m
i
n
g L
a
n
g
u
a
ge
s

C
S
C
5
1
7

-

3
Cr
.

A
l
g
o
r
ith
m
s

&

D
a
ta
S
tr
u
c
tu
r
e
s

1

1

M
T
H
3
0
9

-

3
Cr
.

D
is
c
r
e
te

Ma
th
e
m
a
ti
c
s
I

B
.S
.C
p
.E
. C
or
e

The purpose…

Not to scare you…

To show you there are answers, which you will
learn in time.

SENSORS

Microphones

Condenser Microphone

Condenser Microphone

The capacitance (C) is inversely proportional
to the distance between parallel plates.

Sound levels compress the plates.

V
t

Q
t

C
Piezoelectric Microphone

Some materials produce a voltage when
subject to pressure.

We call this effect Piezoelectricity

Carbon microphones are

similar

Change resistance in response

to changing pressure

Image Sensors

CCD

Charge Coupled

Device

Photons striking the

to wells.

Image Sensors

Wells can be “read” by applying positive
charge to plates, and shifting the electrons
towards a circuit.

Image Sensors

CMOS

Complementary metal
-
oxide
semiconductor

Active pixel sensor

Light sensor coupled

with a signal amplifier

circuit.

Image Sensors

A Bayer Mask allows only certain wavelengths
of light to strike each plate.

Touch Screens

Infra
-
red Touch Screens

Resistive Touch Screen

Capacitive Touch Screen

Magnetometers

A very common type is the
Hall Effect magnetometer.

Charge particles (electrons, 1)
flow through a conductor (2)
serving as a Hall sensor.
Magnets (3) induce a magnetic
field (4) that causes the
charged particles to
accumulate on one side of the
Hall sensor, inducing a
measurable voltage difference
from top to bottom
.

Edwin Hall discovered this effect in 1879.

Accelerometers

Uses:

Orientation

Drop detection

Image stabilization

Airbag systems

The most common design
measures the distance
between a plate fixed to
the platform and one
attached by a spring and
damper. The
measurement is typically
done by measuring
capacitance.

Gyroscopes

Optical gyros: Leverage the
Sagnac

effect, where a laser light is sent
around a loop in opposite directions and the interference is measured.
When the loop is rotating, the distance the light travels in one direction is
smaller than the distance in the other. This shows up as a change in the
interference.

Antennas

Electro
-
Magnetism

It turns out magnetism and electricity are
related…

Antennas

Antennas couple electric connections with
electromagnetic fields

electromagnetic waves

which propagate through

the air

Antennas

Antennas

Electromagnetic

fields induce

current

oscillations in the

electrons present

in an antenna.

Hydraulic Analogy

Water wheel

Spedometer

Fuel Gauge

Switches and Dials

Potentiometers

Buttons and Switches