theories

blessinghomoeopathΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

30 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

75 εμφανίσεις

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

1

Theory

or

Theories?

2

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

To begin ….


Is it possible identify a Theory of
communication field?


There is no canon of general theory
to which they all refer


ONE

specific Theory doesn’t exists
yet

3

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

To begin ….


Scholars of communication
apparently neither agree nor
disagree about much of anything


For the most part, they simply
ignore each other


There is no consensus on
communication theory as a field

4

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

An interesting research
….


Anderson (1996) analyzed the
contents of seven communication
theory textbooks and identified
249

distinct “theories”


195
appeared in only one of the seven
books


the
22%

appeared in more than one book


the
7%

were included in more than three
books



5

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Numerous disciplinary fields ….


Budd and Ruben’s (1972) anthology
of communication highlight
24
several

disciplinary fields: from
anthropology to zoology

6

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Some
observation …


The difficulty in building a specific
communication theory is to connect
with the attempt to summarize
fragments of various disciplines
forgetting that the whole is more
than the sum of its parts

7

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Some
observation …


All communication theories are
relevant to a common practical
lifeworld in which communication is
already a richly meaningful term

8

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

One hypothesis
….


The potential of communication
theory can best be realized, not in
a unified theory of communication
but in a dialogical
-
dialectical
disciplinary matrix

9

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

One hypothesis
….


Robert T. Craig observes that may
be proposed a tentative
re
construction of the multidisciplinary
traditions of communication theory


He identify 7 “traditional” alternative
vocabularies for theorizing
communication as a social practice

10

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

One hypothesis
….


Robert T. Craig identifies 7
“traditional” alternative vocabularies
for theorizing communication as a
social practice


A common awareness of certain
complementarities among different
types of communication theory

11

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

The 7 theories


Rhetoric


Semiotic


Phenomenology


Cybernetic


Socio
-
psychology


Socio
-
cultural


Critical



12

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Rhetoric


Littlejohn observes: The primary
source of ideas about
communication prior to this
century, dating back to ancient
times was rhetoric (1996)

13

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Rhetoric


Originated with the ancient Greek
sophists, communication has
typically been theorized as a
practical art of discourse


Useful for explaining and under
-
stand notably

“public discourse”


In the past also to solve social
exigencies

14

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Rhetoric


Also in modern times, we all know
that rhetoric is a powerful force in
society


It is important to understand how
rhetoric works and to cultivate our
abilities as critical consumers as
well as effective producers of
rhetoric


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Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Rhetoric


We know that some people are
better communicators than others


Communicators: skill or wisdom?


It challenges the commonplaces
that mere words are less important
than actions


16

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Rhetoric


Problems bring into question


Which places may be attributed to
emotion and logic in persuasion?


Rhetoric in inherently good or bad or
just a neutral tool?

17

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Rhetoric


Rhetoric can be in part connected
to real problems that all of us face
in our every
-
day life


For example: how are we swayed
by the emotional appeals that
pervade political and commercial
advertising?

18

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Rhetoric


In modernist thought, rhetoric has
often been cast as the enemy of
communication


For modernists


Communication is all about reason,
truth, clarity, and understanding


Rhetoric is all about traditionalism,
artifice, obfuscation, and manipu
-
lation

19

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Semiotic


The study of signs. It has ancient
roots, but can be said to have
originated in the language theory
of John Locke (1960
-
1979)


In the semiotic tradition,
communication is theorized as
intersubjective mediation by signs

20

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Semiotic


Problems of communication in the
semiotic tradition are primarily
problems of
(re)
presentation and
transmission of meaning


Locke argued that we cannot take
it for granted that people
ordinarily understand each other

21

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Semiotic


Semiotic seems plausible and
practical when:


It appeals to the commonsense
beliefs that communication is easiest
when we share a common language


The words can mean different things
to different people so miscommu
-
nication is a constant danger

22

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Semiotic


Semiotic can seem implausible when it
challenges commonplace beliefs such as
that:


ideas exist in people’s minds


words have correct meanings


meanings can be made explicit


communication is a voluntary act


we use signs and media of communication
as tools to represent and share our
thoughts



23

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Phenomenology


Communication is theorized as
dialogue or experience of otherness


Communication theorized in this way


explains the interplay of identity


and difference in authentic human
relationships

24

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Phenomenology


Communication, or dialogue, is
founded on the experience of
direct, unmediated contact with
others


Direct contacts are essentials to
prevent the risk of behaviors based
on non
-
authenticity

25

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Phenomenology


It supports the dialogue as ideal
communication method, and under
-
line the inherent difficulties


Considering the “gap” between
transmission and reception of
messages, Peters argues that
No
distance is so great as that bet
-
ween two minds

26

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Cybernetic


We have decided to call the entire
field of control and communication
theory, whether in the machine or
in the animal, by the name of
Cybernetics
(Wiener, 1948)

27

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Extension to diverse areas of interest


Systems and information science


Cognitive and artificial science


Functionalist social theory


Network analysis


The Batesonian school of
interpersonal communication

28

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Cybernetic


Communication in the cybernetic
tradition is theorized as
information processing


It explains how all kinds of complex
systems, whether living or nonli
-
ving, macro or micro, are able to
function, and why they often
malfunction

29

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Is Cybernetic plausible?


No, if we consider the
common
-
sense view
:


it points out analogies between living
and nonliving systems


it challenges commonplace beliefs
about the significance of
consciousness and emotions

30

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Is Cybernetic plausible?


it questions our usual distinctions
between mind and matter, form and
content, the real and the artificial

31

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Unquestioned positive aspect


Cybernetics points out that
communication process can be
enormously more complex than
commonsense may be understand


32

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

In summary


Cybernetics cultivate a practical
attitude that appreciates the
complexity of communication
problems and questions many of our
usual differences between human
and nonhuman information
processing systems

33

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Sociopsychology


Experimental socila psychology
theorizes communication as a
process of expression, interaction,
and influence

or, in short,


Communication is the process by
which individuals interact and
influence each other

34

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Sociopsychology


Communication may occur: face
-
to
-
face

35

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Sociopsychology


Communication may occur: one to
many

36

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Sociopsychology


Communication may occur: one to
many and many to one

37

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Sociopsychology

BUT


In all formats it involves interposed
elements that mediate between
individuals

38

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Sociopsychology and Semiotic


For semiotics communication is
mediated by signs and signs
systems


For social psychology communication
is mediated by psychological predi
-
spositions (attitudes, emotional
states, personality traits, uncon
-
scious conflicts, etc.), and by the
effects of social interactions

39

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Sociopsychology, Rhetoric, Cybernetic


Sociopsychology requires rigorous
experimental evidence


It criticizes


Rhetoric for lacking proof that its
persuasive techniques really work


Cybernetics for reducing all
communication to information
-
processing
algorithms that ignore the vagaries of
motivation, personality, and emotion

40

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Sociocultural theory


Communication is a symbolic process
whereby reality is produced,
maintai
-
ned
, repaired, and transformed
(Carey, 1989)


Wherever activities or artifacts have
symbolic values that articulate
indivi
-
duals into positions vis
-
à
-
vis each
other or their collectivities, the com
-
municative

is present
(
Rothenbuhler
,
1993)

41

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Sociocultural theory


Communication in sociology and
anthropology is typically theorized
as
a symbolic process that
produces and
re
produces shared
sociocultural

patterns

42

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Sociocultural theory


The word
re
produce
suggests the
reflexivity of this process

that is,


Our everyday interactions with others
depend heavily on preexisting, shared
cultural patterns and social structures


From this point of view, our everyday
interactions largely
re
produce

the
existing
sociocultural

order

43

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

A central problem

of Sociocultural theory is …


to find the right balance

that is,


to sort out the complex relations
between production and
reproduc
-
tion
, particular local culture and
universal natural law, in social life

44

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Communication problems in the
sociocultural tradition


Problems are thought of as gaps
across


space
-

sociocultural diversity and
relativity


time


sociocultural change

45

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Communication problems in the
sociocultural tradition


Conflicts, misunderstandings, and
difficulties in coordination
increase

when social conditions afford a
scarcity of shared rituals, rules,
and expectations among members

46

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Sociocultural theory

and “perturbations”

* technological change

* breakdown of traditional social orders

* urbanization and mass society

* bureaucratic rationalization

* postmodern cultural fragmentation and
globalization, etc.


are disrupt/creative perturbations that
produce new meanings of communication

47

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Connections among sociocultural theory an
the other communication theories


Hybrids are quite common


A relatively “pure” exemplars of
sociocultural communication theory
may be hard to come by


48

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Some examples


Social action media theory melds a
range of sociocultural, phenomeno
-
logical, and semiotic perspectives


Conversation analysis has interac
-
tionist, phenomenological, and
semiotic roots


49

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Some examples


Rhetorical theory has also taken a
strongly sociocultural turn in which
rhetoric has quite often been
conceptualized as an instrument for
improving human relations


50

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

… a distinct sociocultural “voice”


It is the voice that criticizes


social psychology for its excessive
individualism, and insensitivity to
cultural differences


classical rhetoric for its naïve
assumptions


semiotics for abstracting signs from
the larger sociocultural context

51

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

From a lay point of view …


Sociocultural theory is plausible in
part because


individuals are products of their
social environments


groups develop particular norms,
rituals, and worldviews


social change can be difficult and
disruptive

52

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Sociocultural theory ..


… cultivates communicative
practices that


acknowledge cultural diversity and
relativity


value tolerance and understanding


emphasize collective more than
individual responsibility

53

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Critical communication theory


The origins: Plato’s conceptions of
Socratic dialectic


This theory emphasizes a certain
instability that inheres in every act
of communication

54

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Critical communication theory


Communication that involves only
the transmission
-
reception of ritual
sharing of meanings is inherently
faulty, distorted, incomplete


Authentic communication occurs
only in a process of
discursive
reflection

55

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Critical communication theory


For this theory, the basic
problem
of communication

in society arises
from material and ideological
forces that preclude or distort
discursive reflection

56

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

From a lay point of view …


… the critical tradition is plausible
when
(e.g.)


it appeals to commonplace beliefs
about the omnipresence of injustice
and conflict in society


the ways in which power and
domination can overcome truth and
reason

57

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Critical communication theory


Critical theory runs from Marx
ideas, and is associated with new
social movements


In the tradition of Marx, its point
is not to understand the world, but
is to change it through praxis, or
theoretically reflective social action

58

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

Critical communication theory


Critical theory is criticized


for politicizing science and
scholarship


for asserting a universal normative
standard for communication based
on a priori ideology

59

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

CONCLUDING REFLECTIONS


Each traditional communication
theory is internally complex and
open to multiple interpretations


Each of them, when magnified,
displays a dialogical
-
dialectical
field structure of multiple
traditions much like that a
communication theory as a whole

60

Prof.ssa Ernestina Giudici

CONCLUDING REFLECTIONS


The field of communication theory
is not a repository of absolute
truth. It claims no more than to be
useful.