Robotics and Automation

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19 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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Robotics and Automation


Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.


1


The purpose of this lesson is to
allow students
to develop the ability to use and maintain
technological products, processes, and systems.



Students will demonstrate the use of
computers to manipulate a robot or
automated system and associated subsystems.


2

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.



Students enrolled in this course will demonstrate
knowledge and skills necessary for the robotic and
automation industry. Through implementation of
the design process, students will transfer advanced
academic skills to component designs in a project
-
based environment. Students will build prototypes
or use simulation software to test their designs.
Additionally, students explore career
opportunities, employer expectations, and
educational needs in the robotic and automation
industry.

3

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.



TEKS

130
.
370
(c)(
5
)(A)

Demonstrate

the

use

of

computers

to

manipulate

a

robot

or

automated

system

and

associated

subsystems
.


TEKS

130
.
370
(c)(
5
)(C)

Demonstrate

knowledge

of

process

control

factors
.



-
Section I
-

Robot Program Language Development

-
Section 2
-

Language Classification

-
Section 3
-

On
-
line and Off
-
line Robot Programming

-
Section 4
-

Robot Program Steps

4

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.


5

The terms and definitions listed below are discussed in this
lesson. Please review before proceeding with this lesson.













Terms

Definitions

Programming Languages

are

the basic communication
mechanisms between human
beings and intelligent
machines.

Intelligent Machines

are

computers programmed to
solve problems in business or
scientific areas.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.


6

The terms and definitions listed below are discussed in this
lesson. Please review before proceeding with this lesson.













Terms

Definitions

Software

Development

focuses

on the development
of the programming
languages and application
programs.



Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.


7

The terms and definitions listed below are discussed in this
lesson. Please review before proceeding with this lesson.













Terms

Definitions

Program

Development

focuses

on using the
languages and application
programs to control an
automated process.

Programmers

computer science graduates who
develop the programming tools
(i.e., languages and applications)
for industrial applications.


They use programming
languages like C or C++.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.


8

The terms and definitions listed below are discussed in this
lesson. Please review before proceeding with this lesson.













Terms

Definitions

Automation Programmers

handles programming for a
number of automation
machines like robots,
Programmable Logic
Controllers (PLCs),
Computer
Numerical Controlled (CNC)
m
illing

machines, vision
systems, sensors, or cell
-
control software.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.






Robot Programming Languages are used to
design:

9

Robot

Features

1. The
control needs of the robot arm.

2. The
new control language structures:
conditional branching and input/output
interfacing.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.




The T3 robot programming language was used in
the 1970s to develop Cincinnati Milacron’s
industrial robot.



In the 1970’s, VAL and BASIC programming
languages were used to program the Unimation
PUMA robot’s motion control commands.

10

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.





Current robot language designs start with the
language control structure and robot arm control
needs.




Current development process produces a new
general
-
purpose robot language.



Robot Language supports four system functions:

1.
Manipulation

2.
Sensing

3.
Intelligence

4.
Data Processing


11

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.



Robot Language supports four system functions:


12

Words

Definitions

Manipulation


T
o treat or operate with or as if with the hands or by
mechanical means especially in a skillful manner.

Involves the robot arm and the gripper at

the end of the
arm.

Sensing


To detect automatically especially in response to a
physical stimulus (as light or movement).

Intelligence


The ability to perform computer functions.

Data Processing


The converting of raw data to machine
-
readable form and
its subsequent processing (as storing, updating,
rearranging, or printing out) by a computer.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.




Currently, few guidelines/standards exist for robot
control programming languages.



There are only limited interchangeability of
computer programs between robot models from
the same manufacturer.



There is no interchangeability of computer
programs among manufacturers.


13

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.




Robot Manufacturers use four basic
Programming Language Levels:


1.
Level 1


Joint Control Languages

2.
Level 2


Primitive Motion Languages

3.
Level 3


Structured Programming Languages

4.
Level 4


Task
-
Oriented Languages



14

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.




Level 1


Joint Control Languages


-
Concentrates on the physical control robot
motion.

-
Commands expressed in terms of joint and axes
position.

-
Mostly point
-
to
-
point and stop
-
to
-
stop robots.

-
Used on most stop
-
to
-
stop pneumatic robots.



15

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.




Level 2


Primitive Motion Languages


-
Confined to older robot programming languages.

-
Program editing capability is provided.

-
Commands expressed in terms of program points;
program point is generated by moving the robot to
a desired point and depressing a program switch;
sequence of points is saved; producing a
complete program.

-
Permits simple subroutines and branching.




16

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.




Level

2



Primitive

Motion

Languages

VAL

AL

RAIL

T3

RoboTalk

RPL

ArmBASIC



17

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.




Level 3


Structured Programming Languages

-
Offers major improvements over primitive motion
languages.

-
Has become the standard for major vendors of robots.

-
Provides a structured control format.

-
Supports complex data structures, branching, and
subroutines.

-
Communication capability with local area network is
available.

-
Supports off
-
line programming.


18

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.




Level 4


Task
-
Oriented Languages


-
Conceals from the user the commands and program
structure that normally must be written by the programmer.

-
User is only concerned with solving the manufacturing
problem.

-
Permits programming in natural language. For example,
“Put bracket A on top of bracket B.”

-
A plan generation feature allows re
-
planning of robot motion
to avoid undesirable situations.

-
A world modeling systems permits the robot to keep track of
objects.

-
The inclusion of collision avoidance permits accident
-
free
-
motion.


19

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.



Programming Languages by Level




20

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4

RAPID

V

V+

T3

KARL

AML

AUTOPASS

AML/E

AS

MCL

PARL
-
1

RoboTalk

Sankyo language

DARL

II

VAL

VAL

II

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.


What is On
-
line and Off
-
line Programming?



On
-
line and Off
-
line Programming
is the
location where the robot program is developed.



On
-
line Programming


the production operation
is stopped and the programmer puts the robot into
the programming mode.



Off
-
line Programming


is performed away from
the robot and the production area.

21

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.




Robot Programmers use 8 steps to develop a
robot program.


Step 1


Basic Program Structure

Step 2


Process Analysis

Step 3


Tasks and Subtasks

Step 4


Task Point Graph

Step 5


System Variables

Step 6


Write and Enter the Program

Step 7


Teach the Translation Points

Step 8


Test and Debug the Program

22

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.




Step 1


Basic Program Structure


1.
CYCLE START
-

All programs start at the robot’s
HOME

position and move out to a start point in
the cycle.

2.
END OF CYCLE
-

The final point in the program.

23

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.




Step 2


Process Analysis


1.
The development of the program starts with the
Process Analysis
step.

2.
The robot programmer must have complete
knowledge of the manufacturing process for the
robot functions.

3.
The robot programmer identifies the required
motion and commands; divide the motion into
tasks and subtasks.

24

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.




Step 3


Tasks and Subtasks


1.
The programmer divides the required robot
motion into tasks and subtasks.

2.
After the tasks and subtasks, the structure of the
total robot program is established.

25

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.




Step

4



Task

Point

Graph



26

1.
Robot Programmers use
the task point graph
(TPG).

2.
The TPG is a visual tool to
illustrate the program
flow and arm motion
required for a
manufacturing problem.



Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.




Step 5


System Variables


1.
The System Variables are usually included on
the task point graph as part of the program
development.

2.
The variables may include the velocity, tool
center dimensions, Cartesian Coordinate
Values, language functions, and commands.

27

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.




Step 6


Write and Enter the Program


1.
After the translation points are identified and the
task point graph has been developed, the robot
programmer’s final step is to write the robot
program code using the command structure and
syntax for the controller.

28

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.



Step 7


Teach the Translation Points


1.
The translation points listed in Step 5 System
Variables are taught or created using one of the
methods:

a.
Method 1


Apply On
-
line programming techniques

b.
Methods 2 and 5


Apply Off
-
line programming
techniques


29

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.




Step 8


Test and Debug the Program


1.
The final step in the development of a robot
program is to test the program and correct any
problems.

30

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.




31

FIRST

was
founded in 1989
to inspire young people's interest and

participation in science and technology.


Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.




32

BEST

was

founded in 1993
for the purpose of
B
oosting
E
ngineering,

S
cience, and
T
echnology.



Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.


How your grade will be calculated.



33

Graded Elements

Total Points

One

Page Essay

50

Response to Questions

20

Proofreading, Grammar and Spelling

20

Reflection

10

Total Points

100

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.


Instructions:
Students will prepare a slide or internet
presentation on the
EasyC

and ROBOTC robot
programming languages. These robot programming
languages are used by robot programmers of the
FIRST Robotics Competition and the BEST Robotics
Competition.


1. Research internet for free software to create an internet cloud
-
based presentation.

2. Use the
EasyC

website to learn more about the
EasyC

programming language.




34

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.



3. Use the ROBOTC website to learn more about the ROBOTC
programming language.



You will need to include the following information in your presentation.


An explanation of what is the EasyC robot programming language.


An explanation of what is the ROBOTC robot programming language.


What are the similarities between the EasyC and ROBOTC robot
programming languages?


What are the differences between the EasyC and ROBOTC robot
programming languages?


What robot programming language would you prefer to learn and why?


Find a video of the robot programming language (EasyC or ROBOTC) for
your presentation.


35

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.


Reflection:
O*NET Online has detailed
descriptions of the world of work for use by
job seekers, workforce development and HR
professionals, students, researchers, and
more! Visit the O*NET Online website
(http://www.onetonline.org/). Do you think that
this website may help you locate career
opportunities in Programming? What types of
Programming career opportunities are listed?

36

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.



Introduction to Robotics in CIM Systems


Fifth
Edition by James A. Rehg.


The McGraw
-
Hill Illustrated Encyclopedia of
Robotics Artificial Intelligence
by Stan Gibilisco
Editor in Chief.


O
-
NET Online
-

http://www.onetonline.org


ClipArt


http://www.clipart.com/en/


Merriam
-
Webster Online Dictionary
-

http://www.merriam
-
webster.com/












37

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.



FIRST Robotics

http://www.usfirst.org/



BEST (Boosting Engineering, Science, and
Technology)
http://www.bestinc.org/








38

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.