Natural Language Processing - Villanova University

blabbingunequaledΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

24 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Research Topics

Natural Language Processing

Image Processing

CSC 3990

Natural Language Processing

CSC 3990

What is NLP?

Natural Language Processing (NLP)

Computers use (analyze, understand,
generate) natural language

A somewhat applied field

Computational Linguistics (CL)

Computational aspects of the human
language faculty

More theoretical

Why Study NLP?

Human language interesting & challenging

NLP offers insights into language

Language is the medium of the web

Interdisciplinary: Ling, CS, psych, math

Help in communication

With computers (ASR, TTS)

With other humans (MT)

Ambitious yet practical

Goals of NLP

Scientific Goal

Identify the computational machinery
needed for an agent to exhibit various
forms of linguistic behavior

Engineering Goal

Design, implement, and test systems
that process natural languages for
practical applications


speech processing
get flight information or book
a hotel over the phone

information extraction
discover names of people
and events they participate in, from a document

machine translation
translate a document from
one human language into another

question answering
find answers to natural
language questions in a text collection or

generate a short biography of
Noam Chomsky from one or more news articles

General Themes

Ambiguity of Language

Language as a formal system

Computation with human language

based vs. Statistical Methods

The need for efficiency

Topic Ideas

Text to Speech

artificial voices

Speech Recognition


Textual Analysis


Plagiarism Detection

candidate selection

Intelligent Agents

machine interaction

Text to Speech

artificial voice

Text Input

Break text into phonemes

Match phonemes to voice elements

Concatenate voice elements

Manipulate pitch and spacing

Output results

Research question: How can a human voice be
used to produce an artificial voice?

Model Talker

opportunities for active, hands

Speech Recognition

Spoken Input

Identify words and phonemes in speech

Generate text for recognized word parts

Concatenate text elements

Perform spelling, grammar and context checking

Output results

Research question: How can speech recognition
assist a deaf student taking notes in class?


Villanova University Speech Transcriber

Textual Analysis


Text Input

Analyze text & estimate “readability”

Grade level of writing

Consistency of writing

Appropriateness for certain educ. level

Output results

Research question: How can computer
analyze text and measure readability?

Opportunities for hands
on research

Plagiarism Detection

Text Input

Analyze text & locate “candidates”

Find one or more passages that might be plagiarized

Algorithm tries to do what a teacher does

Search on Internet for candidate matches

Output results

Research question: What algorithms work like
humans when finding plagiarism?

Experimental CS research

Intelligent Agents

Example: ELIZA

AIML: Artificial Intelligence Modeling Lang.

Human types something

Computer parses, “understands”, and generates

Response is viewed by human

Research question: How can computers
“understand” and “generate” human writing?

Also good area for experimentation

Image Processing

CSC 3990

Some slides from Xin Li lecture notes, West Virginia Univ.

What is Image Processing?

Digital Image Processing

Analog transmission in 1920

Early improvements in 1920s


computer (1948)

Rapid advancement since

Historical Background

Newspaper industry used
Bartlane cable picture
transmission system to send
pictures by submarine cable
between London and New
York in 1920s

The number of distinct gray
levels coded by Bartlane
system was improved from 5
to 15 by the end of 1920s

Digital Image Processing

The images in previous slides are digital
(now), but they are NOT the result of DIP

Digital Image Processing


Processing digital images by a digital

DIP requires a digital computer and other
supporting technologies (e.g., data storage,
display and transmission)

Cool Applications

The first picture of moon
by US spacecraft
Ranger 7

on July 31, 1964 at
9:09AM EDT



Error Recovery

Sir Godfrey N. Housefield and Prof.
Allan M. Cormack shared 1979
Nobel Prize in Medicine for the
invention of CT


Edges, Contrast,
Brightness, etc.


Digital cameras, scanners

MRI and Ultrasound imaging

Infrared and microwave imaging


Internet, wireless communication


Printers, LCD monitor, digital TV

Past 20 Years


Motion Pictures

Law Enhancement and Biometrics

Remote Sensing

Hurricane Andrew

taken by NOAA GEOS

America at night

(Nov. 27, 2000)

Thermal Images

Human body disperses

heat (red pixels)

Different colors indicate

varying temperatures

Operate in infrared frequency

Medical Diagnostics



Operate in X
ray frequency

PET and Astronomy

Positron Emission Tomography

Cygnus Loop in the

constellation of Cygnus

Operate in gamma
ray frequency

Cartoon Pictures (Non

Synthetic Images in Gaming

Age of Empire III

by Ensemble Studios

Virtual Reality (Photorealistic)

General Themes

Human vision is limited

Digital images contain more information
that humans perceive

Computers can use algorithms to extract
more information from digital images

Computers can acquire, manipulate,
compress, transmit and modify images

Topic Ideas


identifying faces & retinas

Target Acquisition

see a tank from space

Computer Vision

detect microscopic flaws in

Assistive Technology

convert visual images
into tactile or textual form


remove red eye, morph faces,
digital filmmaking, movie magic

Image Description

use 3D dictionary to
describe contents of 2D image