Project Management: A Managerial Approach 4/e - Wiley

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Project Management:
A Managerial Approach 4/e


By Jack R. Meredith and Samuel J. Mantel, Jr.


Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Presentation prepared by RTBM WebGroup

Project Management

A Managerial Approach

Chapter 11


Project Control

Project Control


Control is the last element in the
implementation cycle of planning
-
monitoring
-
controlling


Control is focused on three elements of a
project


Performance


Cost


Time

Chapter 11
-
1

Controlling Performance


There are several things that can cause a
project’s performance to require control
:


Unexpected technical problems arise


Insufficient resources are available when needed


Insurmountable technical difficulties are present


Quality or reliability problems occur


Client requires changes in specifications


Interfunctional complications arise


Technological breakthroughs affect the project



Chapter 11
-
2

Controlling Cost


There are several things that can cause a
project’s cost to require control:


Technical difficulties require more resources


The scope of the work increase


Initial bids were too low


Reporting was poor or untimely


Budgeting was inadequate


Corrective control was not exercised in time


Input price changes occurred


Chapter 11
-
3

Controlling Time


There are several things that can cause a project’s
schedule to require control:


Technical difficulties took longer than planned to resolve


Initial time estimates were optimistic


Task sequencing was incorrect


Required inputs of material, personnel, or equipment
were unavailable when needed


Necessary preceding tasks were incomplete


Customer generated change orders required rework


Governmental regulations were altered


Chapter 11
-
4

Purposes of Control


There are two fundamental objectives of control:


1. The regulation of results through the alteration of




activities


2. The stewardship of organizational assets


The project manager needs to be equally attentive
to both regulation and conservation


The project manager must guard the physical
assets of the organization, its human resources,
and its financial resources

Chapter 11
-
5

Physical Asset Control


Requires control of the
use

of physical assets


Concerned with asset maintenance, whether preventive or
corrective


Also the timing of maintenance or replacement as well as
the quality of maintenance


Setting up maintenance schedules in such a way as to
keep the equipment in operating condition while
minimizing interference to ongoing work


Physical inventory whether equipment or material must
also be controlled

Chapter 11
-
6

Human Resource Control


Stewardship of human resources requires
controlling and maintaining the growth and
development of people


Projects provide fertile ground for cultivating
people


Because projects are unique, it is possible
for people working on projects to gain a
wide range of experience in a reasonably
short period of time

Chapter 11
-
7

Financial Resource Control


The techniques of financial control, both
conservation and regulation, are well known:


Current asset controls


Project budgets


Capital investment controls


These controls are exercised through a series
of analyses and audits conducted by the
accounting/controller function

Chapter 11
-
8

Financial Resource Control


Representation of the accounting/controlling
function on the project team is mandatory


The parent organization is responsible for the
conservation and proper
use

of resources owned
by the client or charged to the client


Due diligence requires that the organization
proposing a project conduct a reasonable
investigation, verification, and disclosure of all
material facts relevant to the firm’s ability to
conduct the project

Chapter 11
-
9

Three Types of Control
Processes


Decisions must be made concerning:


At what points in the project will control be
exerted


What is to be controlled


How it will be measured


How much deviation will be tolerated


How to spot and correct potential deviations
before they occur

Chapter 11
-
10

Three Types of Control
Processes


No matter what the purpose in controlling a
project there are two basic types of control
mechanisms that can be used:


Go/no
-
go control


Post control


Cybernetic control is a third, but less
common control mechanism that is rarely
directly applicable to projects.

Chapter 11
-
11

Go/No
-
go Controls


Take the form of testing to see if some specific
precondition has been met


Most of the control in project management falls
into this category


This type of control can be used on almost every
aspect of a project


Must exercise judgment in the use of go/no
-
go
controls


Go/no
-
go controls operate only when and if the
controller uses them

Chapter 11
-
12

Information Requirements
for Go/no
-
go Controls


The project proposal, plans specifications,
schedules and budgets contain all the information
needed to apply go/no
-
go controls to the project


Milestones are the key events that serve as a focus
for ongoing control activity


These milestones are the project’s deliverables in
the form of in
-
process output or final output

Chapter 11
-
13

Postcontrol


Postcontrols are applied after the fact


Directed toward improving the chances for future
projects to meet their goals


It is applied through a relatively formal document
that contains four distinct sections:


The project objectives


Milestones, checkpoints, and budgets


The final report on project


Recommendations for performance and process
improvement

Chapter 11
-
14

Characteristics of a
Control System


A good control system:


Should be flexible


Should be cost effective


Must be truly useful


Must satisfy the real needs of the project


Must operate in a timely manner


Sensors and monitors should be sufficiently accurate and
precise to control the project within the limits that are
functional for the client and parent organization



Chapter 11
-
15

Characteristics of a
Control System


A good control system (cont.):


Should be as simple as possible


Should be easy to maintain


Should be capable of being extended or otherwise
altered


Should be fully documented when installed


the documentation should include a complete training
program in system operation

Chapter 11
-
16

Control Systems


All control systems use feedback as a control
process


The control of performance, cost, and time usually
require different input data:


Performance

-

engineering change notices, test results,
quality checks, rework tickets, scrap rates


Cost

-

budgets to actual cash flows, purchase orders,
absenteeism, income reports, labor hour charges,
accounting variance reports


Schedule

-

benchmark reports, status reports, PERT/CPM
networks, earned value graphs, Gantt charts, WBS, and
action plans


Chapter 11
-
17

Control Tools


Some of the most important tools available for the
project manager to use in controlling the project
are variance analysis and trend projection


A budget plan or expected growth curve of time or
cost for a certain task is plotted


Actual values are plotted as a dashed line as the
work is actually finished


At each point in time a new projection from the
actual data is used to forecast what will occur in
the future


Chapter 11
-
18

Control Tools


Trend projection

Chapter 11
-
19

Critical Ratio Control
Charts


The critical ratio is made up of two parts:


The ratio of actual progress to scheduled progress


The ratio of budgeted cost to actual cost


The critical ratio is a good measure of the general
health of the project


By combining two ratios, it weighs them equally,
allowing a “bad” ratio to be offset by a “good”
ratio

Chapter 11
-
20

Critical Ratio

Chapter 11
-
21

Task

Number

Critcal

Ratio

Actual

Cost

Budgeted

Cost

Scheduled

Progress

Actual

Progress

1

(2 / 3) X

(6 /


4) = 1.0

2

(2 / 3) X

(6 /


6) = .67

3

(3 / 3) X

(4 /


6) = .67

4

(3 / 2) X

(6 /


6) = 1.5

5

(3 / 3) X

(6 /


4) = 1.5

Critical Ratio


Critical ratio control chart

Chapter 11
-
22

Benchmarking


A recent addition to the arsenal of of project
control tools is
benchmarking


Benchmarking makes comparisons to “best in
class” practices across organizations


Some successful organizations have been
benchmarked on their best practices and key
success factors for projects being conducted
in functional organizations

Chapter 11
-
23

Best Practices and Keys to
Success


There were four major areas found to help
projects in functional organizations:


Promoting the benefits of project management


Personnel pay for project management skills
and high risk projects through bonuses, stock
options, and other incentives


Methodology


Results of project management


Chapter 11
-
24

Control as a Function of
Management


The purpose of controlling is always the same: to
bring the actual schedule, budget, and
deliverables of the project into reasonably close
congruence with the planned schedule, budget,
and deliverables



The job of the project manager is to set controls
that will encourage those behaviors that are
deemed desirable and discourage those that are
not

Chapter 11
-
25

Cybernetic Controls


Human response to steering controls tends to
be positive


Steering controls are usually viewed as helpful
rather than a source of unwelcome pressure


Response to steering controls also depends on
the acceptance that the goals of the control
system are appropriate

Chapter 11
-
26

Go/No
-
go Controls


Response to go/no
-
go controls tends to be
neutral or negative


“Barely good enough” results are just as
acceptable as “perfect” results


The system makes it difficult for the worker to
take pride in high quality work because the
system does not recognize gradations of quality


The fact that this kind of control emphasizes
“good enough” performance is no excuse for the
nonchalant application of careless standards


Chapter 11
-
27

Postcontrols


Postcontrols are seen as much the same as a
report card


They may serve as the basis for reward or
punishment, but they are received too late to
change current performance


Because postcontrols are placed on the process of
conducting a project, they may be applied to such
areas as: communication, cooperation, quality of
project management, and the nature of interaction
with the client


Chapter 11
-
28

Balance in a Control
System


General features of a balanced control system:


Built with cognizance of the fact that investment in
control is subject to sharply diminishing returns


Recognizes that as control increases past some point,
innovative activity is more and more damped, and then
finally shut off completely


Directed toward the correction of error rather than
toward punishment


Exerts control only to the degree required to achieve its
objectives


Utilizes the lowest degree of hassle consistent with
accomplishing its goals

Chapter 11
-
29

Control of Creative
Activities


The more creativity involved, the greater the
degree of uncertainty surrounding outcomes


Too much control tends to inhibit creativity


Control is not necessarily the enemy of creativity,
nor does creative activity imply complete
uncertainty of


There are three general approaches to control
creative projects:


Progress review


Personnel reassignment


Control of input resources


Chapter 11
-
30

Progress Review


The progress review focuses on the process of
reaching outcomes rather than on the outcomes
per se


The process is controllable even if the precise
results are not


Control should be instituted at each project
milestone


The object of control is to ensure that the
research design is sound and is being carried out
as planned or amended

Chapter 11
-
31

Personnel Reassignment


This type of control is straightforward
-

individuals who are productive are kept


Those who are not, are moved to other jobs or
to other organizations


While it is not difficult to identify those who fall
in the top and bottom quartiles, it is usually
quite hard to make clear distinctions between
the people in the middle quartiles

Chapter 11
-
32

Control of Input Resources


The focus is on efficiency


The ability to manipulate input resources carries
with it considerable control over output


Considerable resource expenditure may occur
with no visible results, but suddenly many
outcomes may be delivered


The milestones for application of resource control
must be chosen with great care

Chapter 11
-
33

Control of Change and
Scope Creep


Coping with changes and changing priorities is
perceived as the most important single problem
facing the project manager


The most common changes are due to the natural
tendency of the client and project team members to
try to improve the product or service


The later these changes are made in the project, the
more difficult and costly they are to complete


Without control, a continuing accumulation of little
changes can have a major negative impact on the
project’s schedule and cost


Chapter 11
-
34

Control of Change and
Scope Creep


The project manager’s best hope is to control the
process by which change is introduced and
accomplished


This can be done with a formal change control system
that is able to:


Review all requested changes and identify all task impacts


Translate those impacts into project performance, cost, and
schedule


Evaluate the benefits and costs of the requested changes


Accept or reject the changes and communicate to all concerned
parties


Ensure that changes are implemented properly

Chapter 11
-
35

Effective Change Control
Procedure



The following guidelines, applied with reasonable
rigor, can be used to effectively control changes:


1. All project contracts or agreements must include a



description of how requests for a change in the



project’s plan, budget, schedule, and/or




deliverables, will be introduced and processed


2. Any change in a project will be in the form of a



change order that will include a description of the



agreed
-
upon change together with any changes in



the plan, budget, schedule, and/or deliverables that


result from the change


Chapter 11
-
36

Effective Change Control
Procedure



3. Changes must be approved, in writing, by the




client’s agent as well as by an appropriate




representative of senior management of the firm



responsible for carrying out the project


4. The project manager must be consulted on all



desired changes prior to the preparation and




approval of the change order. The project




manager’s approval, however, is not required


5. Once the change order has been completed and



approved, the project master plan should be




amended to reflect the change, and the change



order becomes part of the master plan

Chapter 11
-
37

Summary


Control is directed to performance, cost, and
time


The two fundamental purposes of control are
to regulate results through altering activity
and to conserve the organization’s physical,
human, and financial assets


The two
main

types of control processes are
go/no
-
go and postcontrol

Chapter 11
-
38

Summary


The postcontrol report contains four
sections:


Project objectives


Milestones and budgets


Final project results


Recommendations for improvement+


The trend projection curve, critical ratios,
and the control chart are useful control
tools



Chapter 11
-
39

Summary


Control systems have a close relationship to
motivation and should be well
-
balanced: that is
cost effective, appropriate to the desired end
results, and not overdone


Three approaches to the control of creativity are
progress review, personnel reassignment, and
control of inputs


The biggest single problem facing a project
manager is the control of change


Chapter 11
-
40

Project Control







Questions?







Chapter 11
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Table Files






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Project Control

Project Control


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