CURRICULUM OF COURSE:

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LEONARDO da VINCI Programme


Pilot Project no RO/02/B/F/
PP


141004




TRAINING MODULE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL





CURRICULUM OF COURSE:


ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION MONITORING

POLLUTION, ANALYSIS, LEGISLATION,

QUALITY ASSURANCE AND MANAGEMENT



www.unibuc.ro/hosting/leonardo









Bucharest 2005


1




1.
GENERAL PRESENTATION



Environmental pollution remains an important issue, for both the
population and the economic and political decisio
n factors in all
countries throughout the
world;

even they are

developed or developing
countries.


Huge efforts are made for the environmental pollution monitoring
and contr
ol, especially in industrial

countries, and the achievements are
sometimes impressi
ve. However, a lot remains to be done in fighting
pollution, as the experts working in this field are not only facing issues
that are already known, but also new issues that are triggered mainly by
the economic growth at a global level.


Both in Romania an
d in the European Union’s countries, the
education system is preparing experts in the field of environmental
pollution monitoring and control, at a graduate or master’s level.
However, due to the swift progress currently achieved in the above
-
mentioned fie
ld throughout the world, the need was felt for organising
other forms of training as well, especially short duration studies at post
-
graduate level conducive to the improvement of the knowledge of
experts working in environmental pollution control.


Withi
n this professional training programme, we deemed it
appropriate to approach the main issues related to environmental
pollution monitoring and control in an integrated manner, not by
presenting the analytical methods of pollution control exclusively. Thus,

this
book

is structured in five chapters as follows:

I.

Organic and inorganic environmental pollutants in air and
waters. Sonic and electromagnetic pollution

II.

Analytical techniques for environmental monitoring and
control

III.

Automatic analytical methods for env
ironmental
monitoring and control


2

IV.

Standardisation and legislation in the field of
environmental monitoring and control

V.

Laboratory quality assurance and management of
laboratory activity in the field of environmental monitoring
and control including sonic a
nd electromagnetic pollution


In addition to the main course, the activity within a training
module is complemented by practical studies. A
laboratory guide

was
drafted to this purpose comprising experimental exercises related to
chapters: II, III and V. S
pecial attention was also granted to the writing of
three computer programmes

that simulate some analytical processes
and that we think adequately complement the training activity within the
module.


The course addresses to:



Young graduated students from
faculties of: chemistry,
biochemistry, biology, ecology, engineering, etc.



Employed / un
-
employed persons interested to acquire a
qualification in the field of environmental monitoring and
control.



Trainers from environmental monitoring and control field.




Pollutant / potential pollutant enterprises.



Local, regional and governmental authorities interested in
the project subject.


This book is a course that aims at updating the knowledge of
graduate people

working or interested in environmental pollution c
ontrol,
within a
two
-
week

postgraduate training modules
.


The structure of the course is offering to this teaching material a
strong innovative character. But the quality and adequacy of the
innovation must be carefully checked in real situations, in caref
ully
organised pilot learning environments. So, special assessment
techniques
were

designed to evaluate this course.


The course was achieved within a pilot project funded by the
European Union’s professional training programme “Leonardo da Vinci”,
with th
e participation of 10 partners from five countries (Romania,
France, Italy, Spain and Sweden).



3



COORDINATOR
:


University of Bucharest
(ROMANIA)

www.unibuc.ro

Prof. Dr. Andrei Florin D
ĂNEŢ



danet
@unibuc.ro
,







andreidanet@yahoo.com



Assoc. Prof.

Dr.

Mihaela Carmen CHEREGI

m_cheregi@yahoo.com







mlcheregi@xnet.ro


Senior Scientist Dr. Mihaela BADEA


mihaela.badea@uniroma2.it








m_badea@yahoo.it



PARTNERS:


CEAM (SPAI
N)




www.gva.es/ceam

University of Valencia (SPAIN)


www.uv.es



University of Perpignan (FRANCE)


www.univ
-
perp.fr





U
niversity
“Tor Ve
rgata”
, Rome (ITALY)

www.uniroma2.it


ECOIND (ROMANIA)




www.incdecoind.ro


ICECHIM (ROMANIA)



www.icechim.ro



ITEC
-
BRAZI (ROMANIA)



www.itec.ro


ANOX (SWEDEN)




www.anox.se


University of Lund (
SWEDEN
)



www.analykem.lu.se















4




2. DESCRIPTION



CHAPTE
R

I


ORGANIC AND INORGANIC ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS IN
AIR AND WATERS. SONIC AND ELECTROMAGNETIC POLLUTION




It is a general presentation and characterisation of the principal
organic and inorganic pollutants in air and waters and also, of sonic and
elect
romagnetic pollution.


I.1.
AIR POLLUTANTS


Air pollution started when tribesmen learned to use fire, and filled
the air inside their living quarters with the products of incomplete
combustion.
A
s cities and industry grew in size, the prob
lem increased in
severity. Since the 30s the other air pollution problems as well as
solutions up to some extent emerged.

In the following sections are
described the main air pollutants and problems identified today. Due to
their different nature, the poll
utants are separated in organic and
inorganic compounds.

I.1.1. Organic Air Pollutants

-

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Other Compounds
.

I.1.2. Inorganic Air P
ollutants
.

-

Fixed Gases, Vari
able Gases, Characteristics of S
elected
Gases and Aerosol Particle
Components, Aerosol Particles
in Smog and the Global Environment
.


I.2. WATER POLLUTANT
S

For years, the quality of drinking water has been an important
factor in determining the human welfare. Nowadays, the growth of the

5

industrial and agricultural modern
techniques has as result the obtaining
of new synthetic chemicals. Many of these chemicals have contaminated
water supplies. It is clear that water pollution must be a concern of every
citizen. Understanding the sources, interactions, and effects of water
pollutants is essential for controlling and monitoring the contaminants in
an environmentally safe and economically acceptable manner. In this
chapter the most important water pollutants are presented and also their
effect on human health.


I.2.1.
T
ypes o
f Water P
ollutants

Metals

-

Metal T
oxicity
,
Biotransformation of M
etals
.

Metalloids and Organometallic Compounds

-

Metalloids, Organically Bound Metals and M
etalloids.

Anionic inorganic species

-

C
hloride, Fluoride, Nitrate and Nitrite, Sulphate and
S
ulphide, Cy
anide, Phosphate
.

Acidity, Alkalinity and Salinity

-

Acidity, Alkalinity, Salinity
.

Organic pollutants

-

Introduction

-

Se
wage, Surfactants, Halogenated Carbons, Polycyclic
Aromatic H
ydrocar
bons, Dioxins, Polychlorinated
Biphenyls, Brominated Flame R
etardants, P
hthalates
.

Pesticides

-

Chlorinated hydrocarbons, Organophosphates,
Carbamates, Pyrethrins and pyrethroids, Phenoxyacetic
acid herbicides, Radionuclides
.


II.3. SONIC AND ELECTROMAGNETIC POLLUTION

The Sound


We live in a world of sounds, undoubtedly essentia
l in terms of
communication and/or transfer of knowledge. Nature furnishes us with
an abundant variety of sound
sources
, but it’s the man
-
made ones which

6

often raise problems for the environmental health and will be disc
ussed
i
n this chapter.

-

Introduction
,
Aural Environment
.

Electromagnetic Pollution


Since the 1950
-
s, the humanity has surrounded itself with
artificial electric and magnetic fields as a result of the increasing use of
electricity as an indispensable part of every day life. The effect of the

electromagnetic pollution on the human welfare is described.

-

The Electromagnetic Fields. Introduction
,
Electromagnetic
Environment
.




CHAPTER II


ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR


ENVIRONMENTAL M
ONITORING AND CONTROL



Most of the analytical techniques find t
heir applicability in
environmental control, from the simplest to the most complicated one.
This has increased the difficulty for the creation of this course that
attempts to present over a small length and in a concise and clear
manner the most important
analytical techniques being applied in the
mentioned domain.


After an

INTRODUCTION (II.1)
, in the following chapters a few
basic notions are presented regarding:





II.2. ELEMENTARY STATISTICS



In an analysis, the collection of the data is followed by
the data
handling. Statistics is necessary to understand the significance of the
collected data and therefore to set up limitations on each step of
analysis. The aspects described are:

Accuracy a
nd Precision

Errors
and Ways of Expressing Accuracy

Measures
of Precision


7



II.3. SAMPLE, SAMPLING AND PREPARATION


This stage is extremely important for the analytical determination,
especially when environmental samples are analyzed and, often, proper
attention is not paid to it. The fact is known that generally t
he sampling
and sample preparing for analysis generate the largest errors in
environmental analysis. In the following chapter a few basic notions
regarding the sampling and the preparing of the sample for analysis
were presented.

Sample and Sampling

-

Sample

and Sampling;
Statistics of Sampling; Sample
Handling
.







Sample Preparation






-

Sample Extraction;
Sample Cleanup;
Digestion; Dilution;
Filtering.








II.4. ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES USED IN ENVIRONMENTAL
ANALYSIS


The presentation of the analytical t
echniques starts with the
“classical” methods like gravimetry and volumetry, these techniques
maintaining a certain importance in almost all the environmental control
laboratories and continues with the most important instrumental analysis
techniques. All
of these issues are presented in a concise manner (in
our opinion) with applications for environmental control as follows:


Gravimetric Analysis






-

Physical Gravimetry; Thermogravimetry; Precipitative
Gravimetry
.

Volumetric Analysis





-

Fundamentals of T
itrimetry
.

Spectrophotometric Analysis




-

Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation; Molecular Absorption
of Electromagnetic Radiation
;

Quantitative Law of Radiation
Absorption; Quantitative Analysis in the UV
-
Vis;
Instrumentation for UV
-
Vis Spectrometry
.



8

Atomi
c Absorption and Emission




-

Introduction; Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; Atomic
Emission Spectrometry; Physical and Chemical
Interferences in AAS and AES
.

Electrochemical Methods of Analysis


-

Introduction;
Conducto
metric Methods; Potentiometric
Methods;
Voltammetric Methods; Modes of Current
-
Voltage
Measurements
; Chronoamperometry
; Stripping
Voltammetry
.




Chromatography: ionic, GC and HPLC

-

Introduction; Types of Chromatography; Clasification o
f
Chromatographic Processes
; Chromatographic Theory. An
ove
rview; Ion Chromatography; Ion
Exchange; Gas
Chromatography; High Performance Liquid
Chromatography (HPLC)
; Application
s

.

Mass
-
spectrometry




-

Definition; Principles; The Mass Spectrum; Sample
Introduction; Ionization modes in mass spectrometry; Mass
Ana
ly
zers; Ion Detection Systems;

Mass Spectrometry


Working Modes


Gas Chromatography


Mass Spectrometry




-

Definition; Principles; Interfacing MS to GC; Data System
for GC / MS Instrumentation; Data

Interpretation Modes in
GC / MS; Qualitative I
nform
atio
n in GC / MS; Quantitative
I
nformation in GC / MS; Applications
.



Immunoassay






-

Immunoassay Principle; ELISA Technique

;
Immunochemical Sensors
.






II.5. METHODS FOR MONITORING THE MOST IMPORTANT
POLLUTANTS


The chapter

ends with the presentation of
the monitoring
methods for some important environmental pollutants:



Phenols



9

Nitrogen (nitrite, nitrate, ammonia)



Cyanide







-

Samples pre
-
treatment; Silver Nitrate Titrimetric Method;
Colorimetric Method; Ion
-
Selective Electrode Method;
Cyanide in S
olid Samples; Cyanide in Aerosol and Gas
Samples
.


Heavy metals







-

Sampling and Treatment;
Sample Digestion;
Atomic
Absorption Spectrometry for Heavy Metals Determination;
Specific Methods for Determination the Most Important
Heavy Metals Pollutants
.

Pe
sticides






-

Monitoring of Pesticides
; Sep
aration Techniques;
Immunoassay
; Biosensors and Immunosensors.

Polychlorinated B
iphenyls (PCB
s
);

-

Quantitation; Sample Extraction and Cleanup; Alternative
Analytical Methods
.



Biological Oxygen Demand (
BOD
)

Chemi
cal Oxygen Demand (
COD
)










CHAPTER III


AUTOMATIC ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL
MONITORING AND CONTROL


III.1. INTRODUCTION


In the last decades can be observed the use on a larger and
larger scale of automation in various domains of science a
nd technique,
and especially in the domain of environmental quality monitoring. This
was possible due to the great progresses in the top techn
ology fields,
like micromechanics
, microelectronics and especially computer
construction.


10


In the following chapte
rs a short presentation of the automated
flow analysis methods will be made with applications in the
environmental quality domain, together with other automated analysis
methods with important applications in the mentioned domain.



III.2.

FLOW TECHNIQUES
OF ANALYSIS




Automatic flow methods of chemical analysis, unknown for more
then a half a century ago are now widespread in most analytical
laboratories. Since the original paper published by Skeggs in 1957 on
multisegmented continuous flow analysis, many

improvements and even
simplifications have been made on this field with numerous applications
in the environmental monitoring and control. A short description of these
techniques and the commercial available continuous analysers is done
as follows:


Intro
duction in CFA, FIA and SIA


-

Continuous Flow Analysis; Segmented Flow Analysis; Flow
Injection Analysis;
Sequential Injection Analysis;
Hyphenated Systems
.

Automated Flow Analysers



-

Continuous and Discontinuous Systems; Commercial
Automated Flow Analyze
rs;
The future


M
icrofluids
.

Application of the Flow Techniques of Analysis in
Environmental Monitoring and Control


-

Introduction; Water Monitoring and Control
;
Monitoring and
Control in Rain Water; Water Quality, Wastewater;
Atmospheric Monitoring and Co
ntrol;
Soil Pollutants
.




III.3. MODERN TECHNIQUES FOR AIR POLLUTANTS


LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)


-

Introduction;
LIDAR Design;

Application of LIDAR in
Environmental Monitoring
.


DOAS for Environmental Control



-

Introduction; Principle of DOAS Ope
ration; Spectral
Regions Usable for DOAS Measurements; How is Working

11

a DOAS Based Instrument?; DOAS Application in Pollution
Monitoring
.



Other aspects discussed in this chapter are:






Automation in Immunoassay



III.4
. AUTOMATIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRY








CHAPTER IV


STANDARDISATION AND LEGISLATION IN THE FIELD OF

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND CONTROL



In the first part of this chapter are presented a series of
environmental protection treaties, conventions and agreements
established or signed between
nations which were put forth to protect
wildlif
e,
wildlife habita
t,
ocean
s,
atmosphere
and
hazardous substance
s.



V.1. AN INTRODUCTION TO INTERNATIONAL
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS

An Overview of International Conventions and Agreements

The Relationship
betwee
n

International Trade and
Environmental Controls

The European Union Environmental Programmes



In the second part, a comparison of the legislation and the
criteria of water and air quality in 4 countries of the European
Community (France, Italy, Spain and

Sweden), Romania and in the
United States of America is presented as follows:




12


IV.2. LEGISLATION IN THE FIELD OF ENVIRONMENTAL
MONITORING AND CONTROL

C
omparison

of the
Characteristics

of surface water for
production of drinking water in France, Italy, R
omania,
Sweden and Spain

-

Chemical indicators to evaluate

the quality of surface
water
;
Characteristics

of Raw Water for Human Use in
France
;
Monitoring Program for Drinking Water in France
;
Emission Limit of Urban Effluent of Waste Water Plant
.

Air Pollut
ion



IV.3. STANDARDIZATION FOR THE MOST IMPORTANT
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS




CHAPTER V


LABORATORY QUALITY ASSURANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF
LABORATORY ACTIVITY IN THE FIELD OF

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND CONTROL INCLUDING
SONIC AND ELECTROMAGNETIC POLLUTION



In the
INTRODUCTION (V.1)

of this chapter i
s stipulated the
importance of
quality assurance

of

the

products and services, that
constitutes an important issue in modern society.


Services and commodities, which are not fit for their intended
purpose may
give rise to economic losses and may impair human health
and/or the environment. This means that the concerned parties need to
assess the quality of the products or services prior to purchase or use.


The aspect discussed here are:



V.2.
CONCEPT OF QUALI
TY MANAGEMENT,

QUALITY
ASSURANCE AND QUALITY
CONTROL

What is Quality?


13

Quality Management

Quality Assurance

Quality Control



V.3. LABORATORY QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


Elements of Quality Management System

-

Quality Policy; Quality Objectives; Quality M
anual
;
Procedures; Records
.



V.4. QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN ENVIRONMENTAL
MONITORING AND CONTROL LABORATORIES INCLUDING
SONIC AND ELECTROMAGNETIC POLLUTION

Management Requirements

-

Organization; Quality S
ystem; Document
C
ontrol;
Review
of Request; Tenders an
d C
ont
racts; Subcontracting of
Tests; Purchasing Services and Supplies; Services to the
Client; Complaints; Control of Nonconforming T
esti
ng
Work; Corrective Action; Preventive Action; Control of
Records; Internal Audit; Management R
eviews
.

Technical Requi
rements

-

Personnel and Training; Accommodation and
Environmental Conditions; Test Methods and Method
V
alid
ation; Equipment; Measurements T
race
ability;
Sampling; Handling of Tests Items; Assuring the Quality of
Tests Results; Reporting the R
esults.











14



3. LEVEL




A. Prerequisite:




For young graduated students (aged
22
-

28
) those are

at the
beginning of their work period and who want to become
specialists

in the
field of environmental monitoring and control.



For people
(with a University diploma)
with

qualifications not
needed on the labour market, or being at risk of exclusion from the
actual and further
labour

market, as well as, unemployed persons
interested to
acquire qualifications

in the field of the project.



For
improving the knowledge

of the tr
ainers from the
environmental monitoring and control and of the local, regional and
governmental authorities and other organizations interested in this
domain.



B. Aims and objectives
:




The main objectives of the proposed course are to improve the
envir
onmental monitoring and control and to train a big number of
specialists in this domain by up
-
dating their knowledge in this field and
by working

with modern equipments and analytical methods
.

All the information collected from different companies /
author
ities
indicates

that the employe
es

have little knowledge about the
environmental monitoring and control. They often require much more
knowledge about the analytical methods or technical problems,
legislation, quality assurance and management of laboratory
activity for
environmental protection. That is why they need time and
complementary training (usually organised by the company or
apprentice stage with a much experienced employee with the same job

15

functions as a coach) to become able of perform their dail
y duties.
Taking this into account, this course is also available in electronic form,
on CD, and several chapters are available on the webpage of the
project. In this way it is more facile for the interested persons to upgrade
their knowledge in the field

of environmental protection
.

The specific aims of the proposed course are: the develop
ment in a
transnational context,

of an European dimension training course in the
field of environmental monitoring and control; re
-
conversion of the labour
forces in th
is field and the alignment at the European standards of the
vocational training methods


the graduates beside a better vocational
training will find easier a job, their training being recognized all over the
Europe ; a change in the old educational syste
m and this means that all
the theoretical aspects are linked to practice.

The proposed course together with the other training materials
can prepare specialists more adequately fitted to environmental
protection jobs an
d

can satisfy the challenges of the
modern economy
and society.




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,

(ed
s
.)
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Standard
Metho
ds for the Examination of Water and Wastewater
, 20
th

e
dition,
United Book Press, Inc., Baltimore, USA
.

35.

Stan
H.J.,
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) (1995)
Analysis of Pesticides in Ground and Surface
Water
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Springer Verlag, Berlin.


36.

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A.F.
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Bucure
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37.

Ruzicka,

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(1981)

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Wiley
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38.

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1987)

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Analysis. Principles and Applications
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Ellis Horwood Ltd.

39.

Ruzicka,

J., Hansen,

E.H.
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(
1988)

Flow In
je
ction Analysis
, Second

Edition,

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40.

Burguera, J.L.
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d.) (
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41.

Karlberg,

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Flow Injection Analysis. A
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42.

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18

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M.
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.)

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50.

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Quality Managem
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-

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51.

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52.

Cofino, W.P.
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53.

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54.

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55.

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56.

Ratliff, T.A.
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61.

ISO 10381 (part 1

6)


Soil Q
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62.

ISO 7870:1993
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Control Charts
-

General P
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.




19



4. LENGTH



The teaching module lasts 10
working
days. The total time
normally required to complete the course is
52 h
ours

(
26 h
our
s

/ week
)
as follows:



4
h
ours

for each taught chapter (I, II, III. IV, V)



4

h
our
s

for each seminar (S) (related to chapter
s

1 and IV)



8

h
ours

for each laboratory (L) work (related to chapter
s

II,
III, V).




The proposed time planning for the course and the other
complementary activities is:


Chapter

I.


ORGANIC

AND INORGANIC ENVIRONMENTAL
POLLUTANTS

IN AIR AND WATERS. SONI
C AND
ELECTROMAGNETIC POLLUTION


Nr.

crt.

Lecture title

Course

(h)

S/L

(h)

1

I.1. Air
pollutants

1
.5

1
.5

(S)

2

I.2. Water pollutants

2

2 (S)

3

I.3. Sonic and electromagnetic pollution

0.5

0.5

(S)

TOTAL CHAPTER I

4

4



Chapter II.

ANALYTICAL MEHODS

FOR ENVIRONMENTAL



MONITORING AND CONTROL


Nr.

crt.

Lecture title

Course

(h)

S/L

(h)

1

II.1. Introduction, II.2. Elementary
statistics, II.3. Sample, sampling and
preparation; II.4. Gravimetric and
volumetric methods.

1

2 (L)


20

2

II.4. Analytical tec
hniques used in
environmental analysis

2

4 (L)

3

II.5. Methods for monitoring the most
important pollutants

1

2 (L)

TOTAL CHAPTER II

4

8




Chapter III.

AUTOMATIC ANALYTICAL MEHODS FOR



ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND CONTROL


Nr.

crt.

Lecture title

Co
urse

(h)

S/L

(h)

1

III.1. Introduction; III.2. Introduction in
CFA, SFA, FIA and SIA

2

3(L)

2

III.3. Modern techniques for air pollutants

1

2 (L)

3

III.4. Automatic spectrometry

1

3 (L)

TOTAL CHAPETR III

4

8




Chapter IV.

STANDARDIZATON AND LEGISLA
TION IN THE FIELD


OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND CONTROL


Nr.

crt.

Lecture title

Course

(h)

S/L

(h)

1

IV 1. An introduction to international
environmental controls

1

1 (S)

2

IV.2. Legislation in the field of
environmental monitoring and control

2

2 (
S)

3

IV.3. Standardization for the most
important environmental pollutants

1

1 (S)

TOTAL CHAPTER IV

4

4




21



Chapter V.

LABO
RATORY QUALITY ASSURANCE AND
MANAGEMENT
OF LABORATORY ACTIVITY IN THE
FIELD OF

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND
CONTROL INCLUDING SON
IC AND
ELECTROMAGNETIC POLLUTION


Nr.

crt.

Lecture title

Course

(h)

S/L

(h)

1

V.1. Introduction; V.2. Concept of quality
management, quality assurance and
quality control

1

2 (L)

2

V.3. Labor
atory quality management
system

1

2 (L)

3

V.4. Quality manage
ment system in
environmental monitoring and control
laboratories including sonic and
electromagnetic pollution

2

4 (L)

TOTAL CHAPTER V

4

8




TOTAL COURSE

20

32



Observation:

the rest of
14 hours/week

are used by the each student to
prepare, under the

guidance of a professor, his short individual work
choosing a subject of his interest area but related to the course content.










22



5. TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODS


a)

The courses will be presented as lectures, ended with short periods
of time (5
-
10 min
) devoted to supplementary explanations requested
by the students.

b)


As it was already mentioned above there would be seminars or
laboratories work for each learning unit, function of its content:
Chapters I and IV with seminars and Chapters II, III
and V w
ith
laboratory exercise.

c)

Tutorial sessions will be organised for groups or individual students
on request
.

d)

The students will prepare a short individual work in a printed form as
about 10 pages describing a subject related to their domain of
interest but related to the environmental monitoring and control.
They will be supervised by a professor or a researcher a
nd also,
they can use the internet resources.



6. ASSESSMENT




At the end of the course, it will be formed a commission
composed from professors, resear
chers involved in the project and

independent experts (local, regional, governmental authorities) and
it will
assist at the final evaluation of the students.


The evaluation will be done by:

a)

Oral
and / or written
examinations

in order to evaluate the
transfer of knowledge and skills acquired at the end the course.

b)

Oral presentation of the individual work

elaborated by each
student in order to evaluate their ability to make a link between a
subject of their interests and the environmental protection.


The
students,

who will attend the training course
and will
obtain
at least “
Satisfactory


at

the final ex
amination
,
will receive an official
Certificate
.