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© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Chapter 3

Thinking, Intelligence, and Language


© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Chapter Preview


Cognitive Revolution in Psychology



Thinking



Intelligence



Language



Thinking, Problem
-
Solving, and
Health and Wellness

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

The Cognitive Revolution


cognition


how information is processed
and manipulated when remembering,
thinking, and knowing



1950s: psychology resumes focus on the
mind and mental processes



computers: an analogy for the mind/brain


-

artificial intelligence (AI)

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

The Computer Analogy

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Thinking


concepts


mental categories used to
group objects, events, and characteristics


Image(mental rep), symbol(words),
concept(label for a class) and
rule(relation)


prototype model


all instances of a
concept are compared to a prototype
(ideal example) of that concept

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Steps in Problem Solving

1.
Find and frame problem

2.
Develop good problem
-
solving
strategies (subgoals, algorithms,
heuristics)

3.
Evaluate solutions

4.
Rethink and redefine problems and
solutions over time



© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Problem
-
Solving Obstacles


fixation


-

using a prior strategy only



functional fixedness


-

fixated on usual functions

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-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Reasoning



mental activity of transforming
information to reach conclusions



inductive reasoning

-

driven by data; bottom
-
up; specific


general



deductive reasoning

-

driven by logic; top
-
down; general


specific

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Reasoning

and Decision Making

© 2011 The McGraw
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Hill Companies, Inc.

Decision Making


evaluating alternatives and making
choices among them



attempting to maximize outcome

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Hill Companies, Inc.

Reasoning and

Decision Making

System I


automatic



rapid, heuristic, intuitive


System II


controlled



slower, effortful, analytical

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Decision
-
Making Biases


Confirmation Bias


search only for info that supports our ideas


Hindsight Bias


report falsely that we predicted an outcome


Availability Heuristic


predict probability based on ease of recall


Base
-
Rate Fallacy


ignore info about general principles


Representativeness Heuristic


make judgments based on stereotypes

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Critical Thinking


thinking reflectively and productively and
evaluating the evidence



mindfulness


alert and mentally present



open
-
mindedness


receptive to new ways
of looking at things

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.



Emotion and Cognition


moods influence the way we think



bad moods >> use careful logic to solve
problems



good moods >> efficiency, originality,
creativity, ignore irrelevant info

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Creative Thinking


Divergent versus Convergent Thinking



Characteristics of Creative Thinkers


brainstorm


flexibility and playful thinking


inner motivation


willingness to face risk


objective evaluation of work



© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Intelligence


What is intelligence?



definitions of intelligence reflect culture



U.S.


Spearman’s
g



measuring intelligence

-

validity

-

reliability

-

standardization

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Intelligence Tests: Criteria

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Hill Companies, Inc.

Intelligence Tests


Binet


Mental Age (MA)



Stern


Intelligence Quotient (IQ)



normal distribution



Stanford
-
Binet Test

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-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Intelligence:

Normal Distribution

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Influences on Testing


Cultural Bias in Testing


culture
-
fair tests (e.g., Raven Progressive Matrices)



Genetic Influences on Intelligence


heritability


increases with age



Environmental Influences on Intelligence


Flynn effect

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

The Flynn Effect

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-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Variations in Intelligence

Giftedness: usually IQ ≥ 130


Terman


socially well adjusted and
successful as adults


importance of innate ability


Intellectual disability: usually IQ < 70


organic versus cultural
-
familial disabilities


mild, moderate and severe/profound


adaptive behavior deficits (conceptual,
social, practical)

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Theories of

Multiple Intelligences


Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory



analytical intelligence


creative intelligence


practical intelligence

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Theories of

Multiple Intelligences


Gardner’s Frames of Mind


verbal



mathematical

spatial



bodily
-
kinesthetic

interpersonal


intrapersonal

naturalist


existentialist

musical



© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

http://bit.ly/o5PJBr

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Language


Language



form of spoken, written, or signed

communication based on symbols



Infinite Generativity



ability to produce an endless number of

meaningful sentences

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Structure of Language


Phonology

-

basic phonemes (sounds)



Morphology

-

rules for word formation



Syntax

-

rules for combining words to form
phrases and sentences



Semantics

-

meaning of words and sentences



Pragmatics

-

use of language

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Language and Cognition


Can you think without using language?



Whorf’s linguistic relativity hypothesize


“language determines thought”



role of cognition in language



role of language in cognition

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Gender and Language

Gender Differences in Language


Are women more talkative?


© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Influences on Language


Biological Influences


language universals


hemispheric specialization



Environmental Influences


behavioral view (learned skill)


language exposure (case of Genie)

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Development of Language

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Learning a Second Language
as an Adult



Sensitive Periods in Language Learning




new sounds/accent and new grammar




new vocabulary

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Thinking, Problem
-
Solving,
and Health and Wellness




Cognitive Appraisal and Coping



primary appraisal


secondary appraisal


cognitive reappraisal

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Chapter Summary


Describe cognitive psychology and discuss the role of the
computer in the development of the field.


Explain the processes and human limitations in problem
solving, reasoning, and decision making.


Describe intelligence and its measurement.


Discuss influences on intelligence and types of
intelligence.


Identify the connections between language and thought and
summarize how language is acquired and develops.


Discuss the importance of cognitive appraisal with respect
to stress and describe various styles of coping.

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Chapter Summary

Cognitive Revolution


Thinking


prototype model of concepts


problem
-
solving steps and barriers


reasoning and decision making

-

inductive, deductive, and intuitive

-

biases


critical and creative thinking

© 2011 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

Chapter Summary


Intelligence


IQ tests: measurement, Binet, normal curve


influences on intelligence test scores


extremes and types of intelligence


Language


structure, development, and influences


Thinking, Problem
-
Solving, and Health and
Wellness


cognitive appraisal and coping strategies