Chapter 10 The Joint Training Confederation (JTC), Linking Simulations, and Remoting Simulations

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Chapter 10


The Joint Training Confederation (JTC), Linking Simulations,


and Remoting Simulations



This chapter expands on all information presented in the three previous chapters
of the third major part of this handbook (What Simulations Are Available Now?). This
chapter addresses the JTC (first used in REFORGER 92), remoti
ng exercises, and other
topics that focus on Army training priorities for simulations.



Section 10.1 The Joint Training Confederation (JTC)



The JTC

is a set of models from the various services and joint agencies joined by the ALSP to
support selected
joint and combined training exercises. ALSP permits multiple warfare simulations to
interact with each other through a common, message
-
based protocol interface.



Current models in the JTC are: Army
-

CBS, CSSTSS, and TACSIM; Air Force
-

AWSIM; Navy
-

R
ESA; Marine Corps
-

MTWS; Joint C2 Warfare Center
-

JQUAD; U.S. SPACECOM
-

MSDT; and
USTRANSCOM
-

AMP.



Each model proponent owns and operates the models mentioned above. With the advent of the
JTC, the US military can now conduct joint and combined tra
ining of a joint task force (JTF) for the first time
without deploying troops and equipment to the field.



The JTC simulates theater level warfare and incorporates nearly all aspects of theater campaign
planning and execution. The JTC allows the services to conduct joint training exercises to simulate future
joint and combined operations for various worldwide
theaters of operations. Major joint exercises at the
CINC level using the JTC

are Prairie Warrior (Ft Leavenworth, KS), Ulchi Focus Lens (Korea), Unified
Endeavor (Norfolk, VA), and Union Flash (EUROPE).



Section 10.2 The Aggregate Level Simulation Pro
tocol (ALSP)



ALSP is the simulation protocol designed to permit multiple, pre
-
existing warfare simulations to
interact with each other over LANs and WANs. In concept, it was patterned after SIMNET (now DIS) where
each simulation controls its own objects

and shares information about them with other simulations.



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ALSP was born out of the need to provide computer assisted exercise realism through the use and
interaction of the various service owned battle simulations. Many

of these battlefield elements models were already in existence in computer simulations such
as the Air
Force's AWSIM, the Army's CBS and TACSIM, the JC2WC's JECEWSI, and the Navy's RESA. The Army's
CSSTSS was developed to work in the confederation.



Each model singly is designed to operate alone. The need to simulate the realism of joint
opera
tions means integrating each service's simulation model into the scope of the overall simulated
theater of operations. The philosophy of ALSP is to continue to allow each one of these simulations to
operate as it was originally designed and simultaneously

share the information about its operation with the
other models. Thus, when combined, the ALSP JTC

provides a realistic theater wide picture of the battle.
Efforts are underway to transition the JTC to an HLA Compliance via the ALSP Data and Protocol Tr
ansfer
over Run Time Interface (RTI) (ADAPTOR) and Federation Management Tool (FMT) which provides the
Defense Modeling and SimulationOffice (DMSO) a testbed for the JSIM/WARSIM development.



























Figure 10.1
-

Models (Simulations) in the Joint Training Confederation


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Section 10.3 Remoting Simulations



Remoting Simulations is
the use of multiple computers at various geographic locations with one or
more simulations joined to conduct training. By remoting simulations, trainers and trainees in two or more
locations can interact. A simulation may be remoted from across post, acr
oss country, across the ocean, or
a combination. It allows the training of battalion through EAC staffs to interact to meet training goals and
METLs for their appropriate organizations from home base.



Remoting simulations may also be the remoting of one

simulation to various locations or the
remoting of two or more simulations from numerous locations to form a JTC. This remoting function is
conducted using LANs and/or WANs to provide data connectivity.



Remoting of C2 simulations is widespread in the A
C and essential in the RC divisions (exercise)
that have BPCs. One NG division, the 35th ID (M) has units spread over six states (Kentucky, Missouri,
Kansas, Nebraska, Arkansas, and Illinois). This division has conducted C2 simulations over a weekend
tra
ining assembly with units remaining at home station.



There are three methods for providing remote digital connectivity of simulations. Dedicated point to
point/point to multipoint connectivity can be achieved by commercial leased telephone lines, DOD ta
ctical
satellites, or a combination of the two. DOD and commercial telephone service is the second method. The
third manner in which connectivity can be accomplished is by DOD packet switched digital network.



Section 10.4 Why Simulations Are Remoted



Simulations are remoted from different geographical locations for several reasons. It helps to
reduce training costs, troop deployments, exercise costs (property damage, fuel consumption, repair parts,
and field losses of equipment), and reduces scripti
ng of scenarios for CPX play. They are remoted to
increase training effectiveness and efficiency for battalion through EAC units. They are also remoted to
maximize use of widely distributed computing assets that may not be available in one central locati
on.



It is more cost efficient to remote a simulation to an out stationed unit than it is to deploy that unit to
a simulation center. Due to the short training time available to RC units, remoting has greatly increased the
effectiveness of this resource
while reducing training costs since units can train at and from home station.
In addition, training with simulations is often realistic and stressful which adds to the overall training value.



Section 10.5 Linking Different Simulations Together



Linki
ng different simulations together uses the appropriate simulation to properly represent a
particular weapon, logistical, or C2 system in a realistic tactical or strategic setting. With the capability
developed to link different simulations, such as the AL
SP, simulations can be linked to simulate an Air Force
fighter, a Naval carrier, an Army tank, an Army logistical hierarchy, and Threat systems and hierarchies on
the same terrain to provide a more realistic representation of the modern battlefield. This a
llows joint and
98

combined forces to conduct training exercises without expending vast training dollars on live exercises
which require the deployment of troops and equipment to field locations.



With the vast number of models in the Army and Joint services

which are specialized in specific
areas of interest, it is more cost effective to develop a new protocol or use an existing protocol, such as
ALSP, to link these simulations than it is to add new code or to rewrite existing code to add a new
enhancement t
o a special purpose simulation model. This allows the trainers and trainees to conduct a
realistic battle using these joined simulations to conduct wargaming exercises in various locations through
the world without having to be deployed to that region.



Section 10.6 The Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) / High Level Architecture (HLA)



DIS is a program that provides the integration of computers and communications. DIS is built
around the concept of fully interoperable standards and protocols, a
llowing each member of the community
to leverage the concepts and products from the other members.



DIS brings together several different concepts. Distributed means geographically separated
simulations, each hosted on a computer connected via communicat
ion networks to create a shared
synthetic environment (i.e. no central computer). Interactive means different simulations electronically
linked (not remoted) to act together and upon each other. Simulations are categorized into three types:
live, virtua
l, and constructive. Live simulation means real equipment and soldiers operating in the field.
Virtual simulation means the use of manned simulators. Constructive simulation refers to wargames and
simulations, with or without human interaction. (See Cha
pter 5, Section 5.5 through 5.7)



The basic concepts of DIS are an extension of the Simulation Networking (SIMNET) program.
Basic design concepts follow.


*

No central computer for event scheduling or conflict resolution.


*

Autonomous simulation nodes
responsible for maintaining the state of at least one
simulation entity.


*

Standard data bases and communications protocols.


*

Each receiving node communicates only changes in their states.


*

Each node communicates only changes in their state.


*

Dead r
eckoning algorithms are used to reduce communications processing.



The best operational example of DIS is the SIMNET training sites located at various military
installations. At these sites, crew members man the simulators and participate in a simulated
"virtual" battle
exercise. Each simulator is under the full control of the individual vehicle commander and communicates
with other vehicle commanders through a LAN. Through the WAN vehicle crews from multiple sites can
99

communicate with each other and pa
rticipate in a common exercise, fully interactive with simulators at each
site.



The CATTs, (Section 8.2) is developing simulators for functional areas such as aviation, engineer,
air defense, and fire support. The first such simul
ator, CCTT, is in production and initial fielding was in FY
95 and 96.



The vision for DIS is much larger than just the CATT program and the services are exploiting the
potential inherent in DIS technology to improve all areas in modeling and simulation.

DIS technology is
applicable not only to simulator development programs (i.e. Virtual Simulations), but to Constructive
Simulations (i.e. Wargames, Battle Models), and to the instrumentation and feedback system supporting
live exercises that occur at the

CTCs.



Building on the experience of DIS protocol, the Defense Models and Simulations Office (DMSO)
is developing the HLA to support a broad spectrum of distributed simulation applications. HLA will be an
extension of the DIS concept to support requi
rements of an expanded set of users of distributed simulation.
HLA calls for a common technical architecture framework which will apply to the full range of functional
applications of modeling and simulation to be applied throughout the Department of Defe
nse. The
objective of HLA is to facilitate interoperability among simulations and to promote the reuse of simulations
and their components. The HLA baseline definition is being developed through a set of prototypes which
are implementing a diverse set o
f applications using the initial HLA specification. The experience of these
prototypes is being used to evolve the specification to establish the HLA baseline. Future simulations such
as WARSIM 2000 and the Synthetic Theater of War (STOW) environment wil
l be based on HLA standards.



Section 10.7 The Synthetic Theater of War (STOW)




Definition
. STOW is the combination (two or more) live, virtual and constructive simulations in a
training/rehearsal or experimentation activity. STOW
-
A is a suite of h
ardware and software used to create
and support linkages between live, virtual, or constructive environments “required” to support prototyping
for future, study and testing of concepts and equipment, mission rehearsal and training...with links to C4I
syste
ms.



Background
. The STOW
-
Europe (STOW
-
E) Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) was
conducted in conjunction with Atlantic Resolve 94. STOW
-
E showcased DIS technology as a proof of
concept demonstration that linked live, virtual and constructive trainin
g environments. STOW/Prairie
Warrior 95 was a worldwide distributed exercise using the National Simulation Center as the hub of
operations. This exercise refined the virtual
-
constructive linkage developed during STOW
-
E and linked four
virtual sites.



STO
W/Prairie Warrior 95 was a worldwide distributed exercise using the National Simulation
Center as the hub of operations. This exercise refined the virtual
-
constructive linkage developed during
STOW
-
E and linked four virtual sites. The SIMNET forces were
exercised from Grafenwoehr, Germany;
Fort Knox, Kentucky; and Fort Benning, Georgia. AIRNET from Fort Rucker, Alabama provided the attack
100

helicopter simulators.



STOWEX 96 (conducted 3
-
6 Sep 96) used a hardened virtual constructive linkage to the point t
hat
a TO&E unit could conduct a successful STOW exercise with minimal external contractor support. A
STOW
-
A hub capability was established at the NSC while remote locations were established at Ft Benning,
Ft Knox, Ft Riley and Ft Rucker.



During FY97, S
TOW
-
A hub capabilities were fielded to 2ID at Camp Casey, Korea and used to
support WARSTEED 97, a Bde exercise involving soldiers in virtual
-
constructive environments linked
manually to live training. A STOW
-
A hub capability was also established at Ft.
Knox.








Description
.

STOW
-
A Version 1.6
. During FY 98, the STOW
-
A baseline derived from previous
development during FY95 thr
ough FY97 will be version 1.6. This baseline allows the interaction of weapons
systems and units between training environments. Enhancements in greater stability and consistency
between environments will be provided in the new baseline. Baseline version
1.6 consists of the current



Figure 10.7
-

Synthetic Theater of War
-

Architecture (STOW
-
A) History

101

STOW
-
Architecture (STOW
-
A) baseline is version 1.5. It consists of:



1. BBS version 5.1. BBS is a constructive simulation model that is designed to train battalion and
brigade commanders and their battle staffs (see section 7
.6).



2. ModSAF version 3.0 (15 April 97). Modular Semi
-
Automated Forces (ModSAF) is a computer
generated SAF that is used to create and maneuver individual vehicles and weapons systems.



3. SIMNET/AIRNET. The SIMNET/AIRNET system is a legacy 1st gener
ation man
-
in
-
the
-
loop
virtual simulation utilizing individual combat vehicle and aircraft simulators.



4. Infrastructure components. The Operational State Interpreter (OPSIN) provides two way
translation of data between BBS and ModSAF. In effect, it faci
litates the disaggregation/aggregation
process. Additionally, it translates battlefield effects, such as artillery bursts, from the constructive to the
virtual environment. The Cell Interface Adapter Unit (CIAU) provides local area network filtering of DIS

protocols. It also provides two
-
way translation of DIS and SIMNET protocols. The Application Gateway
(AG) provides wide area network filtering of DIS protocols between each geographic location.



5. 3D Stealth and Datalogger. The 2D and 3D see all capability is provided by the STRIPES
software package. STRIPES provides a multi
-
screen 3D view that can be tethered to an individual system
or detached for a "fly through" view of the battlefield.



ST
OW
-
A Hub and Remote Sites
. The STOW
-
A hub concept utilizes BBS linked

through the OPSIN to a number of ModSAF workstations. These three components are physically adjacent
to one another. The entire BBS simulation can be played from the hub location or rem
oted to the training
unit's home location, (if the location of hub and unit are different). The DIS data traffic flows over a wide area
network between the hub location and the SIMNET/AIRNET participating locations.



Current Capabilities
. The STOW
-
A base
line version 1.5 is operational at the NSC STOW
-
A hub.
Units can now schedule bde level STOW exercises with the NSC for use in conjunction with
SIMNET/AIRNET simulator training at Ft. Knox, Ft. Benning or Ft Rucker. The BBS constructive simulation
will b
e run from the NSC and remoted to the unit’s location. A limited capability to conduct STOW exercises
is also available at Ft. Knox.



Future Capabilities
. STOW
-
A will focus its efforts in FY 98 in the stimulation of C4I devices.
STOW
-
A version 2.0 invo
lves the development and fielding of interfaces between real world C4I devises
(ATCCS) and CCTT. The 2ID Counterfire Simulation Program (CSP) involves the development and fielding
of the Target Acquisition Fire Support Model (TAFSM) with interfaces to the

Artillery C4I systems. This
capability will also be used with the STOW Deep Operations capability that will stimulate Deep Operation
Coordinating Cells (DOCC). The STOW
-
A program will also be supporting TF 160 in conducting Special
operations mission re
hearsals using aviation simulators.


102


STOW
-
A Version 1.6
. STOW
-
A Version 1.6 will be fielded during 2d qtr FY98. In addition to
selected fixes from previous versions, the baseline 1.6 will include the latest versions of BBS (ver 5.1) and
ModSAF (ver 3.0
). A STOW
-
A hub capability will be fielded to Ft Stewart, Ga. and a remote capability will
be fielded to Ft. Lewis, Wa.



STOW
-
A Version 2.0
. During FY 98, the STOW
-
A program will develop, in conjunction with the
CCTT program, interfaces between CCTT/CCTT
-
SAF and the real world C4I systems used at the Bn/Bde
level. C4I interfaces for the ATCCS systems will be developed and integrated during
FY98, with Ft Hood as
the initial location for fielding NLT 1st Qtr FY99. Candidate interfaces to the C4I systems include the
Tactical Simulation Interface Unit (TSIU) developed by the Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC).



2ID CSP
. The 2ID Co
unterfire Simulation Program (CSP) is being developed at the request of the
CG, Eighth U.S. Army (EUSA) for support for counterfire training. The 2ID CSP is an entity based suite of
simulation tools that uses the Target Acquisition Fire Support Model (TAF
SM) to replicate artillery weapons
systems and sensors. TAFSM can stimulate artillery C4I systems such as IFSAS and AFATDS through the
Personal Computer Interface Unit (PIU). The Enhanced Air Defense Simulation (EADSIM) is used to
portray both Blue and
Red Air operations and tactical missiles. The TSIU also can be used to stimulate
additional C4I systems. The 2ID CSP will be fielded to Korea in the 3d qtr, FY98.



STOW
-
A Deep Operations
. The TPO
-
STOW has received a number of requests for exercise
s
imulation support to drive the Deep Operations Coordinating Cell (DOCC) found at Corps headquarters
and echelons above Corps. DOCC missions include the integration and synchronization of Corps assets to
decide, detect, deliver, and assess high value targe
ts in deep operations. Subject to funding, STOW
-
A
Deep Operations will be developed during FY98 to support DOCC training in stand
-
alone operations or
imbedded as part of a larger Corps exercise. The 2ID CSP will be integrated into the Deep Operations set

of tools. A prototype interface to stimulate C4I systems using CBS (see section 7.7) is also being
developed in FY98 to facilitate training in the larger Corps context.



Section 10.8 Simulation in Training for Advanced Readiness (SIMITAR)



SIMITAR wa
s a Congressionally mandated program initiated in FY 92 “. . .to apply advanced
technology to the training of NG Roundout Brigades.” The program addressed training readiness issues
identified during the Desert Shield/Desert Storm mobilization
.


The progra
m was a six year project involving two ARNG Separate Brigades (Enhanced
Brigades) as experimental units. It culminated with their mobilization and movement to the NTC for
rotations using the experimental technologies and training strategies.



The object
ive of Project SIMITAR was to achieve training readiness levels 200
-
300%
higher than those observed in the 1991 mobilization for Desert Shield and Desert Storm through
development and extensive use of low cost information technologies and radical new train
ing strategies.



The technologies employed used a combination of current and emerging technologies
including: networked simulations; virtual reality; interactive computer
-
based instruction; artificial
intelligence; and voice recognition. To control costs
, commercial off
-
the
-
shelf technologies were adapted
as much as possible. Developmental technologies also exploited open architectures and existing or
evolving commercial standards.



These technologies, and strategies for their use, focused on five areas:


*

Development of more objective measures of performance and measures of effectiveness.

103


*

Brigade and Battalion staff battle synchronization skills.


*

Small unit collective training

(company and team down to squad and crew level).


*

CSS training.


*

Certain key individual functional training across all levels of organization.



Project SIMITAR explored a combination of existing Army technologies and developmental
efforts. Some of t
he representative technologies under development included:

:


*

A three dimensional table top staff synchronization trainer that provides CPXs on demand.


*

Modification of mobile SIMNET to exercise battalion and task force level of play.


*

Development of

a RC Virtual Training Center at Fort Knox, KY that will train a task force in a
multi
-
echelon mode.


*

Development of staff synchronization exercises based upon actual unit performance at the
NTC.


*

Professionally trained unit level O/Cs.


*

Development of a reconfigurable simulator for training purposes and as abase for rapid
prototyping.


*

Development of desktop equipment emulators and vehicle crew station simulators.


*

Individual functional training packages for key staff positions and cr
itical CSS MOSQ skill
nodes.


*

Development of artificial intelligence instructors and operators for gunnery training.


*

Development of compressed gunnery and tactical training programs.


*

Development of new low cost position location instrumentation and

intervehicular
communications systems for force
-
on
-
force use, range safety, and tactical use.



Regarding constructive simulations, Project SIMITAR focused on, and modified, the JANUS
simulation in three areas.


*

Development of additional and enhanced pl
ay of CS and CSS functions within the JANUS
model.


104

*

Development of a distributed version of the JANUS model (so that JANUS players do not need
to be gathered together to one location to participate in an exercise, but can participate from
their home stat
ions or armories).


*

Porting of JANUS to all it to run on commercial off
-
the
-
shelf (COTS) personal computers
running the LINUX operating system (to reduce the cost of purchasing and fielding JANUS
suites, and to allow the hardware to be utilized for dista
nce learning when not required for
JANUS exercises).



The above modifications are currently being fielded to the ARNG Separate Brigades (Enhanced).
They are also to be merged in the Army JANUS software baseline.



Sect
ion 10.9 The Defense Simulation Internet (DSI)



As of 1 Oct 97, the DSI no longer officially exists. DSI was a set of connected site networks
dedicated to supporting simulation projects throughout DoD. The services DSI provided are now provided
by the

Defense Information Systems Agency and are referred to as the "Defense Information System
Network
-

Enhanced IP Services" (DISN
-
EIPS).



Although original plans called for connections to 50 organizations, there are only 22 sites located in
CONUS and no OC
ONUS sites. There are no longer any transportable gateways. This capability went
away when DSI transitioned from JPO
-
AITS to DISA.



DSI is no longer less costly than commercial communications. Based on the dropping costs of
commercial services, the fre
quency, duration, and locations of exercises, the DISN
-
EIPS is only
competitive at best and may be more expensive in the worst case.



The DISN
-
EIPS has a 45 MB per second (T3) backbone supported by Asynchronous Transfer
Mode switches. However, the linkag
e from the NSC into this system is still only 1.54 MB/s (T1). This
system can support both classified and unclassified simulations events and video teleconferencing to other
DISN
-
EIPS sites.





Addressing a number of related simulations training prioriti
es for the Army, this
chapter laid a foundation for future developments in which the trainer will be involved. As
training resources are continually reduced, linkage to other simulations will maximize
training resources in the DoD. The topics presented i
n this chapter gives the Army trainer
a balanced perspective of important initiatives in C2 training.