Virtual Reality - KUCG :::: Korea University Computer Graphics

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Virtual Reality

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

Lecture1. Introduction

to Virtual Reality


CSCE 458 Fall 2004


Chang
-
Hun Kim


Department of Computer Science

Korea University

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

SIGGRAPH 2004 Video Review


Electronic theater program


Go To Sleep [5:21], The Mill


3D music video


Rock the World [2:35], School of Vision Art


Political satire


Rockfish [8:28], Blur Studio


Realistic rendering



Animation theater program


Oddworld Stranger CG Intro [2:49], Oddworld
Inhabitants


Commercial animation

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

SIGGRAPH 2004 Video Review


Animation theater program


Riba [5:57], One Plus One / Supinfocom


Non
-
photorealistic rendering (NPR)


“Muscle System and Skin Solver” on Hellboy [2:17],
Tippett Studio


Muscle
-
based animation


“Machine City” in the Matrix Revolutions [3:18],
Tippett Studio


Realistic rendering


Massive Arabesque [2:50], Microsoft Research


Augmented Reality

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Contents


What is VR?


Related Areas


History


State of the Art and Research Issues

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

What is VR?


Glove


䍇C䵡M桩湥h


䡍H


This is not exactly VR!!!


Concept


High level: R
eplication of reality


Low level: 3D interface / interaction


Studies on reality


䍯浰畴慴u潮慬a牥r汩瑹


Analogous to AI


AI as a science / engineering


Science: Computational model for intelligence


Engineering: Making “intelligent
-
looking” machines

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr


VR = Computational reality


Seek for the computational model of reality


Apply the model to the VR system



The essence of science: Search for models


Astrology: Heavenly bodies (stars, sky)


Physics: Nature


Philosophy: Human mind


Virtual reality: Computational model of reality

Target of VR

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Understanding VR

in the Context of Modeling Efforts


Intelligence







Life




䅲瑩晩f楡i 汩le



Reality




䅲瑩A楣楡氠⡯爠r楲i畡氩⁲敡e楴i



Economy



䍯C灵瑡瑩潮慬t散潮潭o


KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

VR Terminologies (1/2)


Virtual reality


Computer generated environment that is ...


Immersive

ex) IMAX, dome projection


Interactive

ex) Computer game


Multi
-
sensory


Viewer
-
centered


3D


Combination of various technologies


To build the environments above


Physical participation in the interactive simulation

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

VR Terminologies (2/2)


Virtual environment (VE)


A computational model or


Realization of it by VR techniques



Cyberspace


A computer environment spanning ...


Multiple computers,


Multiple users, and


Multiple sets of data

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

VR Devices

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

VR as a Computer Technology


Ultimate computer interface


Human body and its sensor


Turn the whole body into an input device


Technological trends


Powerful:

S
upercomputing, parallel computing


Smart: AI


Physical:

VR


Primary concern


Software


Other important issues


Hardware, human factors, social issues, infrastructure

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

VR vs. Existing Media


Immersive


Interactive


3D


Multi
-
modal


Mediated


Information is not sent back and forth directly


Mediated virtual environments

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Virtual Presence (1/2)


Sense of “being there(or presence)”


Effectiveness of communication depends on VP


Medium create VP: Movie, poem, novel, TV, ...


Feeling of Virtual Presence


Reading a book


BBS, chatting


Listening to live recording of music



Virtual Presence =
f
(Vividness, Interactivity)



Vividness =
f
(Sensory breadth, Sensory depth)

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Virtual Presence (2/2)


Sensory breadth


Number of sensory modalities


Some of modalities may be redundant, but enhance the presence


ex) Rainstorm scene: Raindrops, its images & sound, smell


(Printer, Telephone, TV) vs. (Motion platform, Sensorama)


Sensory depth
: (Amount / Quality) of information


Movies : 35mm, Cinemascope, 70mm, IMAX,…


Interactivity


Response time


Range: Amount of changes that can be effected on the VEs


Mapping: Human actions to virtual actions


Vividness vs. Interactivity

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Conceptual Model


Basic components of VR system


Machine


Interface


Human



Issue


How to put them together?


How to conceptualize the system

HCI

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

New Paradigm for HCI

VR
-
based Computer

Virtual

World

Conventional Computer

Computer

World

Virtual Reality

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

Related Areas

Tele
-
Operation, Simulator Technology

Computer Graphics, Artificial Intelligence


KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

1. Training Simulation (1/2)


ex) Flight simulation

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Training simulation


Characteristics


Reconfigurable by changing software


May include highly unnatural environment


Highly interactive and adaptive


A wide variety of


Human sensing modalities and


Sensory
-
motor systems


Highly immersive


Difference


Near field can be real, far field is synthetic


VR: Near field is simulated

1. Training Simulation (2/2)

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

2. Tele
-
operation (1/2)

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

2. Tele
-
operation (2/2)


Tele
-
operator


A machine is controlled by a human at a distance




Tele
-
presence


Sense of being “Physically Present”


With virtual objects at the remote tele
-
operator site

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Various Tele
-
operators


Directly (manually) controlled tele
-
operator


Continuously controlled by human


Master
-
slave : Kinematically equivalent


Rate
-
controlled : Controls velocity


Tele
-
robot


Limited sensing or manipulation tasks autonomously


Needs tele
-
robot’s intelligence


Supervisory control


Needs: tele
-
sensor, tele
-
manipulator


RE, VE, Tele
-
oper


Tele+VE: overcome time delay


VE+RE: Augmented Reality


Tele
-
presence vs. Virtual Presence


Sence of being physically present with virtual objects at remote TO site

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

3. Computer Graphics


Modeling



Motion control (animation)



Rendering



User interface

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

4. Artificial Intelligence


Get:
Studies on perception and cognition


Conditions for perceiving VE as real as possible


Perception and cognition for the virtual agent




Give:
Testbed for AI research

Virtual Reality

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

History

1st Stage: Some Visionaries

2nd Stage: Technology for Specific Purposes

3rd Stage: VR as the General
-
Purpose Technology

Next Stage: Toward a Scientific Discipline

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

1st Stage: Some Visionaries


Morton Heilig


ExperienceTheater (1962), Sensorama Simulator (1962)


Ivan Surtherland


“Sketchpad: a man machine graphical
communication system”(1963) Ph.D thesis


Head
-
mounted display (HMD) (1966)


Myron Krueger


“Artificial Reality” (1972)
--

new word


William Gibson


“Cyberspace” (1984)

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Heilig’s HMD (1960)


U.S. Patent no. 2,955,156

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Heilig’s Sensorama (1962)


U.S. Patent no. 3,050,870

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

2nd Stage
: Technology for Specific purposes


Training simulator


Edwin Link: Vehicle simulation (1920s)


Evans&Sutherland, Martin
-
Marietta, GE, Westinghouse, Thomson



Space exploration


NASA for simulation for astronaut training


First VR system
--

VIEW(Virtual Interface Environment Workstation)



Tele
-
operation


Began as early as 1940


Head Controlled TV system by Argon Lab.

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Training Simulator

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

3rd Stage:

VR as the General
-
Purpose Technology


Jaron Lanier


VPL: Dataglove, EyePhone, VR system (1987)


Coined “virtual reality”(1989)


VR as CHI perspective



VR industry


Frontiers: Division, Sense8(WorldToolKit), WorldDesign, W
-
industry(game)


Merge into industry: Proslovia, EAI



VR academia


MIT, UNC(University of North Carolina), UW(University of Washington), Naval
Postgraduate School, Tokyo University

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Next Stage:

Toward a Scientific Discipline


Computational Reality


A new computing paradigm


A new media: 3D in the web


A new art form


Representation, Creation and Operation of Virtual World

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Current Research Issues


Computer generation of VEs


Design of tele
-
robots


Improvement of Multi
-
Modal Interfaces


Study of human behavior


Development of communicating systems for VE


Merging VE and RE (Real Environment)

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Information Resources


Journals


Conference Proceedings


Magazines and Newsletters


Books


Web Sites

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Journals


Presence


MIT Press, quarterly published since 1992.


tele
-
robotics, psychophysics, human factors, HCI, not
much computer graphics.


International Journal of Virtual Reality


England

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Conference Proceedings (1/2)


IEEE VR (formerly Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium
(VRAIS))


VRAIS


held in 1993, 1995, 1996, 1997


IEEE VR


since 1998


Virtual Reality Software Technology (VRST) Conference


ACM SIGCHI and Pacific
-
Rim countries, since 1994.


VR software.


International Conference on Virtual Sysytems and Multimedia (VSMM)


City of Gifu, Japan, since 1995.


VR, multimedia.


International Conference on Artificial Reality and Tele
-
existence (ICAT)


Japan, held annually since 1993.


S. Tachi at Tokyo University


tele
-
robotics, VR.

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Conference Proceedings (2/2)


Symposium on the VRML (Held since 1995.)


ACM SIGGRAPH


ACM SIGGRAPH, held annually since 1978.


computer graphics, recently VR.


EuroGraphics (Since 1979.)


PacificGraphics (Since 1993.)


Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics


Graphics Interface


ACM SIGCHI


ACM SIGCHI, held annually since 1984.


ACM UIST


IEEE Visualization

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Magazines and Newsletters


Cyber Edge Journal (terminated)


published bi
-
monthly.


mostly covers VR industry and applications.



Real Time Graphics


published bi
-
monthly.


focused on so
-
called "image generation" technology.



Virtual Reality World (terminated)


published bi
-
monthly.


all kinds of non
-
serious aspects of VR and entertainment.

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Books


There are numerous VR books, most of them are junk.


At this moment, there is no book that can be adequately adapted as a textbook.


Artificial Reality II


Myron Krueger, Addison
-
Wesley 1991.


Well
-
thought essay on artificial reality and electronic culture.


(If you are interested in the electronic culture, you must purchasea copy of "Being Digital"
authored by N. Negroponte.)


Better read end
-
to
-
end if you have time.


Pictorial Communication in Virtual and Real Environments,


Stephen Ellis, Taylor & Francis 1990.


collections of papers on vision
-
related psychophysics.


Most of papers are not relevent to VR, but some are very useful.


Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges


Nathaniel Durlach and Anne Mavor (eds.), National Academy Press 1994.


report by the Committee on VR Research and Development, established


by the NRC (National Research Council).


good reference for overview, state of the art, R&D issues.


If you are writing a VR proposal, this is the one you want!

KUCG

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

http://kucg.korea.ac.kr

Web Sites


General resources in virtual reality


http://www.3dsite.com/cgi/virtual
-
reality
-
index.html


http://www.stars.com/WebStars/VR.html


http://www.yahoo.com/Entertainment/Virtual_Reality/


http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/~lha5w/vr/


http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gyu/people/Phd/Benjamin.Watson/links/vr.html


http://www.nist.gov/itl/div878/ovrt/hotvr.html


Research centers


http://www.hitl.washington.edu/projects/knowledge_base/research.html


Conferences


http://www.hitl.washington.edu/projects/knowledge_base/conf.html


Distributed virtual reality


http://www.csh.rit.edu/~airwick/dist.html


http://www
-
dse.doc.ic.ac.uk:80/~np2/virtual_reality/distributed.html


http://www.nta.no/telektronikk/4.93.dir/Loeffler_C_E.html


VRML


http://www.3dsite.com/cgi/VRML
-
index.html


http://vrml.wired.com/


http://www.chaco.com/vrml/links.html