The Cyber Art of Being Alive - SIUE Robotics Page

Τεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

23 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

91 εμφανίσεις

Artificial Intelligence:

The Cyber Art of Being Alive

Jerry B. Weinberg

Associate Professor

Department of Computer Science

What is Intelligence?

Medical Diagnosis

Airplane Mechanic

Mathematics

Game Playing

Painting

Music Composition

Visual recognition

Language understanding

Intelligence

The ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one's
environment

The ability to learn, understand, and deal with new
situations

Storing knowledge (facts about a subject)

Reasoning (putting facts together to achieve a goal)

Learning (new knowledge and skill refinement)

Perception (interpreting the environment)

Reasoning: State Space Search

State Space

The space of all possible states of a problem

The actions that can be applied to a state

Solving a problem: State Space Search

From a starting state search for a solution by
applying possible actions

Goal test

Example:

How could you find your car?

States: locations where you are

Actions: moving from one point to the next

Goal test: Being in the same location as your car

Exhaustive Search
vs. Intelligent
Search

Heuristic Reasoning

Heuristic

“Rule of thumb”

a way to measure good a state is to get to your
goal

Examples

Parking: what would be a good heuristic to find

Knowledge Representation

Data

Information

Knowledge

Data is a collection of raw values

Information is derived facts from values

Knowledge is information applied to a problem

Knowledge representation encodes
information in a program in such a way that
it can be applied to a problem

Solve These Problems

What is the name of this shape?

432 X 14 =

How many windows are in your house?

Different type of problems require different ways to
represent the knowledge and different ways of
reasoning
.

Knowledge
Representations:

Theories of Cognition

Rule
-
based

Model
-
based

Case
-
based

Neural Networks

Bayesian Networks

Formal Logic

Intelligent Agents (IA’s) are
Physical Symbol Systems

Symbols and symbols structures that can be manipulated
syntactically

by a set of processes

The symbol structure can be interpreted
semantically

Symbol Grounding Problem

4 apples

1 apple = 3 apples

Where does a symbol get its “meaning”

How does a computer “understand” what the
symbol means?

How do we understand what a symbol means?

Where are we going?

Caveat: The Difficulties of Being a Futurist

The future is difficult to predict

Thomas Watson, Chairman of IBM, 1943

“I think there is a world market for maybe five computers”

Ken Olson, President of DEC, 1977

“There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home.”

Bill Gates, CEO of Microsoft, 1981

“640 Kilobytes ought to be enough for anybody.”

Things are not always used for what they are design to do

Arpanet (original Internet) was designed for robust communication
in the event of a war.

We are now using it to order dog food and post pictures of our
spring break vacation.

Where is the AI now?

Microsoft Office Helpers

Amazon.com

NBA Scout

Furby

Wal
-
Mart Stocker

Batman the Movie

Half
-
life

The Sims

NASA

Creative AI’s

AARON the cyberartist

Knowledge of objects and colors

Creates original paintings

The Cyber Poet

“Reads” books and creates a language model

Uses the model to create original hiaku’s

Soul

A haiku written by Ray Kurzweil's Cybernetic Poet

after reading poems by John Keats and Wendy Dennis

You broke my soul

the juice of eternity,

the spirit of my lips.

Computer Power

Apple IIe, 1983

1 Mhz, \$1,400

Dell PC, Today

4 2 Ghz processors, \$900

Embedded Computers: Embedded AI

Augmented Reality

Ubiquitous Computing

GPS: Path Finding

Security Face Recognition

Robotics

A machine able to extract information from its
environment and use knowledge about its world to move
safely in a meaningful manner

Physically Embodied Computation

The Real World is a Harsh Place

Inaccessible

Non
-
deterministic

Dynamic

Teleprescence

The next best thing to being there?

Meetings, building inspections, home
doctor visits, search & rescue

SOE Tour Guide

Autonomous Robots

Mobile Robotics

Maintenance

Construction

Entertainment

Autonomous Robots

Robotics

Productivity

Service

Friends

Everyone can be a robot scientist

Robot Kits between \$200
-

\$2000