Download - The Direct Data

blabbingunequaledΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

24 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Why Is Natural
Language Important ?


The most convenient way of representing most of
the information is natural language. Language is
vital both to our business activities and to our
administration.


It is also very important in many of the social,
cultural and political aspects of our lives.


In some sense, natural language is at the center
of human intelligence. It is a unique & powerful
ability humans have.


“Windows into our thoughts”. Observable
phenomena which gives us a clue to what’s going
on in our mind.


What Is Artificial
Intelligence ?






It is the science & engg. of
making intelligent machines, especially
intelligent computer programs.




It is related to the similar task of
using computers to understand human
intelligence.

Applications Of AI


Game Playing


Speech Recognition


Neural Networks


Robotics

What Is NLP ?




NLP means to design, & build a s/w
that will analyze, understand, &
generate languages that humans use
naturally.



“Flying
planes

can

be
dangerous”.



Depending on the application of technology, not all

these components are needed.

How NLP Works ?

1.
Morphological Analysis

2.
Syntactic Analysis

3.
Semantic Analysis

4.
Discourse Integration

5.
Pragmatic Analysis

Morphological Analysis


morpheme
-

smaller units of grammar.



Two kinds of morphemes:


Unbound
-
which are meaningful on their own.
e.g.
schoolyard = “
school
” + “
yard



Bound


which have meaning when combined
with another morpheme.
e.g.
morpheme = “morph” + “
eme
”.





Semantic Analysis


“I want to print Bill’s .init file”.



















S


/

\



/

\



NP

VP


|

/

\





PRO

V

S





|

|

/

\





I


want


NP

VP





|

/

\





PRO

V

NP






|

|

/

\




I


print


ADJS

NP


|

/

\



Bill’s

ADJS

N


|

|


.
init

file



Semantic analysis





The sentence
“colorless green
ideas sleep furiously”

would be rejected
because it is semantically anomalous.

Discourse Integration


For example:


In the sentence
“John wanted
it”
,

the word
“it”

depends on the prior
discourse context,while the word
“John”

may influence the meaning of
the later sentences.

Pragmatic Analysis


Example:





The sentence

do you know what
time it is ?

should be

interpreted as a
request to be told the time.

An Example Of NLP system

Benefits Of NLP


Reduces stress in “hands
-
busy” and “eyes
-
busy” situation.


Better communication with foreign business
partners.


Wide accessibility of information through
easier use of computer systems and
information services.


Enhanced ability to complete global market.


Better filtering of information when we need
it.


More effective international co
-
oporation.


More opportunities to educate ourselves at
our convenience.
Limitations Of NLP


Ambiguity


NLP is not always the most natural way
to communicate. Sometimes it is easier
to point and click with a mouse to
express an idea. For example, “sum
that

column of the spread
-
sheet”.

Applications Of NLP


Machine Translation


Database Access


Information Retrieval(IR)


Text Categorization


Extracting data from text


Machine Translation




20,000 to 100,000 words (lexicons)


100 to 10,000 grammar rules

Database Access


LUNAR system


which gives answers to the questions
about the chemical analysis data of lunar rock and soil
samples brought back by the Apollo mission.


CHAT system
--








Q:Which countries are bordered by two


seas?


A: Egypt, Iran, Israel, Saudi Arabia and




Turkey.




Q:What are the countries from which river




flows into the Black Sea?


A: Romania, Soviet Union.


Extracting data from text


PILLISBURY

SURGED

3

3
-
4

TO

62

IN

BIG

BOARD

COMPOSITE

TRADING

OF

3
.
1

MILLION

SHARES

AFTER

BRITAIN’S

GRAND

METROPOLITAN

RAISED

ITS

HOSTILE

TENDER

AFTER

BY

$
3

A

SHARE

TO

$
63
.

THE

COMPANY

PROMPTLY

REJECTED

THE

SWEETENED

BID,

WHICH

CAME

AFTER

THE

TWO

SIDES

COULD

NOT

AGREE

TO

A

HIGHER

AFTER

ON

FRIENDLY

TERMS

OVER

THE

WEEKEND
.




Crop
-
Takeover
-
core
:

Sub

event
:

Increased

offer,

Rejected

offer

Type
:

Hostile

Target
:

Pillsbury

Suitor
:

Grand

Metropolitan


Share
-
Price
:

63

Stock
-
Exchange
:

NYSE

Volume
:

3
.
1
M

Effect
-
On
-
Stock
:

(Up

Increment
:

3

3
-
4

To

:

62
)



CONCLUSION



By the complete implementation of NLP
system, at many places our work will be
easier. By just our natural language we can
direct the robot, can also do conversation
with computer and there is a no need of a
person to work as a translator for the
conversation between two persons who don’t
know any common language. Still current
program have not reached this level but they
may do so very soon.