Maria Fernanda Arias 0537845 Monica Fuentes 0538188 Alanna Kleiner 0538368 Caracas, March 14 2007

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29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Maria Fernanda Arias 0537845

Monica Fuentes 0538188

Alanna Kleiner 0538368

Caracas, March 14
th

2007



Definition



Lintel’s job



Post’s job



Origins (history)



Different materials



Examples


Framed Structure


Best Materials for Framing


How is load supported in framed structure?


Framed structure through history


Heavy
-
timber


Light
-
frame


Steel frame


2 upright members (posts, columns, piers)





hold up a 3th member (lintel, beam, girder, rafter)





laid horizontally across their top surfaces

The simplest illustration of load and support in construction is the Post
-
Lintel system.


The job of the lintel is to bear the loads that rest on


it (and its own load) without deforming or breaking

Weakness:

Failure occurs only when the material


is too weak or the lintel is too long.

The job of the
Post
is to support the lintel and
its loads without crushing or buckling.

Weakness:

Failure occurs, as in lintels,
from excessive weakness or length, but the
difference is that the material must be
especially strong in compression.

Columns: usually built up of a series of
cylindrical blocks called DRUMS.



Prehistoric times







Egyptian temples








Greek temples



Stone



Steel



Wood



Iron



Reinforced Concrete



Brick

What is a framed structure?




An assembly of slabs, beams, columns and
foundation connected no one another so that it
behaves as one unit.


A Skeleton able to stand by itself without depending
on floors or walls




http://ennz.springdoo.com/Public/Play/Default.aspx?id=m
1fcfc65edf8c4e856




BEST MATERIALS FOR
FRAMING

Masonry

WOOD

STEEL

REINFORCED CONCRETE

SLAB

BEAMS

COLUMNS

LOWER COLUMNS

FOUNDATION

SOIL

TALLER
STRUCTURES

Heavy timber framing

prehistory

Mid
-
19
th


century

Ballon frame

Platform frame

large, heavy, wood members, specifically lumber 5 in. (13 cm) or more
in the least dimension.

Type of structure that provides a visible skeletal frame that
supports the whole building and filled with non
-

sructural walls


WOOD

The techniques used in timber framing
date back thousands of years, and
have been used in many parts of the
world during various periods such as
ancient Japan, Europe and medieval
England.

There are differences between the
English, the French, the Canadian and
the German tradition for timber framing,
and they consist basically in the
materials used for filling the structure
and the position of the beams and
columns of the structure.





Definition.





Structure.





Materials.





Advantages.


http://www.Springdoo.com/M1FCAC7A2FFF862C74


Platform Framing

Balloon Framing



Definition.





Structure.





Materials.





Advantages.


http://www.Springdoo.com/M1F8343ACFFF862C74


Los Angeles Skyscrapers

Examples

House

In conclusion post and lintel are the simplest framed structures, in other
words, they originated the framed structures we use nowadays. Also, the
combination of posts and lintels of different materials, forms and sizes
formed framed structures.

At the present time, the use of framed structures by architects and
engineers is very common, because of the advantages that they provide.
For example, they are very resistant structures, easy to construct, stable
and durable.

In addition, we can see that these building techniques have been used
since the first civilizations to create different kinds of structures,
structures that still exist in our time.




http://www.Springdoo.com/M1F97C0C6BFF862C74