Using ICT to support INCLUSION

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Using ICT to support
INCLUSION


This document addresses some of the common issues which an ICT Coordinator will have to
address to enable good use of ICT in supporting Inclusion.





Introduction


The new orders for the National Curriculum include a clear
statement for schools regarding their
responsibility to provide effective learning opportunities for all pupils. They set out three principles that are
essential for developing a more inclusive curriculum.




Setting learning challenges




Responding to pupil
s’ diverse learning needs




Overcoming potential barriers to learning and assessment for individuals and groups of pupils


Information technology has a particular role to play in supporting these principles.


This guide provides some suggestions for using I
CT in support of learning across the curriculum.



1. Using ICT to support Inclusion







2. Setting up the computer to support pupils with special educational needs


3. Providing support for the organisation of text





4. Providing a suitable environmen
t for ICT activities




5. Web sites for special educational needs






6. Bibliography


2



1. USING IT TO SUPPORT INCLUSION


Principles

What IT can offer

Examples

Resources

A (2)Planning learning
appropriate to the age
and requirements of
pupils

B (3b) Se
curing
motivation and
concentration

Using software, which
provides different levels of
access to a task. The
opportunity to configure
e.g. toolbars

Yellow/blue/green/red levels of
Window Box software.

Different search facilities on CD
-
ROM and the Internet
e.g. by picture,
word
-
search, key word, index.

Integrated Learning Systems

Talking First Word.

Information
Workshop.

Number Magic.

Colour Magic,
Dazzle.

Write
-
away.

Number Box.

Fraction Attraction.

Ready for writing.

SuccessMaker.

RM Maths.

B (3c) Providi
ng equality
of opportunity through
teaching approaches

Different outcomes for the
same task e.g. when
summarising key points for
a presentation.

Poster, advert, multimedia
presentation, slide
-
show, web page.
Recording on tape/video, using voice
recognition
, using a scanner, digital
camera.

Microsoft Word.

Publisher.

Power Point.

Illuminatus.

Hyperstudio.

Multimedia Textease.

Tape recorder/video.

Voice recognition
software.

A (2)Planning learning
appropriate to the age
and requirements of
pupils

B (3b) Secu
ring
motivation and
concentration

Re
-
enforcement of ideas

(Avoiding one
-
chance
learning)

Audio
-
re
-
enforcement in a talking
Word
-
processor, talking story or
reference CD
-
ROM. Re
-
play when
using video. Reinforcement activities
in software.

Pingu.

Talking Fi
rst Word.
Talking Textease.

Sherston Oxford
Reading Tree.

Speaking Starspell.

My First Amazing
Incredible Dictionary.

CDs e.g. Violent
Earth

B (3c) Providing equality
of opportunity through
teaching approaches

C(3a)Help with
communication, language
and li
teracy

Support for reading, writing,
vocabulary, spelling.

Support with writing e.g. the
chance to UNDO things
and not have to re
-
write.
Work can look neat when
handwriting and
organisation is poor.

Using an on
-
screen keyboard for
word banks of difficult o
r technical
vocabulary. Using spell
-
checkers,
thesauruses. Using a SpellMaster.
Moving, copying and deleting text.
Finding and changng words.
Providing better access through the
use of Wordprocessors on
desktop/portable computer, Word
Processor or Pocketb
ook.

Clicker Plus.

Franklin SpellMaster.

Word processor with
spell checker,
grammar checker,
dictionary.

Predictive word
processors e.g.
SEMERC Predict
-
IT.

The Spelling Show.

The Punctuation
Show.

Cloze procedure
software.

NTS DreamWriter.

AlphaSmart 2000.

A (2)Planning learning
appropriate to the age
and requirements of
pupils

B (3c) Providing equality
of opportunity through
teaching approaches




Support for numeracy

Using a calculator, talking calculator,
table squares.

Number Crosswords.

Developing Num
ber.

RM Maths.

SuccessMaker.

Internet resources
e.g. N
-
rich.


3

A (2)Planning learning
appropriate to the age
and requirements of
pupils

B (3c) Providing equality
of opportunity through
teaching approaches


Making difficult concepts
visible

On
-
screen graphs
to show changes
in temperature as liquids cool, CD
-
ROM animation of digestion.

The way things work.

Body Works.

The World of Sport.

Electricity and
magnetism.

DataLogging.


A (2)Planning learning
appropriate to the age
and requirements of
pupils

B (3c) Pr
oviding equality
of opportunity through
teaching approaches

Providing support for the
organisation of ideas or text

Using planning tools, mind
-
maps

Using templates e.g writing frames to
help pupils get started and provide a
structure for extension work.


Using Wizards in e.g.

desk
-
top publisher.

Powerpoint.

Inspiration.

Outline view in Word,
PowerPoint.

A (2)Planning learning
appropriate to the age
and requirements of
pupils

B (3c) Providing equality
of opportunity through
teaching approaches

Using the t
echnology to
present information for
pupils in different ways.

Providing scope within a worksheet
for different outcomes in response to
a set task, for making the criteria for
assessment explicit, resource
suggestions. Using the technology to
design materi
als which will interest
and motivate all pupils within a class.

Wordprocessor or
Desk
-
top Publisher.

PowerPoint.

School Intranet.

B (3a) Creating effective
learning environments

Valuing the contribution of
all pupils.

Ensuring that use of software
challen
ges stereotypical views and
reflects positively the differences in
others (race, gender, disability)

(Inc Tec) Disability
Clip Art.

C (8) Developing spoken
and written English

Supporting users of other
languages

Using software which removes the
barriers
to writing for ESL pupils.

Tic Tac..

Clicker Plus.

Additional information for
ICT (Providing effective
learning opportunities for
all pupils)

Helping to compensate for
difficulties in processing at
speed large amounts of
visual information.

Replacing text

with bite
-
sized
information e.g on CD
-
Roms.

Tailoring resources to the ability of
pupils e.g. making a collection of
clipart, sounds, internet material,
scanned images available on a disk
or intranet.

Frameworks to support the
presentation of information
collected
from a CD
-
Rom or the Internet


CD
-
Roms, scanned
images, the Internet
or School Intranet.
See
The Finding Out
Resource Pack from
BECTA.





Additional information for
ICT (Providing effective
learning opportunities for
all pupils)

Supporting stra
tegies to
help pupils interrogate and
develop information
presented in text and tables

Using tables with coloured text.

Interpretation of Pictograms, pie
charts, bar graphs.

Word processor or
spreadsheet.

Data handling
software.

Additional information fo
r
ICT (Providing effective
learning opportunities for
all pupils)

Specialist software or
equipment to communicate
through other languages,
signs or symbols.

Use of specific symbol or sign
language software.


(Inc Tec) Writing with
Symbols.

(REM) Maketon co
re
vocabulary.

(REM) Signaway.

Additional information for
ICT (Providing effective
learning opportunities for
all pupils)

Use of alternative
equipment.

Setting up the computer to support
pupils access.

Alternative input and access devices.

Windows access
ibility
features.

Pressure switches,
trackerballs,
joysticks, keyboard
overlays, alternative
keyboards,
alternative mice,
voice activated
software, touch
screens.



4

2. Setting up the computer to support pupils with special educational needs


Windows 95 up
wards has special features which allow you to configure the computer for easier access.


Click on START, then SETTINGS, then CONTROL PANEL. Double click on accessibility options.










These options will need to be tried out with the individual pupil

until the desired degree of adjustment is
achieved.


Filter keys

(Keyboard tab)

Some children, who are struggling with spelling, keep their finger on a key while struggling for the next
letter. The filter keys option allows the key repeat to be turned off

entirely or given a time delay. The
computer can also be instructed to ignore brief or repeated keystrokes. This option will help those with a
tremor.


Sticky keys
(Keyboard tab)

If a child can only use a single finger or types with a head pointer or mou
th stick pressing combinations of
keys e.g.
Shift+F1

or
CTRL + TAB
can be difficult. By choosing to use sticky keys you can press each key
individually.


Toggle keys

(Keyboard tab)

For children with physical or visual difficulties who may not be aware that

the caps lock, for example, has
been pressed. The toggle keys give an audible warning when Caps lock, Num lock and Scroll lock keys are
pressed.



5

Mouse settings

(Mouse tab)

For children who find it difficult to use the mouse and to understand the differen
ce between moving it and
the pointer moving on the screen.

The movement of the mouse and pointer settings can be changed. Software such as Word for Windows
can be useful for developing mouse control. Keyboard shortcuts can be used to replace some mouse
mo
vements e.g. Ctrl + P for print. There and some children who may find it easier to use a different shape
of mouse, a trackerball or rollerball.


Mouse operation and appearance

For people who have difficulty in achieving accurate control of the screen point
er or who have problems
moving the mouse far enough further mouse settings are available through the Mouse option facility in the
Control Panel. The
mouse movement speed
setting causes the screen pointer to respond more quickly or
slowly to the movements
of the mouse. For children who cannot make two consecutive clicks of the mouse
quickly enough it is possible to alter the
double click speed.


Mouse control via the keyboard
(mouse tab)

For children who find a mouse difficult to control or who have limited

reach making it hard for them to
manage both keyboard and mouse. The mouse pointer can be controlled from the keyboard using the
number keys.


Display contrast
(display tab)

Provides a selection of high contrast displays and colour schemes deigned to help

people with visual
difficulties.


Display settings

Further colour schemes, font sizes and types and layouts can be changed through the display settings in
Control Panel.


Enabling access to computers


Visual impairment

Pupils with visual impairment shoul
d normally be assessed for ICT requirements by a qualified person.

For
children who need more help than can be provided by the accessibility options above screen magnification
software can be used e.g. Lunar for Windows from Dolphin. This enlarges the scre
en display. Support is
also available in the form of screen reading software (e.g. Jaws for Windows, Sight and Sound), speech
input and output, the ability to produce braille and large print.


Hearing impairment

The use of word processors which match text

and graphics e.g. Writing with Symbols help children with the
structure of language. Other support software includes Clicker Plus (Crick) and Sign Graphics for My World
which uses sign language.


Physical Disabilities

A range of keyboard and mouse altern
atives provide support for children with physical disabilities.


Keyguards and keyboard gloves

Children with physical difficulties may be able to use a standard keyboard when fitted with a guard. These
can help to prevent unintended key presses and can pr
ovide support for the hands between key presses.
Keyboard gloves offer protection to the keyboard from spills and drips.


Miniature keyboards

A smaller keyboard can be operated with less effort for those for whom movement is limited or tiring or
whose move
ments are hard to control.


Ergonomic keyboards

These have been specially designed to avoid repetitive strain injury. Some are made for one handed or
single finger typing.


6


Larger keyboards

A larger keyboard with bigger keys can be easier to operate for so
me users. Some can be used with an
elbow or foot.


Rollerballs, trackerballs and joysticks

These all provide alternative input to the mouse.


Switches

Children with severely limited control of movement may need to use switches to access the computer. They
are used with special software. Switch access to Windows can be provided by the SAW package (ACE
Centre) and Clicker Plus (Crick). The SAW package is supported by a range of application grids.


Voice Input

Voice input systems are improving but there is con
siderable training needed for the system to recognise
your speech.


Concept keyboards

These enable whole words, pictures and/or symbols to be input into the computer by pressing a designated
area of the board. Software such as Windows Concept can be used t
o design the overlays and some
software comes with ready made overlays.


Mouser

A mouser connects between the mouse and the computer and allows the operation of the mouse to be
changed e.g. mouse buttons can be de
-
activated, switches can be connected to ac
t as mouse buttons,
another input device can be used at the same time as the mouse, allowing collaborative work.


Touch windows and screens

For pupils who find it hard to manipulate the mouse or who cannot understand the relationship between the
mouse and
the movement on the screen. Touch windows are made from rigid plastic placed in front of the
screen and operated by the touch of a finger. A touch screen is an open frame placed on the front of the
monitor which uses a grid of infra
-
red beams to detect whe
re the screen is touched.




3. Providing support for the organisation of ideas or text.


Some children will need additional help with search skills when using a CD
-
Rom or the Internet to support
them in:



thinking about what they are looking for before the
y begin a search



organising the information they find on a CD or on the Internet.


Supportive strategies include:



starter questions to focus the research



developmental questions to prompt closer examination



writing frameworks



tables to complete



diagrams t
o label



7


4. Providing a suitable environment for ICT activities



What is the posture of pupils when using ICT (i.e. Can they turn easily towards the
teacher? Are chairs adjustable for height and tilt to provide lumbar support?)


Is there space for read
ing/writing materials/source documents? (or battery computing?)



What messages does the room give? (Tidy, well
-
organised, carpeted?)



Is the environment stimulating? (displays of pupils’ work, information about how to use
the software/system)



Can al
l pupils see a demonstration clearly?



What is the quality of inter
-
action? (1 computer between 2 can result in 45% wastage of
time)


Is it possible to read the screen clearly? (Or is there glare or a dirty screen?)



Is there adequate ventilation?



Is there adequate well
-
labelled storage for computer equipment, books, software etc?



Where do children go for help?






8

5.

Web Sites for Special Educational Needs


British Dyslexia Association



http://www
.bda
-
dyslexia.org.uk

Deaf UK





http://groups.yahoo.com/group/deaf
-
uk/

Down’s Syndrome Association



http://www.dsa
-
uk.com/

Dyslexia Institute




http://www.dyslexia
-
inst.org.uk

Inclusive Technology




http://www.inclusive.co.uk

RNIB






http://www.rnib.org.uk/

SEN Centre DfEE




http://www.dfee.gov.uk/sen/senhome.htm

The Internet and Special Schools



http://www.sed.kcl.ac.uk/special/index.html

Visual Language Dictionary



http://www.handspeak.com/

VTC SEN conferences




http://www.vtc.ngfl.gov.uk/


Mailing lists for SENCOs:

See VTC SEN conferences above.


6. Bibliography


Dyslexia and ICT:

building on success BECTa, Millburn Hill Road, Science Park, Coventry CV4 7JJ £6.50
ISBN 1 85379 436 8


Computers and Inclusion: factors for success. BECTa. £3.50 Order No. CC67006


Voice Recognition Technology in Education: factors for success. BECTa. £4
.50 Order No C67008


A first handbook of IT and special educational needs. Judith Stansfield. NASEN, 4/5 Amber Business
Village, Amber Close, Amington, Tamworth B77 4RP Tel 01827 311500 £8 ISBN 0 906730 94 5


Making Communication Special. C Abbott. Kings C
ollege London. See
http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/cabbott/spw/


Supportive Writing Technology. Nisbet, Spooner, Arthur and Whittaker. CALL Centre, The University of
Edingburgh, Paterson’s Land, Holyroo
d Road, Edingburgh EH1 1LT. ISBN 1 898042 13 6



Useful Software Catalogues:


Inclusive Technology, Saddleworth Business Centre, Delph, Oldham OL3 5DF Tel 01457 819790. E.Mail
inclusive@inclusive.co.uk


Granada Learning Ltd SEMERC, Granada Television, Qua
y St, Manchester M60 9EA Tel 01618272927.
Fax 0161 827 2966


Crick Software, 1 The Avenue, Spinney Hill, Northampton NN3 6BA Tel 01604 671691. Fax 01604 671 692
E.Mail info@cricksoft.com. Website
http://www.cricksoft
.com


Widget Software, 26 Queen St., Cubbington, Leamington Spa CV32 7NA Tel 01926 885303