Unstructured Data and the Role of Natural Language Processing

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24 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Unstructured Data and the Role
of Natural Language Processing

Philip Resnik

Department of Linguistics and

Institute for Advanced Computer Studies

University of Maryland


Wolfram Data Summit

September 7, 2012

Hiya, guys. What did
you think of Obama’s
speech last night? I
think I liked
Michelle’s better.

2

Beep.

I didn’t watch it. I
was playing a nice
game of chess.



Daisy, Daisy…

3

Sources: graph adapted from Church, K. (2003) “Speech and Language Processing: Where have we been and where are we going,” Eu
ros
peech,
Geneva, Switzerland. Green circle data have been added from figures in Cardie and Mooney (1999).

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Annual Meeting of the Association for
Computational Linguistics

% “Statistical”

Papers

The statistical revolution in NLP

4

AI Winter

5

NLP is no longer about getting
machines to understand
language like people do.

It’s about building machines that
do things with language that
people find useful
.

Surface methods

6

Surface methods plus categories

7

Pennebaker, Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count

http://www.liwc.net/tryonlineresults.php

Surface methods plus categories

8

Brendan O’Connor, Ramnath
Balasubramanyan, Bryan R.
Routledge, Noah A. Smith, From
Tweets to Polls: Linking Text
Sentiment to Public Opinion
Time Series, Proceedings of the
International AAAI Conference
on Weblogs and Social Media,
Washington, DC, May 2010.

Surface methods plus categories

*Note that Noah Smith did point out this ambiguity!

Surface methods plus hidden structure

10

http://www.statmt.org/moses/?n=Moses.Background

natuerlich hat john spass am spiel

of course john has fun with the game

11

One morning I shot an
elephant in my pajamas.


How he got in my pajamas, I
don’t know.

One morning I
shot
an elephant

in my pajamas
.

One morning I
shot
an elephant in my pajamas
.

HPI:
Atrial fibrillation. This patient is a 56
-
year
-
old white gentleman who has had a
history of atrial fib on and off since he had his bypass surgery. Patient was originally
diagnosed with coronary artery disease as well as mitral valve problems approximately
3 years ago. Dr. Tirona used to take care of him at that time. He had a bypass surgery
as well as mitral valve repair done at that time. Postop he had an episode of A
-
fib
which then resolved spontaneously. He remembers somebody talking to him about
cardioversion, but then the A
-
fib resolved spontaneously. So he was started on
Coumadin. He would get some occasional episodes, but usually they are very brief, so
he never bothered about them. Of late, over the last few months, he has been getting
more frequent episodes and duration of these episodes is also prolonged for a few
hours. So he saw Dr. Hagan who has referred him here for further evaluation and
treatment. The patient states when he does get the A
-
fib, he feels very weak, tired, and
short of breath. He denies any chest pain. Otherwise he is usually very active
physically, he works fulltime as an electrician, and has not had any problems as far as
doing his day
-
to
-
day work.



MEDICAL HISTORY:
1. Coronary artery disease as mentioned above. 2.
Hypertension. 3. Hypercholesterolemia.


.

IMPRESSION:
Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in a patient with prior mitral valve disease,
currently having more frequent breakthroughs symptoms.

Extracting structured information

HPI:
Atrial fibrillation. This patient is a 56
-
year
-
old white gentleman who has had a
history of atrial fib on and off since he had his bypass surgery. Patient was originally
diagnosed with coronary artery disease as well as mitral valve problems approximately
3 years ago. Dr. Tirona used to take care of him at that time. He had a bypass surgery
as well as mitral valve repair done at that time. Postop he had an episode of A
-
fib
which then resolved spontaneously. He remembers somebody talking to him about
cardioversion, but then the A
-
fib resolved spontaneously. So he was started on
Coumadin. He would get some occasional episodes, but usually they are very brief, so
he never bothered about them. Of late, over the last few months, he has been getting
more frequent episodes and duration of these episodes is also prolonged for a few
hours. So he saw Dr. Hagan who has referred him here for further evaluation and
treatment. The patient states when he does get the A
-
fib, he feels very weak, tired, and
short of breath. He denies any chest pain. Otherwise he is usually very active
physically, he works fulltime as an electrician, and has not had any problems as far as
doing his day
-
to
-
day work.



MEDICAL HISTORY:
1. Coronary artery disease as mentioned above. 2.
Hypertension. 3. Hypercholesterolemia.


.

IMPRESSION:
Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in a patient with prior mitral valve disease,
currently having more frequent breakthroughs symptoms.

fibrillation

atrial

-

-

fibrillation

atrial

paroxysmal

-

disease

mitral_valve

-

history

fibrillation

atrial

-

history

problem

mitral_valve

-

-

weak

-

-

-

tired

-

-

-

short_of_breath

-

-

-

disease

coronary_artery

-

history


hypertension

-

-

history

hypercholesterolemia

-

-

-

Diagnosis/Problem

Anatomy

Modifier

Type

Extracting structured information

HPI:
Atrial fibrillation. This patient is a 56
-
year
-
old white gentleman who has had a
history of atrial fib on and off since he had his bypass surgery. Patient was originally
diagnosed with coronary artery disease as well as mitral valve problems approximately
3 years ago. Dr. Tirona used to take care of him at that time. He had a bypass surgery
as well as mitral valve repair done at that time. Postop he had an episode of A
-
fib
which then resolved spontaneously. He remembers somebody talking to him about
cardioversion, but then the A
-
fib resolved spontaneously. So he was started on
Coumadin. He would get some occasional episodes, but usually they are very brief, so
he never bothered about them. Of late, over the last few months, he has been getting
more frequent episodes and duration of these episodes is also prolonged for a few
hours. So he saw Dr. Hagan who has referred him here for further evaluation and
treatment. The patient states when he does get the A
-
fib, he feels very weak, tired, and
short of breath. He denies any chest pain. Otherwise he is usually very active
physically, he works fulltime as an electrician, and has not had any problems as far as
doing his day
-
to
-
day work.



MEDICAL HISTORY:
1. Coronary artery disease as mentioned above. 2.
Hypertension. 3. Hypercholesterolemia.


.

IMPRESSION:
Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in a patient with prior mitral valve disease,
currently having more frequent breakthroughs symptoms.

fibrillation

atrial

-

-

fibrillation

atrial

paroxysmal

-

disease

mitral_valve

-

history

fibrillation

atrial

-

history

problem

mitral_valve

-

-

weak

-

-

-

tired

-

-

-

short_of_breath

-

-

-

disease

coronary_artery

-

history


hypertension

-

-

history

hypercholesterolemia

-

-

-

Diagnosis/Problem

Anatomy

Modifier

Type

427.31

427.31

427.31

780.79

780.79

786.05

272.0

401.9

394.9

414.01

427.31

Atrial fibrillation

394.9

Other and unspecified mitral
valve diseases

ICD

Extracting structured information

To react to this talk on your phone or
laptop while you listen: visit
go.reactlabs.org and select #EHR.

15

Medical coders without NLP

Medical coders with NLP

17

Dr. Martin S. Kohn | Clinical Decision Support: DeepQA,
http://www.im.org/Meetings/Past/2012/2012APMWinterMeeting/Documents/Winter%20Meeting%20Presentations/P
S%20II_Kohn.pdf

Discovering structure

05_03_02.txt.0002 BEGALA Good evening. Welcome to CROSSFIRE,

coming to you live from the George Washington University in beautiful

downtown Washington, D.C. Tonight in the CROSSFIRE, the case of

the Reverend Paul Shanley, the Roman Catholic priest facing child

rape charges in Massachusetts. Should his superiors be held

responsible? Also, Matt Drudge, founder of the Internet "Drudge

Report." Is he a right
-
wing muckraker, an Internet gossip or a

legitimate j ournalist? We'll ask Drudge himself when we get him

in the CROSSFIRE. First, flying the not
-
so
-
friendly skies, would

you feel safer if pilots were armed? One outspoken congressional

critic is against having guns in the cockpit. We're going to

introduce her now. Please welcome, Eleanor Holmes Norton, the

Democratic delegate from the District of Columbia. Ms. Norton, thank

you. Welcome back.


05_03_02.txt.0003 CARLSON Now, Ms. Norton, the maj ority,

the vast maj ority of commercial airline pilots are strongly in favor

of carrying guns in the cockpit on commercial airliners. You're

against it. What do you as a delegate know about operating a

commercial airliner that the maj ority of commercial airline pilots

don't know


05_03_02.txt.0004 DELEGATE Well, I know what

Transportation Secretary Norm Mineta tells me, and I know what

Homeland Security Adviser Tom Ridge tells me, and they are against

it. And I think the reason they are against it is you don't want

the guy who's flying one of these big busters up there also with a

gun in his hand trying to protect his plane. You want air marshals

to do that. You want flight attendants to understand how to protect

the cockpit. And you want the redundancies that we have built in,

redundancy after redundancy, working for you. We are panicking the

American people. They say, oh my God, I thought they had the

hearings, I thought they did that. Here come the pilots saying,

oh no, they haven't. We've got to have guns.

05_03_02.txt.0002 BEGALA Good evening. Welcome to CROSSFIRE,

coming to you live from the George Washington University in beautiful

downtown Washington, D.C. Tonight in the CROSSFIRE, the case of

the Reverend Paul Shanley, the Roman Catholic priest facing child

rape charges in Massachusetts. Should his superiors be held

responsible? Also, Matt Drudge, founder of the Internet "Drudge

Report." Is he a right
-
wing muckraker, an Internet gossip or a

legitimate j ournalist? We'll ask Drudge himself when we get him

in the CROSSFIRE. First, flying the not
-
so
-
friendly skies, would

you feel safer if pilots were armed? One outspoken congressional

critic is against having guns in the cockpit. We're going to

introduce her now. Please welcome, Eleanor Holmes Norton, the

Democratic delegate from the District of Columbia. Ms. Norton, thank

you. Welcome back.


05_03_02.txt.0003 CARLSON Now, Ms. Norton, the maj ority,

the vast maj ority of commercial airline pilots are strongly in favor

of carrying guns in the cockpit on commercial airliners. You're

against it. What do you as a delegate know about operating a

commercial airliner that the maj ority of commercial airline pilots

don't know


05_03_02.txt.0004 DELEGATE Well, I know what

Transportation Secretary Norm Mineta tells me, and I know what

Homeland Security Adviser Tom Ridge tells me, and they are against

it. And I think the reason they are against it is you don't want

the guy who's flying one of these big busters up there also with a

gun in his hand trying to protect his plane. You want air marshals

to do that. You want flight attendants to understand how to protect

the cockpit. And you want the redundancies that we have built in,

redundancy after redundancy, working for you. We are panicking the

American people. They say, oh my God, I thought they had the

hearings, I thought they did that. Here come the pilots saying,

oh no, they haven't. We've got to have guns.

05_03_02.txt.0002 BEGALA Good evening. Welcome to CROSSFIRE,

coming to you live from the George Washington University in beautiful

downtown Washington, D.C. Tonight in the CROSSFIRE, the case of

the Reverend Paul Shanley, the Roman Catholic priest facing child

rape charges in Massachusetts. Should his superiors be held

responsible? Also, Matt Drudge, founder of the Internet "Drudge

Report." Is he a right
-
wing muckraker, an Internet gossip or a

legitimate j ournalist? We'll ask Drudge himself when we get him

in the CROSSFIRE. First, flying the not
-
so
-
friendly skies, would

you feel safer if pilots were armed? One outspoken congressional

critic is against having guns in the cockpit. We're going to

introduce her now. Please welcome, Eleanor Holmes Norton, the

Democratic delegate from the District of Columbia. Ms. Norton, thank

you. Welcome back.


05_03_02.txt.0003 CARLSON Now, Ms. Norton, the maj ority,

the vast maj ority of commercial airline pilots are strongly in favor

of carrying guns in the cockpit on commercial airliners. You're

against it. What do you as a delegate know about operating a

commercial airliner that the maj ority of commercial airline pilots

don't know


05_03_02.txt.0004 DELEGATE Well, I know what

Transportation Secretary Norm Mineta tells me, and I know what

Homeland Security Adviser Tom Ridge tells me, and they are against

it. And I think the reason they are against it is you don't want

the guy who's flying one of these big busters up there also with a

gun in his hand trying to protect his plane. You want air marshals

to do that. You want flight attendants to understand how to protect

the cockpit. And you want the redundancies that we have built in,

redundancy after redundancy, working for you. We are panicking the

American people. They say, oh my God, I thought they had the

hearings, I thought they did that. Here come the pilots saying,

oh no, they haven't. We've got to have guns.

Looking at just word
counts often gives you
a mish
-
mash.

18

Discovering structure

05_03_02.txt.0002 BEGALA Good evening. Welcome to CROSSFIRE,

coming to you live from the George Washington University in beautiful

downtown Washington, D.C. Tonight in the CROSSFIRE, the case of

the Reverend Paul Shanley, the Roman Catholic priest facing child

rape charges in Massachusetts. Should his superiors be held

responsible? Also, Matt Drudge, founder of the Internet "Drudge

Report." Is he a right
-
wing muckraker, an Internet gossip or a

legitimate j ournalist? We'll ask Drudge himself when we get him

in the CROSSFIRE. First, flying the not
-
so
-
friendly skies, would

you feel safer if pilots were armed? One outspoken congressional

critic is against having guns in the cockpit. We're going to

introduce her now. Please welcome, Eleanor Holmes Norton, the

Democratic delegate from the District of Columbia. Ms. Norton, thank

you. Welcome back.


05_03_02.txt.0003 CARLSON Now, Ms. Norton, the maj ority,

the vast maj ority of commercial airline pilots are strongly in favor

of carrying guns in the cockpit on commercial airliners. You're

against it. What do you as a delegate know about operating a

commercial airliner that the maj ority of commercial airline pilots

don't know


05_03_02.txt.0004 DELEGATE Well, I know what

Transportation Secretary Norm Mineta tells me, and I know what

Homeland Security Adviser Tom Ridge tells me, and they are against

it. And I think the reason they are against it is you don't want

the guy who's flying one of these big busters up there also with a

gun in his hand trying to protect his plane. You want air marshals

to do that. You want flight attendants to understand how to protect

the cockpit. And you want the redundancies that we have built in,

redundancy after redundancy, working for you. We are panicking the

American people. They say, oh my God, I thought they had the

hearings, I thought they did that. Here come the pilots saying,

oh no, they haven't. We've got to have guns.

05_03_02.txt.0002 BEGALA Good evening. Welcome to CROSSFIRE,

coming to you live from the George Washington University in beautiful

downtown Washington, D.C. Tonight in the CROSSFIRE, the case of

the Reverend Paul Shanley, the Roman Catholic priest facing child

rape charges in Massachusetts. Should his superiors be held

responsible? Also, Matt Drudge, founder of the Internet "Drudge

Report." Is he a right
-
wing muckraker, an Internet gossip or a

legitimate j ournalist? We'll ask Drudge himself when we get him

in the CROSSFIRE. First, flying the not
-
so
-
friendly skies, would

you feel safer if pilots were armed? One outspoken congressional

critic is against having guns in the cockpit. We're going to

introduce her now. Please welcome, Eleanor Holmes Norton, the

Democratic delegate from the District of Columbia. Ms. Norton, thank

you. Welcome back.


05_03_02.txt.0003 CARLSON Now, Ms. Norton, the maj ority,

the vast maj ority of commercial airline pilots are strongly in favor

of carrying guns in the cockpit on commercial airliners. You're

against it. What do you as a delegate know about operating a

commercial airliner that the maj ority of commercial airline pilots

don't know


05_03_02.txt.0004 DELEGATE Well, I know what

Transportation Secretary Norm Mineta tells me, and I know what

Homeland Security Adviser Tom Ridge tells me, and they are against

it. And I think the reason they are against it is you don't want

the guy who's flying one of these big busters up there also with a

gun in his hand trying to protect his plane. You want air marshals

to do that. You want flight attendants to understand how to protect

the cockpit. And you want the redundancies that we have built in,

redundancy after redundancy, working for you. We are panicking the

American people. They say, oh my God, I thought they had the

hearings, I thought they did that. Here come the pilots saying,

oh no, they haven't. We've got to have guns.

05_03_02.txt.0002 BEGALA Good evening. Welcome to CROSSFIRE,

coming to you live from the George Washington University in beautiful

downtown Washington, D.C. Tonight in the CROSSFIRE, the case of

the Reverend Paul Shanley, the Roman Catholic priest facing child

rape charges in Massachusetts. Should his superiors be held

responsible? Also, Matt Drudge, founder of the Internet "Drudge

Report." Is he a right
-
wing muckraker, an Internet gossip or a

legitimate j ournalist? We'll ask Drudge himself when we get him

in the CROSSFIRE. First, flying the not
-
so
-
friendly skies, would

you feel safer if pilots were armed? One outspoken congressional

critic is against having guns in the cockpit. We're going to

introduce her now. Please welcome, Eleanor Holmes Norton, the

Democratic delegate from the District of Columbia. Ms. Norton, thank

you. Welcome back.


05_03_02.txt.0003 CARLSON Now, Ms. Norton, the maj ority,

the vast maj ority of commercial airline pilots are strongly in favor

of carrying guns in the cockpit on commercial airliners. You're

against it. What do you as a delegate know about operating a

commercial airliner that the maj ority of commercial airline pilots

don't know


05_03_02.txt.0004 DELEGATE Well, I know what

Transportation Secretary Norm Mineta tells me, and I know what

Homeland Security Adviser Tom Ridge tells me, and they are against

it. And I think the reason they are against it is you don't want

the guy who's flying one of these big busters up there also with a

gun in his hand trying to protect his plane. You want air marshals

to do that. You want flight attendants to understand how to protect

the cockpit. And you want the redundancies that we have built in,

redundancy after redundancy, working for you. We are panicking the

American people. They say, oh my God, I thought they had the

hearings, I thought they did that. Here come the pilots saying,

oh no, they haven't. We've got to have guns.

Bayesian topic models*
discover the distinct topics
interwoven in documents.

*Wikipedia: Topic Model; Blei et al. 2003

19

20

Model: detecting topic shifts

21

Model: detecting topic shifts

Model: topic shift tendency

22

23

Ifill
, moderator:
Terrible
. Yes, she was constrained by
the agreed debate rules. But
she gave not the slightest
sign of chafing against them or looking for ways to
follow up the many unanswered questions or self
-
contradictory answers. This was the big news of the
evening
. Katie Couric, and for that matter Jim Lehrer,
have never looked so good.

24

Model: topic shift tendency

Take
-
aways


The role of NLP is not “understanding”. It’s
helping people do useful things with
language.


Shallow methods work extremely well…
except when they don’t. Language is
replete with
underlying structure
.


The deep value to look for in NLP is in
bringing that structure to the surface and
making it accessible to human insight.




25

Thanks!

26

reactlabs.org

Four years ago, I know that many Americans felt a fresh
excitement about the possibilities of a new president. That
choice was not the choice of our party, but Americans always
come together after elections. We're a good and generous
people, and we are united by so much more than what
divides us. When that election was over, when the yard
signs came down and the television commercials finally
came off the air, Americans were eager to go back to work,
to live our lives the way Americans always have,
optimistic and positive and confident in the future. That
very optimism is uniquely American. It's what brought
us to America. We're a nation of immigrants, we're the
children and grandchildren and great
-
grandchildren of
the ones who wanted a better life. The driven ones. The
ones who woke up at night, hearing that voice telling
them that life in a place called America could be better.
They came, not just in pursuit of the riches of this world,
but for the richness of this life.

Take
-
aways


The role of NLP is not “understanding”. It’s
helping people do useful things with
language.


Shallow methods work extremely well…
except when they don’t. Language is
replete with
underlying structure
.


The deep value to look for in NLP is in
bringing that structure to the surface and
making it accessible to human insight.




31

Thanks!

32

33

34

35

"In this 10
-
year time frame, . . .
we will have perfected speech
recognition and speech output
well enough that those will
become a standard part of the
interface."

Bill Gates, 1997