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Acknowledgements


The 41
st

Turbomachinery Symposium is sponsored by the Turbomachinery Laboratory of the Texas
Engineering Experiment Station, The Texas A&M

University System. The Advisory Committee for this
symposium is composed of engineers from various user and manufacturing corporations throughout the
U.S. and abroad. The presenters of Lectures, Tutorials, Case Studies
,

and the Discussion Leaders are
lead
ers from the fluid
-
handling
-
equipment community. The Advisory Committee is greatly indebted to
these individuals for their participation and outstanding contributions.


Advisory Committee


Dr. Dara W. Childs, Chairman


Texas A&M University



College Statio
n, TX

Mr. Marcelo Accorsi Miranda


PETROBRAS SA




Niteroi, RJ, Brazil

Mr. Kazim Akhtar



CB&I Lummus




Houston, TX

Mr. Leonardo Baldassarre


GE Oil & Gas




Firenze, Italy

Mr. Bruce Bayless



Valero Energy Corporation


Texas City, TX

Mr. Gampa I. Bhat



ExxonMobil Chemical Company


Baytown, TX

Dr. Meherwan P. Boyce



The Boyce Consultancy Group, LLC

Houston, TX

Mr. Clifford P. Cook



CVC Engineering



Houston, TX

Mr. Thomas R. Davidson


Linde LLC




Pasadena, TX

Dr. Michael J. Drosjack



Drosjack Consulti
ng



The Woodlands, TX

Mr. Robert D. Fisher



ExxonMobil




Houston, TX

Ms. Lisa Ford




Lufkin Industries



Pollok, TX

Mr. Francisco Gonzalez



Enterprise Products Company


Houston, TX

Mr. Satoshi Hata



Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd

Hiroshima, Japan

Mr. Jeffrey Haught



Anadarko Petroleum Corp.


The Woodlands, TX

Mr. Lil H. Kassie



BP





Carson, CA

Mr. Rainer X. Kurz



Solar Turbines Inc.



San Diego, CA

Mr. Mark, J. Kuzdzal



Dresser
-
Rand Company



Olean, NY

Mr. Stephen R. Locke



DuPont





Old H
ickory, TN

Mr. Terryl Matthews



Shell Global Solutions, Inc.


Houston, TX

Mr. Cyrus B. Meher
-
Homji


Bechtel Corporation



Houston, TX

Dr. J. Jeffrey Moore



Southwest Research Institute


San Antonio, TX

Mr. Joe Moreno



LyondellBasell




Houston, TX

Mr.
Vinoad Patel



KBR





Houston, TX

Mr. Michael Pepper



ExxonMobil




Houston, TX

Mr. Bernard Quoix



TOTAL





Paris, France

Mr. Peter C. Rasmussen


Rasmussen Machinery Consulting

Conroe, TX

Mr. Terry L. Roehm



Marathon Oil Company



Houston, TX

Mr. Cha
rles R. Rutan



LyondellBasell




Houston, TX

Mr. Mark R. Sandberg



Chevron




Houston, TX

Mr. Donald R. Smith



Engineering Dynamics, Inc.


San Antonio, TX

Mr. Stanley Stevenson



Siemens Demag Delaval


Trenton, NJ







Turbomachinery Inc.

Mr. Hans P.

Weyermann


ConocoPhillips




Houston, TX

Mr. Kevin Yates




Praxair, Inc.




Freeport, TX


A Short Course is a full
-
day training session presented concurrently with other sessions on the first day of
the symposium.


Short Course T1/P1: Vibration Problems
and Solutions in Pumps & Turbomachinery

Monday, September 24, 2012


8:30


5:00


Level Three, Room 351D


Instructors:

William D. Marscher , Paul A. Boyadjis,
Eric J. Olson, and
Maki M. Onari (Mechanical Solutions,
Inc.,Whippany, NJ)


Description:

Vibration

evaluation of rotating machinery will be covered on a practical basis, with focus on

centrifugal pumps, axial and centrifugal compressors, and steam and gas turbines.


Analysis concepts,

test procedures, diagnostic methods, and troubleshooting approache
s will be presented, all in the
context of machinery internal construction and physical functioning of the machine.


Representative

Case Histories will be provided for a variety of equipment and problems.


Ten Rules in Turbomachinery Operation for “Good Vi
brations”:

1.

Match Design Point to System Head & Flow Requirements

2.

For Pumps, Require NPSHA Above NPSHR, with Margin

3.

Use a Long Straight Piping Run to the Inlet

4.

Careful When & How You Throttle

5.

Avoid H
-
Q Slopes Being Similar, Machine vs. System

6.

Minimize Nozzle Loads & Use Exp Joint Tie Rods

7.

Avoid Structural Natural Frequencies & Rotor Criticals

8.

Minimize Load Cycling, if Practical

9.

Select Materials Based on Corrosion, Galling, Fatigue & Erosion Resistance

10.

You Get What You Spec & Pay For


Conclusions:

-

There’s More to Turbomachinery Vibrations than Expected

-

Keys to Success: Knowledge, Experience, the Right Tools

-

Good Rules
-
of
-
Thumb Exist for Troubleshooting and Diagnosis

-

Good Vibration Methods & Instrumentation Are Getting Better


Short Cour
se T2/P2: The Utilization of Computational Fluid Dynamics in Turbomachinery Design and
Analysis

Monday, September 24, 2012


8:30


5:00


Level Three, Room 360C


Instructors: Dr. Edward M. Bennett and Travis A Jonas (Mechanical Solutions Incorporated); Vis
hwas
Iyengar, Andrew H. Lerche, and Grant O. Musgrove (Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX)


Description:

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has emerged as a leading tool for the design and analysis of
incompressible and compressible turbomachine
ry. CFD is now routinely applied to solve problems of
performance, forced response, cavitation and multiphase flows, heat transfer and rotordynamics. As
with all computational tools, CFD must be used with care to ensure accurate and reliable results.


Th
is course will serve as an introduction to the use of CFD using as examples a variety of problems in
incompressible and compressible turbomachinery. It will cover the basics of CFD, and then proceed
directly to a number of case studies where CFD has been
applied to resolve challenging fluid dynamic,
thermodynamic, and forced response issues that r
o
utinely arise in turbomachinery, for selected
situations involving pumps, compressors, and turbines of various designs and services. The course will
demonstrate

the effectiveness of this tool to resolve complex phenomena when used with caution as
well as a full understanding of its capabilities and limitations.


The course will cover several key parts:


AM Session


Incompressible Turbomachinery Flow:

1.

Fundamental

Concepts

2.

Pump Case Study One: Cavitating Pump

3.

Pump Case Study Two: Axial Pump Stage

4.

Hydraulic Turbine Case Study Three: Francis Turbine Stage


PM Session


Compressible Turbomachinery Flow:

1.

Pitfalls of CFD

2.

Performance Predictions

3.

Role of CFD in RCFA

4.

Fluid

Structure Interaction (FSI)

5.

Rotordynamics

6.

Conjugate Heat Transfer


Short Course T3: Centrifugal Compressors 101

Monday, September 24, 2012


8:30


5:00


Level Three, Room 36
0
A


Instructors:

Mark J. Kuzdzal and Jay M. Koch (Dresser
-
Rand, Olean, NY)


Descri
ption:

This course is aimed at engineers and technical professionals who need a broad
-
based introduction to
centrifugal compressor design and analysis. The course starts with the basics and builds to provide a full
understanding of a centrifugal compressor
. It will include the following topics: reciprocating, axial and
centrifugal compressor similarities/differences; centrifugal compressor configurations; design
consideration; and balancing aerodynamic, rotordynamic, and mechanical consideration. The course

will
answer the question, “How do they work?”

and cover topics like

factory testing and future challenges.


At the completion of the course, attendees will hold a strong understanding of basic concepts. This
knowledge will springboard further growth of u
nderstanding of more complex centrifugal compressor
concepts. An emphasis is placed on providing practical information with minimal theory. This is NOT a
centrifugal compressor operations and maintenance class.


Outline:

-

Axial, reciprocating, and
centrifugal compressor similarities/differences

-

History of compressors

-

Markets served

-

Pressure containment

-

Compressor performance

-

Selection process

-

Impeller

-

Component design

-

Rotordynamics

-

Stress analysis

-

Acoustics

-

Seals

-

Materials considerations

-

Testing

-

Vib
ration signatures of clas
sic problems

-

Materials considerations


Short Course T4: Centrifugal Compressors 201

Monday, September 24, 2012


8:30


5:00



Level Three, Room 361A


Instructors:

Bill Hohlweg and Jim Hardin (Elliott Company, Jeannette, PA), Jeffre
y Moore (Southwest Research
Institute), Gary Colby (Dresser
-
Rand Company, Olean, NY), and Robert White (Solar Turbines, Inc., San
Diego, CA)


Overview:

This course supplements the Centrifugal Compressor 101 course by covering in greater detail four key
are
as related to centrifugal compressors: aerodynamics, rotordynamics, performance and mechanical
testing, and surge control. It is intended for those who attended the 101 and wish to learn more about
these topics. The course is also structured for those prac
ticing rotating machinery engineers who have a
basic understanding of the topics covered in Centrifugal Compressors 101 but who wish to further their
understanding in these key areas.


Short Course T5: Lateral Rotordynamics of Petrochemical Equipment

Monday, September 24, 2012


8:30


5:00



Level Three, Room 361C


Instructor:

Dr. John A. Kocur, Jr. (ExxonMobil Research & Engineering, Fairfax, VA)


Audience:

This course is aimed at machinery and project engineers and technicians that need a basic
under
standing of critical speeds, response to unbalance, and stability of rotating machinery. The course
is intended for the layman’s approach to rotordynamics and its application to turbomachinery. The
course will focus on the rotordynamic behavior of petroche
mical gas handling rotating equipment,
centrifugal/axial compressors, and steam/gas turbines. However, the concepts presented can be applied
to virtually any class of rotating equipment


Description:

Reliability and operability of rotating equipment is str
ongly tied to its dynamic behavior. High vibrations
resulting from poorly designed machinery can lead to bearing damage, efficiency loss due to internal
rubbing, cyclic failure of rotating components, and protracted unplanned shutdowns. Knowledge of the
ro
tordynamic behavior and the impact of components on that behavior is critical in determining the
success of new equipment, rerates of existing equipment, or retrofitting components in the field


This short course will present the basics of rotordynamics an
d its application to turbomachinery. Shaft
stiffness considerations, tilting pad journal bearing influence on stiffness and damping coefficients,
influence of support stiffness and labyrinth and honeycomb seal impact on stability are some of the
concepts c
overed.


Basic rotordynamic analyses, undamped critical speeds, and response to unbalance and rotor stability
will be presented and their use in understanding the rotor
behavior explained. Case studies showing
problem solving using rotordynamic analysis a
re also included. The student should come away from the
course with an appreciation for rotordynamic behavior, an ability to interpret rotordynamic predictions,
and an awareness of when this tool should be applied to ensure operability and reliability of e
quipment.

Outline:

-

Introduction

o

Historical perspective

o

Specifications

-

Lateral
A
nalysis

o

Shaft consi
derations

o

Radial bearings

o

Support stiffness

o

Seal descriptions

o

Undamped critical speeds

o

Response to unbalance

o

Machine specific considerations

-

Stability
Analysis

o

Classic references

o

Description of instability

o

Bearing and seal behavior

-

Case Histories

-

Balancing Discussion

-

References


Handout: API RP 684


Short Course T6: Compressor Controls and Anti
-
surge Systems

Monday, September 24, 2012


8:30


5:00


Lev
el Three, Room 362A


Instructor
s
:

Jeff
rey

Moore
and Melissa Wilcox
(Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX)
, Robert C. White
(Solar Turbines. Inc., San Diego, CA), Kenneth DeVito (Dresser
-
Rand, Houston, TX), Ken Junk (Emerson
Process Management, Mar
shalltown, IA)


Overview:

This course focuses on surge and surge control systems associated with centrifugal compression
systems. The fundamental aspects of surge and how it differs from stall will be covered.


Short Course T7: Introduction to Reciprocati
ng Compressor Diagnostics and Basic Pattern
Interpretation

Monday, September 24, 2012


8:30


5:00


Level Three, Room 362C


Instructor:

Warren Laible (Windrock, Inc., Knoxville, TN)


Audience:

Engineers, managers, and technicians working with compressor
reliability, optimization, and
maintenance


Description:

This short course will provide an introduction to the measurement of reciprocating machinery
performance and mechanical condition utilizing portable and stationary analysis equipment. Content
will al
so provide a basic understanding of the relationships of pressure, volume, temperature, and
vibration necessary to evaluate the performance and mechanical condition of reciprocating
compressors.


Outline:

-

Discussion of reciprocating compressor design to in
clude

o

Slider
-
crank mechanism

o

Double
-
acting cylinder design

o

Piston design (piston rings, rider rings)

o

Compressor valves

o

Piston rod L/R

o

Portable and continuous monitoring equipment

o

Measured data

o

Detectable performance and mechanical anomalies

-

Introduction to

reciprocating compressor theory to include:

o

Positive displacement compression

o

Performance measurement (RPM, horsepower, capacity, losses)

o

Pressure


Volume


Temperature relationships

o

Extracting performance and mechanical condition problems from the Press
ure
-
Volume
indicator card

-

Detection of reciprocating compressor faults to include:

o

Ring leakage/failure

o

Valve leakage/failure

o

Packing leakage/failure

-

Mechanical condition analysis techniques

-

Pattern interpretation

-

Feedback and Discussion


Short Course T8:
Gas Turbines 101

Monday, September 24, 2012


8:30


5:00


Level Three, Room 351F


Instructor:

Dr. Meherwan P. Boyce (The Boyce Consultancy Group, Houston, TX)


Description:

The course covers the new advanced technology gas turbines by outlining all the maj
or components of
Gas Turbines, such as Axial Flow Compressors, Axial Flow Turbines, and Dry Low NOx Combustors. The
components of a gas turbine will be addressed from a design, operation, and maintenance point of view
as well as their effect on plant opera
tion, plant availability, and reliability. Also covered will be the best
practices in operating the new advanced technology gas turbines at variable loads obtaining best
efficiencies with minimal down time.


Short Course T9: Reliability
-
Centered Maintenan
ce

Monday, September 24, 2012


8:30


5:00


Level Three, Room 342D


Instructors:

Walter Sanford and John B. Cary (Advanced Reliability Technologies, LLC, Houston, TX)


Description:

Reliability
-
Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a methodology originally develop
ed by the airline industry to
assure the cost
-
effective reliability of jet airliners. The original (classical) process can be very time and
resource intensive. Subsequently, more efficient RCM methods have been developed, resulting in a
much more cost
-
effe
ctive process, permitting its widespread use in process and manufacturing
industries while still maintaining the key attributes and virtually the same results as the original process.
This workshop will introduce the basic concepts of the streamlined RCM p
rocess and demonstrate the
step
-
by
-
step process used to perform it in a process or production plant environment. Specific examples
will be given to illustrate the application of RCM, including hands
-
on exercises throughout the course.


Short Course T10: FC
CU Hot Gas Expander Designs, Operation, and Troubleshooting

Monday, September 24, 2012


8:30


5:00


Level Three, Room 342F


Instructors:

Mike Drosjack (Drosjack Consulting, LLC, The

Woodlands, TX), Dave Linden (D.H. Linden Associates, Inc.,
Allentown, PA), Murari Singh (SAFETSOL, Bethlehem, PA)


Outline:

1.

Introduction

2.

FCCU Hot Gas Expanders

3.

Nitric Gas Expanders

4.

Cryogenic Expanders

5.

Technical Design Details

6.

Panel Discussion on Problem S
olving


Short Course T11: Magnetic Bearings in Turbomachinery

Monday, September 24, 2012


8:30


5:00


Level Three, Room 352D


Instructors:

Tim Griffin and Frank Pickney (Dresser
-
Rand, Olean, NY); Richard Shultz (Waukesha Magnetic Bearings,
West Sussex, U
K)
;

Stan Uptigrove (ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company, Houston, TX)


Description:

This course is aimed at engineers, operations, and maintenance personnel who need a broad
-
based
introduction to magnetic bearing design, specification, and operation. This

course aims to provide a
balanced presentation of both the benefits and challenges associated with applying magnetic bearings
to industrial turbomachinery and with operating/maintaining those machines. An emphasis is placed on
providing practical informat
ion with minimal theory. At the completion of the course the attendees
should have a firm foundation in the basics associated with specifying, purchasing, operating, and
maintaining turbomachinery supported on magnetic bearings.


Outline:

-

Introduction to
Magnetic Bearings

-

Bearing Design

-

Control System Design

-

Sensors

-

Auxiliary Bearings

-

Rotordynamics

-

Fault Tolerance

-

Specifying Magnetic Bearings

-

Factory Testing/Field Commissioning

-

Test Rig Demonstration

-

Operation, Maintenance, and Troubleshooting

-

Conclusions


A Lecture is a presentation of a technical paper detailing cutting
-
edge, emerging technology. Two
lectures are presented consecutively in one 90
-
minute time slot.


Lecture T1: Analysis of Solid Particle Surface Impact Behavior in Turbomachines to Assess B
lade
Erosion and Fouling

Tuesday, September 25, 2012


8:45 AM


Level Three, General Assembly B


Instructors:

Klaus Brun (Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX), Rainer Kurz (Solar Turbines Incorporated,
San Diego, CA), and Marybeth Nored (Apache C
orporation, Houston, TX)


Description:


Solid particle admission is one of the principal damage and failure mechanisms in turbomachines such as
gas turbines, axial, and centrifugal compressors. Significant interest exists within the turbomachinery
industry

to better predict and improve the durability of machines that operate in environments where
ingestion of solid particles, such as sand, dust, and dirt, cannot be avoided for operational or
environmental condition reasons.


This paper describes the develo
pment
of a mixed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
-
empirical
software tool that allows a probabilistic analysis of the kinematic and impact behavior of solid
particulates in the near
-
field of turbomachinery blades and impeller surfaces. The method has bee
n
successfully employed to predict the surface wear characteristics and fouling rates in several ground
-
based gas turbines and centrifugal process compressor applications.


The method and tool employ a commercially available CFD solver to calculate the mac
hine’s steady
-
state flow field. The model then uses the output to determine a set of non
-
dimensional coefficients in a
set of empirical functions to predict the statistical probability of a given weight and size or distribution
of solid particles, impactin
g on a specified rotating or stationary surface. Based on this model’s output
information, improved inlet air filtering techniques, optimized engine maintenance practices, and
component designs can be realized. To determine the empirical coefficient and to

validate the method,
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) testing was performed on an airfoil in a wind tunnel;
then particle
injection into a full scale centrifugal impeller was tested on Southwest Research Institute’s (SwRI) high
-
speed compressor test rig.
Results from these tests allowed optimizing of the model to reflect rotating
machinery

particle impact behavior more accurately.


Lecture T2: Valve Performance and Life of Reciprocating Compressors

Tuesday, September 25, 2012


10:30 AM


Level Three, Genera
l Assembly B


Instructors:

Klaus Brun (Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX) and Marybeth Nored (Apache Corporation,
Houston, TX)


Description:


The operation of a reciprocating compressor is closely linked to the performance of its valves in terms of
life and efficiency. Most operators report that the most significant cause of forced outages of
reciprocating compressors is related to valve failure
s. In designing a reciprocating compressor valve,
desirable functional attributes include good sealing, rapid opening and closing, sustained high flow area
and low flow resistance, minimum bouncing upon impact, toleration of impact forces and high
temperat
ures, and low flow resistance. Proper design choices, such as material, mass, spring constant,
lift, and flow area will maximize the success of the design. However, simple passive valves do not
tolerate wide operating ranges well, often suffering from valv
e leakage at low pressure ratios and
reduced valve life at higher pressure ratios.


Valve failures can be divided into two major categories, environmental and mechanical. As impact
velocities increase due to higher valve lift or valve operation at off
-
des
ign conditions, the velocities
cause excessive impact stresses and an accelerated damage rate to the valve. Some mechanical causes
can be controlled with a good design of the valve components, although the design of a valve is usually
optimized for a singl
e design point based on the fixed mass, stiffness, and damping of the design.


To better understand the factors that affect reciprocating compressor valve performance and life, a
research program was undertaken to systematically investigate the physical be
havior of valve plates
during compressor operation. The valve plate life of a reciprocating compressor is generally considered
to be a function of the plate’s cyclic kinematics, transient stresses, and material properties. Thus, the
valve research program
aimed to incorporate these fundamental factors into an analysis model that
accurately predicts valve life for a given application, geometry, and plate material. The research results
benefit users within the gas compression industry by providing a basis for

improvements in applications
engineering and operational decision
-
making related to reciprocating compressor valves. The analysis
model developed by the research program is based on results from
plate single impact strain gauge
tests, dynamic finite eleme
nt (FE) calculations, optical valve plate 3
-
D motion measurements, and
material high cycle fatigue testing. This paper describes the research program, experimental and
analytical results, and the valve life and performance prediction tool that was develope
d along with
recent research findings to advance passive valve technology.


Lecture T3: Fixed Speed Compressors Operation in Off
-
Shore Production Platforms

Tuesday, September 25, 2012


2:00 PM


Level Three, General Assembly B


Instructors:

Fabio de Norman

et d’Audenhove, Michel Stathakis Neto, Andre Varella Guedes, and Bruno Da Silva
Marques (PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)


Description:

This paper discusses the use of centrifugal compressors with fixed speed in offshore production units
using as refere
nce the experience of the Petrobras’s Rio de Janeiro Operational Unit. The operational
and Maintenance records of two of its major production platforms are used to discuss technical aspects
on the specification and acceptance during testing of fixed
-
speed
compressors. From this discussion,
recommendations are formulated to prevent repetition of the main problems faced by the Operational
Unit in the operation and maintenance of such equipment.


Lecture T4: “C” Type PTFE Gaskets Performances in High
-
Pressure

Sour Applications

Tuesday, September 25, 2012


10:30 AM


Level Three, General Assembly B


Instructors:

Leonardo Baldassarre and Marco Pelella (GE Oil & Gas, Firenze, Italy)


Description:

Sealing performance in general in centrifugal compressors and in
particular in sour gas applications is
extremely important to prevent safety issues and EHS concerns. In high
-
pressure machines,
thermoplastic material such as PTFE
-
Politetrafluoroetilene (Teflon®) is normally used because of its good
mechanical properties

including poor permeability to gas and liquids (not affected by explosive
decompression). On the other side, its lack of elasticity makes sealing difficult and requires very low
surface roughness of the metal parts in touch with it.


During the leakage te
st of a BCL304/C (design pressure 425barg) an excessive leakage was measured on
the inboard gasket (‘C’ type), i.e. ~ 700 NmLit/min @ 425 barg versus a requirement of 0.56 NmLit/min.
Present work reports the activity and design solutions developed to fix t
he issue. Several parameters
have been analyzed:

a.

gasket groove geometry (circularity and roughness) and potential damages (scratches,


dents,
etc.),

b.

gasket surfaces roughness and potential damages (scratches,


dents, etc.), and

c.

gasket
-
groove assembly and g
asket compression including the eccentricity between casing
and


head
-
cover causing a non
-
uniform compression over the 360°.


A special 1D gas dynamic model has been developed in order to physically relate leakage flow with gas
pressure and some other key
parameters:

i.

Thermodynamic conditions,

ii.

Elasto
-
plastic material properties, and

iii.

Contact surfaces tribological characteristics.


The model has been validated through tests on the real compressor going from 0 to full pressure (425
barg) using nitrogen gas.


Fi
nally the root cause of the excessive leakage was understood and the gasket design successfully
improved.


Lecture T5:
Steady State Performance Prediction of Directly Lubricated Fluid Film Journal Bearings

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

8:30 AM


Level Thre
e, General Assembly B


Instructors:

Minhui He, C. Hunter Cloud, James M. Byrne, José A. Vázquez (BRG Machinery Consulting, LLC,
Charlottesville, VA)


Description:

Predicting the performance of directly lubricated bearings is a challenge facing bearing manu
facturers
and end users alike. In this study, thermoelastohydrodynamic (TEHD) theories are applied to analyze
three directly lubricated bearings that have been experimentally investigated by the Turbomachinery
Laboratory at Texas A&M University, including
two inlet groove bearings and one spray bar bearing. The
main aspects of the TEHD model are presented, including an extensive discussion on groove mixing.
Comparisons are made between the theoretical and experimental results for the pad temperatures and
sh
aft centerline locations. The results, which show generally good agreement, indicate that the TEHD
theories are capable of predicting the steady state performance of these directly lubricated bearings
with reasonable accuracy. Limitations of the simple gro
ove mixing model and the elastic model were
also identified.


Lecture T6: Early Detection of Rotating Stall Phenomena in Centrifugal Compressors by Means of
ASME PTC 10 Type 2 Test

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

10:30 AM


Level Three, General Assembly B


Instructors:

Leonardo Ishimoto, Joilson de Sousa Rangel Junior, Fabio de Normal et d’Audenhove, Ra
phael

Timbó
Silva, Marcelo Accorsi Miranda, Bruno da Silva Marques (PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Leonardo
Baldassarre (GE Oil & Gas, Florence, Italy);
Christophe Puaut (GE Oil & Gas, Le Cruesot, France)


Description:

A centrifugal compressor presenting rotating stall can exhibit many problems, such as limitation on its
operational range, high level of subsynchronous vibrations, reduced efficiency, and pr
emature bearing
wear.


There are many design criteria and standard practices for aerodynamic design of impellers and diffusers
of centrifugal compressors. Nonetheless, the inception of rotating stall in new projects is still a reality.
Therefore, an early
detection of this phenomenon in a compressor is highly desirable.


This paper proposes a way to detect the rotating stall problem during an ASME PTC10 Type 2 Test and
how to scale these results (amplitude of vibration and inception point) as an estimative
to site
conditions.


A comparison between the results of the proposed extrapolation from ASME PTC10 Type 2 Tests to the
full load/density (almost an ASME PTC
-
10 Type 1 test) conditions is also presented. Scaling up guidelines
for vibrations from similarity

test to full density conditions are presented.


Finally, an acceptance criterion for the amplitude of subsynchronous vibrations is proposed.


Lecture T7: A Comparison of Manufacturing Methods, Accuracy, Quality Control and Testing Methods
as They Relate t
o High Head Low Flow Impeller Efficiency and Overall Compressor Performance”

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

2:00 PM


Level Three, General Assembly B


Instructors:

Nathan Pash and George C. Hayles, Jr. (ExxonMobil Development Company, Houston, TX); Daisuke
H
irata and Daisuke Kiuchi (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Compressor Corporation, Hiroshima, Japan)


This paper presents a detailed analysis and evaluation of impeller efficiency and overall compressor
performance as they relate to specific impeller manufactur
ing methods, manufacturing tolerances, and
quality control. The manufacturing process used in the construction of an impeller has a direct influence
on the impeller’s performance. The authors explain and compare different manufacturing methods and
introduc
e the Taguchi Method Application as an available tool for statistical evaluation of key
manufacturing parameters influence on impeller performance.


As a best practice, manufacturing techniques for one piece impeller production are presented. In the
case o
f high pressure centrifugal compressor applications with very narrow tip width impellers, and
corrosive gas applications requiring special materials, EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining) and ECM

(Electrolytic Machining) can be applied as a manufacturing
process to improve quality control over
conventional manufacturing methods.


In response to a compressor performance discrepancy encountered during OEM FAT, a review was
initiated into improving quality control and performance prediction based on enhanced
impeller
manufacturing processes for narrow tip width impellers.


In this analysis, two compressor rotors are evaluated and compared; the first using traditional, two piece
welded impellers and the second with one piece impellers machined via EDM and ECM.
The resulting
data from both series of tests suggests a significant improvement in individual impeller performance, as
well as overall compressor performance for the single piece impeller compared to the two piece
impeller.


Lecture T8: Impact of Electrica
l Noise on the Torsional Response of VFD Compressor Trains

Wednesday, Septem
b
er 26, 2012

10:30 AM


Level Three, General Assembly B


Instructors:

Dr. John A. Kocur (ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, Fairfax, VA), Maximilian G. Muench
(ExxonMobil
Research and Engineering Company, Channahon, IL)


Description:

The popularity of VFD motors in compressor trains has increased in recent years. Increased process
flexibility is a primary consideration for implementation of VFD systems. However, this comes
at a cost
of increased mechanical and electrical complexity. Problems rarely experienced with single speed
motors have become more likely with VFDs. These include impacts on the torsional behavior leading to
component failure and extended downtimes.


VFDs
can excite the torsional system in several ways. The paper examines
the impact of white noise on
the torsional response of VFD compressor trains and contrasts it against the response to single
frequency harmonic excitation. The characteristics of white noi
se, noise modeling characteristics for
torsional response, and noise generation techniques are examined. Generation of a frequency banded
noise signal is presented using a commonly used math modeling code.


Two case studies are presented representing VFD
compressor trains found in the LNG industry. Both
experienced torsional problems related to the VFD and, in one case, led to a coupling failure and release
of parts from the train. In the examination of these trains, a single frequency harmonic (SFH) sweep

and
banded Gaussian white noise (GWN) encompassing the dynamic response envelop of the 1
st

TNF, are
used as inputs to the torsional analysis.


Lecture T9: CO
2

Compression at World’s Largest Carbon Dioxide Injection Plant

Tuesday, September 25, 2012


8:45
AM


Level Three, General Assembly B


Instructors:

Antonio Musardo, Gabriele Giovani, Marco Pelella, and Sergio Cipriani (GE Oil & Gas, Florence, Italy);
Vinod Patel (KBR, Houston, TX); Mark Weatherwax (Chevron ETC, Houston, TX)


Description:

Compressors fo
r CO
2

application have been widely used in the O&G world for Urea, EOR and pipeline
since many years. New environmental challenges have re
-
focused the attention on the rotating
equipments with particular care

to the efficiency and

to the best configuration

to optimize it.

In the recent years, Australian projects required very stringent modularization needs. A complete CO
2

moto
-
compressor package with peculiar shaft
-
line configuration, double ended VFD motor, was
developed to optimize package overall
dimensions due to space constraints. The project addressed
layout, package, mounting, human factors, maintenance, and included the analysis of foundation
-
baseplates dynamic stiffness effects on rotor critical speeds, flange
-
to
-
flange analysis of alignment,

bearings, clearances, oil draining and operability assessment. Elevated CO
2

compression pressure ratio
implies extremely high operating temperature, challenging the dry gas seals and all relevant auxiliaries
systems: innovative system configuration has be
en implemented.

Lecture T10: Centrifugal Stage Performance Prediction and Validation for High Mach Number
Applications

Tuesday, September 25, 2012


2:00 PM


Level Three, General Assembly B


Instructors:

Steven C. Kowalski, Syed Fakhri, Jorge E. Pacheco, Ja
mes M. Sorokes (Dresser
-
Rand Company, Olean, NY)


Description:

Centrifugal compressors used for process applications like Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plants require
operation at high machine Mach numbers due to the heavy gas and reduced footprint requireme
nts.
Performance guarantees are commonly specified (API
-
617), but some end users are requiring tighter
performance tolerances. This paper describes CFD performance predictions and their validation using
test rig results.


The experimental results presented

were obtained using a heavily instrumented compressor test rig.
The instrumentation used allows measurement of necessary stage performance parameters such as
total and static pressure, total temperature, and flow angle, among others. Due to the garget tol
erances,
CFD was used to predict the performance rather than alternative methods.


Performance results from the tested stages matched well with the CFD prediction. The performance was
also well within API
-
617 tolerances. The comparison using tighter end
-
u
ser tolerances showed that CFD
predictions can meet the requirements for efficiency, head, and overload margin, but there is still work
to be done to meet tighter tolerances regarding surge/stall margin. Overall, CFD analysis has been
shown to have the nec
essary accuracy to predict performance within tight tolerances for challenging
applications such as high machine Mach number.


Lecture T11: Centrifugal Compressor Sidestream Sectional Performance Prediction Methodology

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

2:00 PM


Level Three, General Assembly B


Instructors:

Syed A. K. Fakhri, Jorge E. Pacheco, Jay M. Koch (Dresser
-
Rand Company, Olean, NY)


Description:

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the sensitivity of sidestream sectional performance curves
to the

volume flow ratio, sidestream loss coefficient and section inlet conditions. A model to determine
sectional performance is outlined. This model is then used to conduct a sensitivity analysis, which is
based on current ASME PTC
-
10 guidelines. The model is
validated by comparing test results to those
predicted by the model. The model is used to show the sensitivity of test results based on the
mentioned parameters. The subsequent variations are also compared with current API
-
617 guarantees,
and based on this

study additional guidelines are recommended to be added to the ASME PTC
-
10 code.
The improved prediction and testing methodology is expected to provide more accurate sectional curves
to clients for sidestream applications.


Lecture T12:
Effectiveness of W
indage Features on High Speed Couplings

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

8:30 AM


Level Three, General Assembly B


Instructors:

Steven Pennington and Klaus Meck (John Crane UK Ltd, Manchester, UK)


Description:

With the introduction of the latest revision of API 671 and tougher global health and safety legislations,
guard surface temperatures of rotating machinery is forcing the industry to review and develop new
design features for high performance (HP), high
-
sp
eed couplings operating in enclosed environments.


The key objective of these initiatives is to reduce the heat generated by the revolving parts of the
coupling. Typically, several kilowatts of heat is

generated by a high
-
speed coupling due to air churning or
windage losses

and the losses are incurred by the connecting rotating machines.


In order to limit these losses and comply with new legislation, a sophisticated review into windage losses
associat
ed with HP couplings has been conducted by John Crane to develop effective design solutions.
Beside “real
-
life” rig testing, comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes were employed
to study the phenomena of air churning and the associated heat
ing.


This paper discusses the source of windage losses associated with high
-
speed couplings and how the
enclosure and the machine influence losses and affect the resulting guard temperatures.


Furthermore, the paper reviews the efficiency of traditional
HP coupling windage features that currently
are in use when operating at high speed. The findings demonstrate that some windage features applied
are not only inefficient but can significantly increase churning heat, thus, adding to the problem of high
guar
d temperatures.


A Tutorial is a mini short course/workshop. It is a teaching process.


Tutorial T1: Gas Seal Contamination

Tuesday, September 25, 2012


8:45 AM


Level Three, Room 360A


Instructors:

Ralph Bridon and Olivier Lebigre (Dresser
-
Rand, Le Havr
e, France)


Description:

Design of seals and sealing systems requires multidisciplinary skills and deep understanding of
interactions between the seals and their environment. This paper proposes to present typical gas seals
contaminants and corresponding c
onsequences. It will then describe the process typically used to
perform the root cause analysis and leading to a proposed fix.


Tutorial T2: Range versus Efficiency


Striking the Proper Balance

Tuesday, September 25, 2012


8:45 AM


Level Three, Room 361C


Instructor:

James Sorokes (Dresser
-
Rand, Olean, NY)


Description:

This paper addresses the balance between peak attainable efficiency and overall operating range that
must be addressed when specifying, designing, and/or selecting centrifugal compressors.

The relative
roles of the various compressor components; i.e., impellers, diffuser4s, guide vanes, and return
channels; in achieving the proper balance are discussed. Finally, the importance of proper component
and stage aerodynamic matching is emphasized
.


Tutorial T3: Pulsation, Vibration, and Noise Issues with Wet and Dry Screw Compressors

Tuesday, September 25, 2012


10:30 AM


Level Three, Room 361C


Instructor:

Donald R. Smith (Engineering Dynamics, Incorporated, San Antonio, TX)


Description:

This tu
torial discusses the fundamentals of operation and pulsation, vibration, and noise problems
associated with wet (oil
-
injected) and dry (oil
-
free) screw compressors. Design guidelines are provided,
and case histories are presented where actual testing was p
erformed.


Tutorial T4: Introduction to Engineering Ethics and Rotating Machinery Case Studies

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

2:00 PM


Level Three, Room 360A


Instructor:

Robert X. Perez (Enterprise Products Inc., San Antonio, TX)


Description:

This tutoria
l offers attending professional engineers a convenient means of satisfying their requirement
for continuing ethics study. A combination of basic ethics theory, recommended practices, and real
-
world machinery ethics examples will be presented. Participation

by the attendees during the tutorial is
welcomed and encouraged.


Tutorial T5:
Buying/Selling Serial Number One

Presented Twice

Tuesday, September 25, 2012


10:30 AM


Level Three, Room 360A

Wednesday, Septembe
r 26, 2012

8:30 AM


Level Three, Room 360A


Instructors:

Dr. Michael J. Drosjack (Drosjack Consulting, LLC, The Woodlands, TX); James M. Sorokes and Harry F.
Miller (Dresser
-
Rand, Olean, NY)


Description:

The machinery utilized in the oil and gas industry (Upstream, Midstream, and Downstream) is
und
ergoing very significant changes. In past years, the use of new designs or prototype machinery was
strongly discouraged. Changes were modest and taken slowly. However, rapidly escalating changes in
operating environments and requirements are requiring user
s and manufacturers to pursue “step outs”
or, as defined in this paper, Serial #1 machinery. These authors detail some of the design challenges
being encountered by users and manufacturers. A number of specific design challenges that have been
encountered
in the centrifugal compressor arena are described. Considerable engineering and design
details for these specific challenges are discussed. The goal of this discussion is to provide the readers
with some level of understanding of both the challenges they a
re facing and the manner in which they
may address them while managing the risk inherent in these designs.


Tutorial T6: Simplified Modal Analysis for the Plant Machinery Engineer

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

10:30 AM


Level Three, Room 360A


Instructors:

José A. Vázquez (BRG Machinery Consulting, LLC, Wilmington, DE), C. Hunter Cloud (BRG Machinery
Consulting, LLC, Charlottesville, VA), and Robert J. Eizember (DuPont Company, Wilmington, DE)


Description:

Experimental modal analysis and operating deflecti
on shapes (ODS) are powerful tools in vibration
analysis and machinery troubleshooting. However, the machinery plant engineer often doesn’t believe
such techniques are available given a lack of advanced measurement equipment. This tutorial presents
best pr
actices with simplified experimental modal analysis and ODS techniques that can be used by a
plant machinery engineer with the limited vibration analysis equipment usually available at a plant site.
Minimum requirements and analyzer settings are discussed
for a variety of commonly available
measurement equipment. For different machinery problems, common measurement pitfalls and
limitations are reviewed and, where appropriate, alternative methods are presented. During the
presentation, demonstrations of moda
l testing measurements will be conducted using a portable
generic data acquisition system.


Tutorial T7: Gas Turbine Performance and Maintenance

Presented Twice

Tuesday, September 25, 2012


2:00 PM


Level Three, Room 361C

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

10:30 AM


Level Three, Room 370C


Instructors:

Rainer Kurz (Solar Turbines Incorporated, San Diego, CA); Cyrus Meher
-
Homji (Bechtel Corporation,
Houston, TX); Klaus Brun and Jeff Moore (Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX)


Description:

This tut
orial will focus on the performance and maintenance aspects that are critical to obtain reliable
and efficient operation of gas turbines. Topics covered will be key performance characteristics of gas
turbines and factors that impact performance degradation

including inlet air systems, air filtration, and
fuel quality. The focus is on practical information that will help operators understand the importance of
these factors in day
-
to
-
day operation. Topics covered include the basics of gas turbine performance,

compressor fouling, washing, fuel treatment, combustion, and condition monitoring.


Tutorial T8: Babbitt Bearing Health Assessment

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

10:30 AM


Level Three, Room 361C


Instructors:

John K. Whalen (John Crane Bearings, Houston, TX),
Thomas D. Hess, Jr. and John F. Craighton (DuPont
Engineering, Wilmington, DE), Jim Allen (Nova Chemicals Corporation, Joffre, AB)


Description:

Within most plants there is often a desire to extend the tim
e between outages. Several factors
determine this but one to consider is the bearings’ ability to run for the extended time.


This tutorial will address common bearing failure mechanisms, tools available to diagnose these
problems, and ways to use that inf
ormation to make decisions on continued operation. Evaluation
consists of analysis of condition monitoring information coupled with rotor dynamic analysis and
computerized bearing modeling.


A case study will be presented that details the evaluation of a d
istressed bearing. Analysis allowed the
user to determine they could slightly reduce running speed (to limit vibration to a certain level) and
continue to run to the scheduled outage date.


There will then be a discussion on bearing robustness and ways to
design bearings for long life. A case
study will be presented where an ethylene plant desired to extend the time between outages but the
existing bearings prohibited that. The determination was made that upgrading the bearings to a more
robust design would

allow the extended time between outages.


Tutorial T9: VSDS Motor Inverter Design Concept for Compressor Trains Avoiding Interharmonics in
Operating Speed Range

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

2:00 PM


Level Three, Room 361A


Instructors:

Volker Hütten and
Tim Krause (Siemens Energy Sector, Duisburg, Germany), Christian Beer (Siemens
Energy Sector, Erlangen, Germany), Sven Demmig (Siemens Industry Sector, Nuremberg, Germany)


Description:

The mechanical integrity of torque transmitting elements of a VSDS dri
ven train is strongly dependent
on the in
-
depth understanding of the torsional oscillation excitation caused by the interharmonics
generated in inverters. To ensure a reliable operation an elegant and

pragmatic strategy to avoid
interharmonic excitations w
ithin the operating speed range has been developed.


Tutorial T10: Torsional Natural Frequencies: Measurement versus Prediction

Tuesday, September 25, 2012


2:00 PM


Level Three, Room 361A


Instructors:

Qingyu Wang and Brian C. Pettinato (Elliott Group,
Jeannette, PA); Troy D. Feese (Engineering Dynamics
Inc., San Antonio, TX)


Description:

Torsional system design is commonly based on the API Standards, which require the torsional natural
frequencies (TNFs) to have at least 10% separation margin (SM) from

any excitation frequency or
justification by stress analysis. The validity of the predicted TNF and any stress analysis is dependent on
the accuracy of the model. This paper provides an uncertainty study of more than ten (10) torsional
systems. Major so
urces of uncertainty in torsional modeling are identified. The effect of variation in
mass
-
elastic data is examined, and a comparison between measured and predicted TNFs for numerous
cases is presented. Results indicate that prediction error can exceed th
e 5% mark discussed in previous
literature.


A Discussion Group is a forum to address problems attendees bring to the floor and to find solutions to
those problems. Suggested Topics listed are suggestions only; actual topics discussed will be determined
by

each session’s attendees.


Discussion Group T1
/P1
: Couplings and Alignment

Presented Twice

Tuesday, September 25, 2012


10:30 AM


Level Three, Room 360C

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

2:00 PM


Level Three, Room 371A


Discussion Leaders:

Thomas Davidson, Co
ordinator (Linde LLC, LaPorte, TX)

Terry Roehm (Marathon Oil Company, Houston, TX)

Morgan M. Bruck (Hydraulic, Measurement, and Inspection Consulting, LLC, Dayton, OH)

Michael Johnson (GenOn, Houston, TX)

Chris Rackman (John Crane Flexibox, Houston, TX)


S
uggested Topics:



Coupling guard design



Shaft alignment and tolerances



Balancing methods



Coupling selection and specifications



Shaft alignment methods



Thermal growth considerations



Application of optical alignment



Hub/shaft fits and keys



Coupling types and
applications



Startup problems



7
th

Edition recommendations



Allowable nozzle loads



Warmup piping procedures



Case deflection, temperature, and pressure



Piping alignment



Pipestrain


Discussion Group T2
/P2
: Monitoring Vibration and Other Critical Machine Condit
ions

Presented Twice

Tuesday, September 25, 2012


8:45 AM


Level Three, Room 371A

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

1
0:30 AM


Level Three, Room 360C


Discussion Leaders:

William D. Marscher, Coordinator (Mechanical Solutions, Inc., Whippany, NJ)

Ron Adams, Coo
rdinator (Sulzer Pumps, Brookshire, TX)

Mike Pepper, Coordinator (ExxonMobil, Houston, TX)

Steve Locke, Coordinator (DuPont, Old Hickory, TN)

Thomas Kaiser (Sulzer Pumps Inc., Brookshire, TX)

Paul Boyadjis (Mechanical Solutions, Inc., Whippany, NJ)

Al Mill
er (Flowserve Corporation, Taneytown, MD)

Jack Claxton (Patterson Pump Company, Toccoa, GA)

Maki Onari (Mechanical Solutions, Inc., Whippany, NJ)

Simon Bradshaw (ITT Goulds Pumps, Seneca Falls, NY)


Suggested Topics:



Effectiveness of condition monitoring on unspared equipment



Value of, or ROI of, condition
-
based monitoring



ODS and integration with condition
-
based monitoring



Vertical pump monitoring



Below ground



Hydraulic induced vibration: structural, system, rotor



Ver
tical pump vibration standards



Measurement and character of unsteady cavitation conditions



Standard locations for vibration measurement on horizontal pumps



Wireless devices: radio noise, effectiveness, experiences



Vibration spectrum for 3
-
5% GVF in centrif
ugal pumps



Vertical turbine pump structural resonance analysis



Module pump installations, i.e., experience with nongrouted baseplates



Vibration test methods and use



Finite element analysis and use



Condition monitoring methods



Troubleshooting methods and fi
x options



Hydraulic and system issues



Mechanical installation issues



Seals and bearings


how they affect vibration



Rotordynamics


Discussion Group T3:
Dry Gas Seals for Compressors and Pumps

Tuesday, September 25, 2012


8:45 AM


Level Three, Room 360C


Discussion Leaders:

Bernard Quoix, Coordinator (TOTAL, Paris, France)

Hans Weyermann, Coordinator (ConocoPhillips, Houston, TX)

Leonardo Baldassarre (GE Oil & Gas, Firenze, Italy)

Joe Delrahim (John Crane Inc, Morton Grove, IL)

John Marta (Flowserve
Corporation, Littleton, CO)

Daniel Goebel (EagleBurgmann, Wolfratshausen, Germany)


Suggested Topics:



DGS operating characteristics



Field problems and experiences



Effects of gas contamination



Shutdown problems



Control systems



Tandem versus single seals



App
lications


Discussion Group T4/P4: Gears

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

2:00 PM


Level Three, Room 351D


Discussion Leaders:

Cliff Cook (CVC Engineering, Houston, TX)

Lisa Ford, Coordinator (Lufkin Industries, Pollok, TX)

Greg Elliott (Lufkin Industries, Po
llok, TX)

Marc Hagn (Enterprise Products, Seymour, IN)


Suggested Topics:



New gear applications



Power loss and oil flow considerations



Rotordynamics



Bearings for gear drives



Installation questions



Metallurgy/heat treat methods


Discussion Group T5/P5:
Lubrication

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

10:30 AM


Level Three, Room 361A


Discussion Leaders:

Charlie Rutan (Stress Engineering Services, Inc., Houston, TX)

Leslie Thilagan (Bechtel Corporation, Houston, TX)

Kerry Gunn (LyondellBasell, Houston, TX)

Matt
hew Gaydon (Bechtel Corporation, Houston, TX)


Suggested Topics:



Types of oils used

o

Mineral (A & B)

o

Synthetic

o

EP Oils



Testing

o

Frequency

o

Types of Test (Internal Lab and Outside Lab)



System Filtration (Microns?)



Oil Mist

o

System design

o

Dry Sump

o

Wet Sump



Greases

o

Type

o

Frequency

o

Grease mixing and compatibility



Rolling Element Bearings

o

Failure cause identification

o

L10 life (Theory versus reality, Bearing versus system)


Discussion Group T6: Turbomachinery Operational Maintenance

Tuesday, September 25, 2012


1
0:30 AM


Level Three, Room 371C


Discussion Leaders:

Rainer Kurz, Coordinator (Solar Turbines, Inc., San Diego, CA)

Joe Moreno, Coordinator (LyondellBasell, Channelview, TX)

Mike Pepper, Coordinator (ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company, Houston, TX)

Charl
ie Rutan (Stress Engineering Services, Inc., Houston, TX)

Bryan Barrington (LyondellBasell, Corpus Christi, TX)


Suggested Topics:



Preventive/predictive maintenance programs



Analysis of turbomachinery vibration problems



Balancing



Lubricants



Component
failures



Machine alignment



Repair techniques



Auxiliary systems reliability



Spare parts sorting


Discussion Group T7: Machinery Purchasing

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

2:00 PM


Level Three, Room 360C


Discussion Leaders:

Kazim Akhtar, Coordinator (CB&I Lum
mus, Houston, TX)

Cyrus B. Meher
-
Homji, Coordinator (Bechtel Corporation, Houston, TX)

Karl Bush (CB&I Lummus, Houston, TX)

Brian Setzenfand (FS
-
Elliott, Export, PA)

Aaron York (ENERFLEX, Houston, TX)


Suggested Topics:



Integration of technical and commerc
ial aspects


How do you make it work?



Pricing methodologies (lump sum, cost plus, cost savings sharing agreements, etc.)



Spare parts philosophy and inventory management



Operations, maintenance, and service agreements (based on reliability, MTBR, etc.)



Col
laborative facility design with OEM input



Division of contractual responsibilities between OEM, owner/operator, A/E contractor



Performance clauses and guarantees in purchase contracts (aerodynamic, reliability, etc.)



Development of supplier alliances



Total

cost of ownership



Global supplier base



Utilization of e
-
commerce


Discussion Group T8: Overspeed Trip Systems

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

8:30 AM


Level Three, Room 360C


Discussion Leaders:

Bruce Bayless (Valero Energy Corporation, Texas City, TX)

Kevi
n Yates (Dow Chemical Company, Freeport, TX)


Suggested Topics:



Trip testing frequency



New API 670 requirements



Response time requirements



New API 612 requirements



Mechanical versus electronic (pros and cons)



Testing methods (full test or simulated)



ASME P
ower Test Code 20.2


Discussion Group T9: Verification of Protective Systems

Tuesday, September 25, 2012


8:45 AM


Level Three, Room 360A


Discussion Leaders:

Lil Kassie, Coordinator (BP, Carson, CA)

Stephen R. Locke, Coordinator (DuPont, Old Hickory, TN)

Stanley J. Stevenson, Coordinator (Siemens Demag Delaval Turbomachinery, Trenton, NJ)

Ed Watson (DuPont, Silverpeak, NV)

George Seamon (Dresser
-
Rand, Buffalo, NY)

Justin Kassie (BP, Los Angeles, CA)

Robert Kranz (Valero, San Antonio, TX)

Curt Miller (Exida
, Round Rock, TX)


Suggested Topics:



Like machinery, instrument systems also have reliability limits and needs.



How often should we test interlocks and overspeed trips? How do we do it right?



Do interlocks sometimes fail to save a machine from a wreck? W
hy?



What about risks for people if instrument systems fail?



How safe is safe enough? Can we put numbers on instrument system reliability?



What are layers of protection analysis (LOPA) and how can it help?



What are safety integrity levels (SILs) and wha
t’s a PFD? How is it used?



How are surge system (recycle/vent valves) tested before a machine is put online?



Are X
-
Head vibration sufficient for shutting down major Reciprocating Compressors, and how is
trip tested?



Dependability of Level shutdown on
reciprocating compressors: Guided Wave Radar level
detection & shutdown versus Magnetic Float Level detection & shutdown?



API 612 recommends shutdown on failure of governor speed sensors; how is this issue handled
with mechanical/ hydraulic governors?



What

is recommended practice for testing auxiliary lube oil pumps? (Who is doing what?)



Erroneous SIS shutdowns: How are they handled?



Discussion Group T10: Gas Turbine Operation and Maintenance

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

8:30 AM


Level Three, Room 351D


Discussion Leaders:

Meherwan Boyce, Coordinator (The Boyce Consultancy, Houston, TX)

Rainer Kurz, Coordinator (Solar Turbines, Inc., San Diego, CA)

Francisco Gonzalez, Coordinator (Enterprise Products Company, Houston, TX)


Suggested Topics:



Preventive/predictive maintenance



Condition monitoring



Air filtration onshore and offshore



Fogging/evap cooling/inlet chilling



Liquid fuel handling and storage



Gas fuel issues



Lean premix combustion and emissions issues



Repair techniques



Matching of driver

and driven equipment



Auxiliary systems reliability



Noise



Maintenance and spare parts philosophies, including LTSAs, OEM versus non
-
OEM, engine
exchange



Component failures


Discussion Group T11:
Shop Field Testing of Gas Turbines and Compressors

Tuesday, S
eptember 25, 2012


10:30 AM


Level Three, Room 361A


Discussion Leaders:

Hans Weyermann, Coordinator (ConocoPhillips, Houston, TX)

Jeff Haught, Coordinator (Anadarko, Houston, TX)

Mark Sandberg, Coordinator (Chevron, Houston, TX)

Gary Colby (Dresser
-
Rand,
Olean, NY)

Douglas Petrie (Siemens Energy, Inc., Houston, TX)


Suggested Topics:



Shop testing codes/arrangements



Performance trending versus performance testing during operation



Pros and cons of field versus shop performance testing



Test instrumentation


shop versus field and accuracy/uncertainty



Power measurement


torquemeters and other methods



Data acquisition and reduction techniques


Discussion Group T12: Reciprocating Compressors

Presented Twice

Tuesday, September 25, 2012


2:00 PM


Level Three, Room

351D

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

10:30 AM


Level Three, Room 351D


Discussion Leaders:

Bruce Bayless, Coordinator (Valero Energy Corporation, San Antonio, TX)

Donald R. Smith, Coordinator (Engineering Dynamics Incorporated, San Antonio, TX)

Bruce McCain

(Occidental Oil & Gas Corp, Houston, TX)

Kenneth E. Atkins (Engineering Dynamics Incorporated, San Antonio, TX)


Suggested Topics:



API Standard 618


5
th

Edition



Condition monitoring



Expert systems



Risk
-
based maintenance



Pulsation and vibration measuremen
ts



Valve design, reliability, and fouling



Grouting and frame alignment



Bolting



High
-
speed compressors



Liquid protection



Rider bands and types of packing



Fugitive emissions


Discussion Group T13: Steam Turbine Design, Operation, and Maintenance

Tuesday,
September 25, 2012


8:45 AM


Level Three, Room 361A


Discussion Leaders:

Vinod Patel, Coordinator (KBR, Houston, TX)

Stanley Stevenson, Coordinator (Siemens Demag Delaval Turbomachinery, Trenton, NJ)

Gampa Bhat, Coordinator (ExxonMobil Chemical Company, Ba
ytown, TX)

Robert Felton (ExxonMobil Chemical Company, Baytown, TX)


Suggested Topics:



Overhaul intervals



Maintenance practices



Solid particle erosion



Contract versus inhouse maintenance



Mechanical driver turbine issues



Steam path repairs



Turbine casing an
d alignment issues


Discussion Group T14: Magnetic Bearings

Tuesday, September 25, 2012


2:00 PM


Level Three, Room 360C


Discussion Leaders:

Hans Weyermann, Coordinator (ConocoPhillips, Houston, TX)

Kazim Akhtar (CB&I Lummus, Houston, TX)

Stan Uptigrove

(ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company, Houston, TX)


Suggested Topics:



Magnetic bearing operating characteristics



Field problems and experiences



Shutdown problems



Control recommendations


Discussion Group T15: Wet and Dry Screw Compressors

Wednesday, Sept
ember 26, 2012

8:30 AM


Level Three, Room 361C


Discussion Leaders:

Don Smith, Coordinator (Engineering Dynamics Incorporated, San Antonio, TX)

Terryl Matthews, Coordinator (Shell Global Solutions Inc., Houston, TX)

Kevin W. Kisor (MAN Diesel & Turbo North

America Inc., Houston, TX)

Jigger Jumonville (consultant, Santa Maria, CA)


Suggested Topics:



API Standard 619 for screw compressors



Silences for dry screw compressors



System piping vibration



Noise reduction methods



Lubricants and lubricant carryover for
flooded screw compressors



Over
-
compression and under
-
compression



Allowable pulsation levels


Discussion Group T16: Turbomachinery Bearings and Annular Seals

Tuesday, September 25, 2012


2:00 PM


Level Three, Room 371C


Discussion Leaders:

Tom Davidson, Coo
rdinator (The Linde Group, Pasadena, TX)

John K. Whalen, Coordinator (John Crane Bearings, Houston, TX)

Malcolm E. Leader (Applied Machinery Dynamics, Durango, CO)

Michelle Guedry (The Dow Chemical Company, Plaquemine, LA)


Suggested Topics:



Turbomachinery

bearings



Sleeve and tilting pad journal bearings



Tilting pad and fixed geometry thrust bearings



Babbitt bearing failures



Bearing upgrades



Clearances



Installation



Oil



Annual seals



Polymer seals

o

Centrifugal compressor applications

o

Designing an upgrade



Polymer material selection

o

Temperature concerns

o

Chemical compatibility



Oil film seals



Labyrinth seals



Bearing housing seals


Discussion Group T17: Integrally Geared Compressors

Tuesday, September 25, 2012


8:30 AM


Level Three, Room 351D


Discussion Leader
s:

Stanley Stevenson, Coordinator (Siemens Demag Delaval Turbomachinery, Trenton, NJ)

Lisa Ford, Coordinator (Lufkin Industries, Inc., Lufkin, TX)

Terryl Matthews, Coordinator (Shell Global Solutions, Inc., Houston, TX)

Bradley Addison (DuPont Engineering
Research and Technology, Wilmington, DE)

Kevin Kisor (MAN Diesel & Turbo, Houston, TX)

Carl Schwarz (Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY)


Suggested Topics:



How to specify an integrally geared compressor



Typical process applications



Controlling an integral gear c
ompressor
-
IGV, VFD



Rotordynamic considerations


Discussion Group T18: Advanced Topics in Centrifugal Compressor Design

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

2:00 PM


Level Three, Room 361C


Discussion Leaders:

Mike Drosjack, Coordinator (Drosjack

Consulting Company, The Woodlands, TX)

Mark Sandberg, Coordinator (Chevron, Houston, TX)

Leonardo Baldassarre (GE Oil & Gas, Firenze, Italy)

Urs Baumann (MAN Turbo AG, Zurich, Switzerland)

Mark Kuzdzal (Dresser
-
Rand, Olean, NY)

Jeffrey Moore (SWRI, San An
tonio, TX)

Brian C. Pettinato (Elliott Company, Jeanette, PA)

Jim Sorokes (Dresser
-
Rand, Olean, NY)


Suggested Topics:



Meeting current rotordynamics stability standards



High flow coefficient/Mach number impellers



Complicated high pressure gas properties. E
.g., CO2, acid gas, H2S



Validity of CFD modeling



Modern manufacturing/forming methodologies



Simulation and dynamic process modeling


Discussion Group T19: Hot
-
Gas Expanders

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

8:30 AM


Level Three, Room 361A


Discussion Leaders:

Lil Kassie, Coordinator (BP, Carson, CA)

Bob Kranz (Valero, San Antonio, TX)

Justin Kassie (BP, Carson, CA)

George Seamon (Dresser
-
Rand, Olean, NY)

Don Shafer (Rotating Machinery Services, Bethlehem, PA)


Suggested Topics:



New technology for hot gas
expanders


new technology used by OEMs for improving reliability



Separators


Who should be involved with sizing and selecting 3
rd

stage separators? Where does
this expertise reside?



Erosion


What has been done in the industry (users and OEMs) to minimiz
e erosion (primary &
secondary) and what should be expected blade life?



Deposition


cause/prevention/permanent solutions



Flow path cleaning


best practice/available methods/how often/injection port
location/abrasive types and shot size



Design tools


CFD

modeling


Did the results verify the CFD model?



View ports


valve issues and solutions/keeping ports clean/air/nitrogen purge/Is a single lens
safe enough?



Spares
-

What are truly necessary spares? (shroud/stator/rotor/other)



Bearing housing oil leaks


Are labyrinth seals good enough? Does buffer or purge really help?
What other types of sealing is available?



Rerates


What are the drivers/maximize power/improved reliability, and how?



Improving expander reliability


What are typical reliability
-
related

issues? What options are
available to the end user?



Performance monitoring


What works best?



Expander overspeed trip testing


electronic/mechanical



Isokinetic testing


preparation/optimum port size/straight
-
run lengths/location/collecting good
samples



Case and duct leaks


how to prevent/eliminate/pipe strain



Do accelerometers add to understanding rotor behavior?



Performance trending


Can tip rubs be predicted via efficiency/swallowing capacity?



Bearings


options/directed lube versus flooded versus oi
l leaks



Creep life


how to determine


A Case Study is a short presentation describing the successful implementation of established technology
to solve a real
-
world problem.


Case Study Turbo Session 1A

Thursday, September 27, 2012


8:30 AM


Level Three,
Room 361A

-

Case Study T1: Coaxial Barrier Seal Operated as Separation Seal in a Pipeline Compressor

Instructors: Henk Blekkenhorst and Huub de Bruijn (Siemens Energy Service, Hengelo,
Netherlands); Christian Bonfert and Ferdinand Werdecker (EagleBurgmann Ge
rmany GmbH &
Co. KG, Wolfratshausen, Germany)

-

Case Study T4
: Reliable Compression of Sour and Other Process Gases


Special Rolling
Bearings for Oil
-
flooded Screw Compressors

Instructor: Lars Kahlman (SKF, Gothenburg, Sweden)

-

Case Study T8
: Compressor Fail
ures Due to CO
2

Corrosion

Instructors: Bruno da Silva Marques, André Varella Guedes, Fabio de Norman et d’Audenhove,
Roberto Firmento de Noronha, Carlos Alexandre Castanharo, Gabriel dos Reis Fernandes
(Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

-

Case Study T10
:
Ho
w Important Are the Protection Systems & Valve Design That Can
Contribute to the Equipment Integrity on Reciprocating Compressors

Instructor: Udayashankar Ganapathy (Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB)


Case Study Turbo Session 1B

Thursday, September 27, 201
2


8:30 AM


Level Three, Room 351D

-

Case Study T7
: Protecting Magnetic Bearings from External Factors and Process
Contaminations

Instructor: Marc LeDuc (Atlas Copco Mafi
-
Trench, Santa Maria, CA)

-

Case Study T9
: Noise Trouble Shooting on a Variable Speed
Planetary Gear Application for Off
-
Shore Process Gas Compressor

Instructors: Hans Schirle (Voith Turbo GmbH & Co. KG, Crailsheim, Germany), Daisuke Hirata
(Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Compressor Corporation, Hiroshima, Japan), Nathan Pash
(ExxonMobil Devel
opment Company, Houston, TX), George C. Hayles, Jr. (ExxonMobil
Development Company, Gyeongnam, South Korea)

-

Case Study T12
: Improving Reliability on a Centrifugal Compressor Experiencing Frequent
Bearing Failures

Instructors: Julia Postill (John Crane, Ho
uston, TX) and Dan Hunt (OBXX Consulting Inc, Corolla,
NC)

-

Case Study T13
:
Reverse Rotation of Compressor
-
Drive Turbine Train Can Cause Major
Damages

Instructors: Arun Kumar and Mahesh Shet (HPCL
-
Mittal Energy Limited, Bathinda Refinery, India)


Case Study

Turbo Session 2

Thursday, September 27, 2012


10:30 AM


Level Three, Room 361A

-

Case Study T2
: Hydrate Occurrence in Centrifugal Compressor Systems

Instructors: Orlando Donda Filho and Pedro Antonio Lima Donda (Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil); Eder Rama
lho (Caterpillar Solar Turbines, Macaé)

-

Case Study T3
: DLN Retrofit in Two Frame 7 Gas Turbines

Instructors: Amr Gad and Atul Deshpande (RasGas,
Doha
,

Qatar)

-

Case Study T5
: Avoiding Cascading Trips
on Interdependent Turbomachinery

Instructor: Wayne Jacobso
n (Compressor Controls Corporation, Des Moines, IA)

-

Case Study T6
: Energy Savings Through Effective Interstage Pipe Design
of Centrifugal
Compressor Stages

Instructor: Eric Huss (FS
-
Elliott Co., LLC, Export, PA)