The Brain and the Senses

birthdaytestΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

17 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

60 εμφανίσεις

Psychology

The Power of the Brain


Human brain has 10 billion neurons (30,000 can fit in
the head of a pin)


Each neuron has 1000
-
10,000 connections with other
neurons; up to 10 trillion possible


Messages between them travel in one thousandth of a
second


Average brain weighs 3
-
4 lbs. and consumes 20% of the
body’s oxygen supply and 20% of the blood flow


Almost fully developed by age 11, except for the frontal
lobe which develops through your early 20’s

Brain Facts


Brain produces 25 watts of power while you’re awake;
enough to illuminate a light bulb


At age 35, humans start losing 7000 brain cells a day


Alcohol and drugs also kill brain cells and weakens
connections between neurons


Stress over long periods will weaken the brain’s ability
to learn and remember


Same part of the brain interprets physical and
emotional pain


Your brain is more active at night than during the day


Brain Facts


People who ride on roller coasters have a higher chance
of having a blood clot in the brain.


An adult bottle
-
nosed dolphin’s brain is about the size
of a human adult’s brain.


A living brain is so soft you could cut it with a butter
knife.


There is no sense of pain within the brain itself. This
allows neurosurgeons to probe areas of the brain while
the patient is awake.


How do your senses effect your
behavior?


What do you do when you smell something bad?


When you taste something good?


When you touch something hot?


When you see something beautiful? Something scary?


Have you ever listened to something that gave you
chills or brought you to tears?

Our senses are the way we
perceive the world


What we perceive depends on the relay of information
between the major sensory systems and the central
nervous system (CNS)


Information is processed, interpreted, and acted upon


Senses should work together in an integrated and
coordinated way = sensory integration


Allows for smooth development of complex motor
skills, learning and proper behavior

The Seven Senses


Five main senses: sight, taste, touch, hearing, smell


Exteroception


Less detectable:


Vestibular system: Related to sense of balance, spatial
orientation and movement


Proprioception: Sense of orientation of limbs and effort
necessary for motion


Interoception: Detection of pain, hunger, heat, time,
bladder, etc.




Senses developed in utero (vestibular first)



Vulnerable and subject to damage through stress or
illness during pregnancy or infancy



Issues associated with learning disabilities,
coordination problems, and behavioral/emotional
difficulties



Sensory Integration Disorder: causes depression,
social anxiety, etc.


Visual Perception


Lens focuses on an image, transmits to light
-
sensitive
membrane at the back called retina


Retina: part of the brain that translates patterns of
light into neuronal signals, causes neural impulses

Sight



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PmHHVaYbNmY&
feature=related


The McGurk Effect


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G
-
lN8vWm3m0

Auditory Perception


Vibrations detected by ear drum; simplifies air
pressure waves into a single of amplitude


Inner ear detects distribution of vibrations with hair
cells in basilar membrane


Converts vibrations into pattern of nerve
-
firings on the
auditory nerve which transmits sounds to brainstem

Hearing


http://www.ted.com/talks/julian_treasure_the_4_way
s_sound_affects_us.html


Music has strong effects on emotion and is associated
with memories


Voice recognition begins in the womb

Olfaction: Sense of Smell


Humans can distinguish over 10,000 different odor
molecules


When you inhale, the air hits millions of cilia (little
hairs) containing olfactory receptor neurons


The shape of the inhaled molecules is identified and
turned into electrical signals sent to the brain

The Power of Smells


Can effects purchasing decisions, perception of a
person or place, your generosity, and political leanings


Example: Clean smells tend to make people more honest
and fair in their interactions as well as generous


Properly themed smells for a product or place create a
positive image and memory


Animals use pheromones to select mates


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W48DoLdR8gA


Gustation: Taste


Substance reacts chemically with receptors in the
10,000 taste buds on the human tongue, cheeks, and
throat


Taste works together with senses of smell,
temperature, texture and pain to determine flavors


Sweet, sour, bitter, salty and savory determined by
interactions with molecules and ions


Taste senses what is harmful and beneficial (aversive
or appetitive)

Taste


Three categories of tasters: supertasters (25%),
medium tasters(50%), and non
-
tasters (25%),
depending on density of taste buds


Supertasters are drawn to salt and sensitive to bitterness


Very picky eaters are often supertasters while very non
-
picky eaters might be non
-
tasters


Tactition: Touch


Somatosensory system reacts to stimuli using different
receptors on the skin, bones, organs, muscles, joints
and cardiovascular system


Integration of senses/receptors including those for
pain, temperature, bodily orientation, etc.


Information passes via sensory nerves through the
spinal cord to the parietal lobe and cerebral cortex

Touch and Behavior


Feeling “warmth” in the sense of closeness is closely
tied to actual heat: talking with someone over a warm
cup of coffee increases sense of closeness and caring


Sitting in a soft chair makes you more relaxed and
“soft” in negotiations, like at a car dealership


Holding a wooden block vs. a soft blanket effects your
perception of a social interaction


Physical sensory comfort level effects mood, emotions
and behavior

Synesthesia


Disorder where one sensory input is involuntarily
linked to another: hear colors, see sounds as shapes,
etc.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FTr1VnXKr4A


The artist Kandinsky: painting symphonies