Animation History Timeline Compiled History of Animation

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Animation History Timeline

Compiled History of Animation


1
824:

Peter Roget presented his paper 'The persistence of vision with




regard to moving objects' to the British Royal Society.



1831:

Dr. Joseph Antoine Plateau (a Belgian scientist)
and Dr. Simon Rittrer constructed a machine called a

phenakitstoscope. This machine

p
roduced an illusion of movement by allowing a viewer to gaze at a



rotating disk containing small windows; behind the windows was another

disk containing a sequenc
e

of images. When the disks were rotated at the correct speed, the synchronization of the windows

with the images created an animated effect.



1872:

Eadweard Muybridge started his photographic gathering of animals in motion.



1887:

Thomas Edison star
ted his research work into motion pictures.


1889:

Thomas Edison announced his creation of the kinetoscope which



projected a 50ft length of film in approximately 13 seconds.



1889:

George Eastman began the manufacture of photographic film stri
ps using a nitro
-
cellulose base.


1892:

Emile Renynaud, combining his earlier invention of the praxinoscope with a projector, opens the

Theatre Optique in the Musee Grevin. It

displays an animation of images painted on long strips of

celluloid.


1895:

Louis and Augustine Lumiere issued a patent for a device called a cinematograph capable of

projecting moving pictures.


1896:

Thomas Armat designed the V
itascope which projected the films of Thomas Edison. This machine

had a major influence on all su
b
-
sequent projectors.


1
906:

J. Stuart Blackton made the first animated film which he called "Humorous
phases of funny faces."


His method was to draw comical faces on a blackboard and film them. He would stop the film, erase

one face to draw another, a
nd then
film the newly drawn face. The stop
-
motion

provided a


starting effect as the facial express
ions changed be fore the viewer
s eyes.


1908:

In France Emile Cohl produced a film, Phantasmagorie which was the first depicting white figures on

a blac
k background.



1910:

Emile Cohl makes En Route the first paper cutout animation. This technique saves time by not having

to redraw each new cell, only reposition the paper.


1
911:

Winsor McCay produced an animation sequence using his comic strip

character "Little Nemo."


1913:

Pat Sullivan created an American cartoon series called "Felix the Cat." J.R. Bray devised "Colonel

Heeza Liar," and Sidney Smith created "Old Doc Yak."



1914:

John R Bray applies for a patent on numerous techniques for

animation. One of the most

revolutionary
b
eing the process of printing the backgrounds of the animation.


1914:


Winsor McCay produced a cartoon called "Gertie, The Trained Dinosaur" which amazingly consisted

of 10,000 drawings.


1914:

Earl Hurd appl
ies for a patent for the technique of drawing the animated portion of an animation on a

clear celluloid sheet and later photographing it with its matching background. [Cel animation]



1917:

The International Feature Syndicate released many titles
including "Silk Hat Harry",


"Bringing Up Father", and "Krazy Kat".


1926:

The first feature
-
length animated film called "El Apostol" is created in Argentina.


1923:

Walt and Roy Disney found Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio.


1923:

Walt Disney extended
Max Fleischer's technique of combining live action with cartoon characters in

the film "Alice's Wonderland".



1927:

Warner Brothers released "The Jazz Singer" which introduced combined sound and images.



1928:

Walt Disney created the first cartoon wit
h synchronized sound called "Steam Boat Willy".



1930:

The King of Jazz is produced by Universal. In it is a short animated sequence done by Walter Lantz.

It is the first animation done with the two strip technicolor process


1
934:

Urb Irwek creates a
multi
-
plane camera. This camera is capable of filming several separate layers of

cels giving the final frame a truly three dimensional look.



1943:

John and James Whitney produced "Five Abstract Film Exercises."


1945:

Harry Smith produced animation b
y drawing directly onto film.


1957:

John Whitney used 17 Bodine motors, 8 Selsyns, 9 different gear units and 5 ball integrators to

create analog computer graphics.



1961:

John Whitney used differential gear mechanisms to create film and television
title sequences.


1963:

Ivan Sutherland and SKETCHPAD at MIT/Lincoln Labs


1964:

Ken Knowlton, working at Bell Laboratories, started developing computer techniques for producing

animated movies.


1972:

University of Utah, Ed Catmull develops an anim
ation scripting language and creates an animation of

a smooth shaded hand


1972:

University of Utah, Fred Parke creates first computer generated facial animation


1974:

National Research Council of Canada releases Hunger/La Faim directed by Peter Foldes
and

featuring Burtnyk and Wein interactive keyframing techniques.



1982:

Tron, MAGI, movie with CG premise

(TOTALLY flopped at the box office)



1983:

Bill Reeves at Lucasfilm publishes techniques for modeling particle
systems.


"Demo" is S
tar Trek II:
The Wrath of Kahn.


The paper also promotes motion blur.


1984:

The Last Starfighter, CG is used in place of models


1984:

Porter and Duff at Lucusfilm publish paper on digital compositing
us
ing an alpha channel.


1985:

Girard and Maciejewski at OSU
publish a paper describing the use of inverse kinematics and

dynamics for animation. Their techniques are used in the animation "Eurythmy."



1
985:

Ken Perlin at NYU publishes a paper on noise functions for textures. He later applied this technique

to
add realism to character animations.


1
987:

John Lasseter at Pixar publishes a paper describing traditional
animation principles.


"Demos" are Andre and Wally B and Luxo Jr.



1987:

Craig Reynolds then at Symbolics (now at Dreamworks SKG) publishes a p
aper on self
-
organizing

behavior for groups.
"Demos" are Stanley and Stella
,

and Batman Returns.


1988:

Willow uses morphing in live action film


1992:

Beier and Neely, at SGI and PDI respectively publish an algorithm where line correspondences guide


morphing between 2D images. "Demo" is Michael Jackson video Black and White



1993:

Chen and Williams at Apple publish a paper on view interpolation for

3D walkthroughs.



1993:

Jurassic Park use of CG for realistic living creatures


1995:

Toy Sto
ry first full
-
length 3D CG feature film