Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education

bigskymanΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

24 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

100 εμφανίσεις

1

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P a g e


Deci
s
i
o
n

Sci
e
nces

Journal of Innovative Education

S
TYLE
G
UIDELINES AND
S
UBMISSION
R
EQUIREMENTS


P
l
ea
se

re
vi
e
w
a
ll

g
uid
e
lin
e
s
a
nd
re
vise

y
our

m
a
n
u
s
cr
ipt
a
s n
ee
d
e
d to
c
omply

with
DS
J
IE

s
s
t
y
le
a
nd submissi
o
n
re
qui
re
m
e
nts.

Failure to meet these
re
qui
r
e
m
e
nts

m
a
y

l
ea
d to si
g
ni
f
i
ca
nt d
e
l
a
y
s,

a
s th
e
y

c
a
use

r
e
v
i
e
w
er
s,

e
dito
r
s,
a
nd st
a
f
f

to t
a
ke

on
a
ddition
a
l wo
r
k

to
c
ompl
e
te

the p
r
o
ce
ssi
n
g

of

y
our

m
a
n
u
s
cr
ipt.

I
n so
m
e

ca
s
e
s, the

e
ditor

m
a
y

re
tu
r
n the

m
a
nus
cr
ipt
f
or

e
diti
n
g b
ef
o
r
e

c
onsid
er
i
n
g

the

m
a
nus
cr
ipt
a
s
a
n
o
ff
i
c
i
a
l s
u
bmission to
DS
J
IE
.

I
ssu
e
s

th
a
t n
ee
d
f
u
r
t
h
e
r
c
l
ar
i
f
i
c
a
tion should be

r
e
fer
r
e
d to
the editor of
DS
J
IE

a
t
dsjie.editor@gmail.com
.


P
UBLICATION
R
EQUIREMENTS

................................
................................
................................
.........

1

S
UBMISSION
F
ORMAT
................................
................................
................................
.......................
2

T
ITLE
P
AGE

................................
................................
................................
................................
......
2

M
AIN
B
ODY

OF THE
M
ANUSCRIPT

................................
................................
................................
....
2


H
EADINGS


................................
................................
................................
................................
........
3

M
ATHEMATICAL
N
OTATION

................................
................................
................................
.............
3

A
PPENDICES
,

T
ABLES
,

AND
F
IGURES

................................
................................
................................
3

F
OOTNOTES AND
E
NDNOTES

................................
................................
................................
.............
4

A
BBREVIATIONS AND
A
CRONYMS

................................
................................
................................
....
4

S
PECIFIC
U
SAGE
................................
................................
................................
................................
5

R
EFERENCES TO
A
UTHORS IN
T
EXT

................................
................................
................................
..
6

C
ITATIONS

................................
................................
................................
................................
........
6

R
EFERENCES

................................
................................
................................
................................
.....
7

B
OOKS

................................
................................
................................
................................
........
8

C
HAPTERS IN
B
OOKS
................................
................................
................................
...................
8

P
ERIODICALS
................................
................................
................................
...............................
9

N
EWSPAPERS

................................
................................
................................
..............................
9

U
NPUBLISHED
P
APERS
,

D
ISSERTATIONS
,

AND
P
RESENTED
P
APERS

................................
............
9

P
ROCEEDINGS
,

P
UBLISHED
R
EPORTS
,

M
ONOGRAPHS
,

AND
S
PECIFIC
E
DITIONS

........................
10

W
EBSITES AND
URL
S


................................
................................
................................
..............
10


P
UBLICATION
R
EQUIREMENTS


Autho
r
s submitting

a

m
a
nus
cr
ipt to
DSJ
IE

f
or

publ
i
ca
tion
c
onsid
e
r
a
tion must
cer
ti
f
y

th
a
t




The m
a
nus
cr
ipt h
a
s not b
ee
n p
re
vious
l
y

submitt
e
d to
DSJ
IE
f
or

r
e
vi
e
w.



The m
a
nus
cr
ipt is not currently under review at another journal nor will be submitted for
review by another journal while under review at DSJIE.



None

of

the

c
ont
e
nts of

th
e

m
a
nus
cr
ipt h
a
ve

b
e
e
n

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t
e
d, publish
e
d,

or

ac
c
e
pt
e
d
f
o
r
publi
ca
tion
b
y

a
not
h
e
r

j
o
u
r
n
a
l
.



A
p
p
r
op
r
i
a
te

c
it
a
tions
and/or attributions
f
or

t
h
e

work of others have been given
.



All wo
r
king

p
a
p
er
s, p
r
i
o
r

d
raf
ts,
a
nd/or

f
in
a
l v
er
s
i
ons of

submitt
e
d m
a
nus
cr
ipts th
a
t
ar
e
post
e
d on w
e
bsite
s

will

be

t
a
k
e
n down d
u
r
ing

the

re
vi
e
w p
r
o
ce
ss.

2

|
P a g e


Work that has been

previously
presented at conferences and/or published in conference
p
roceedings may still be submitted to DSJIE. However, the work
submitted should be
substantively different and make a new contribution.


[
b
ac
k to top]


SU
BMI
SS
I
O
N

F
O
R
M
A
T


All m
a
nus
cr
ipts must be

submitt
e
d
e
l
ec
t
r
oni
ca
l
l
y

th
r
ou
g
h
m
a
nus
cr
ipt
ce
n
t
r
a
l:

http://m
c
.m
a
nus
cr
ipt
ce
nt
ra
l.
c
om/dsjie.


W
hile

DSJ
IE

m
a
y

c
onsid
e
r

e
x
ce
ptions, the

e
x
p
ec
t
a
tion is th
a
t
research articles
will

b
e

n
o
m
o
r
e

t
h
an

30
d
o
ub
l
e
-
s
p
a
ce
d

p
ag
e
s
including

re
f
ere
n
ce
s,

a
pp
e
nd
i
ce
s,
t
a
b
l
e
s, a
n
d

f
ig
u
re
s.

Teaching
brie
fs will in general be shorter.
All m
a
nus
cr
ipts should be

doubl
e
-
sp
a
ce
d in 12
-
p
o
int Tim
e
s
N
e
w
R
om
a
n
f
o
nt with
c
ons
ec
utiv
e
l
y numb
ere
d p
a
g
e
s.
Pa
g
e

n
u
mb
er
s should be

c
ontinu
e
d
th
r
ough the

m
a
nus
cr
i
p
t, in
c
luding

f
or

p
a
g
e
s of

re
f
ere
n
ce
s,
a
p
p
e
ndi
ce
s
, t
a
bl
e
s,
a
nd
f
i
g
u
re
s.

Allow
m
a
r
g
ins of

one

in
c
h on

a
ll
f
our

sid
e
s of
e
v
e
r
y

p
a
g
e
.


Autho
r
s must t
a
ke

ca
r
e

N
OT to in
c
lude

a
n
y

a
uthor

id
e
nti
f
y
i
n
g

in
f
o
r
m
a
tion
i
n
a
n
y

m
a
nus
cr
ipt
e
l
e
m
e
nt oth
e
r

th
a
n the

ti
t
le

p
a
g
e
.

B
ef
o
r
e

submission,
a
utho
r
s must
e
limin
a
te

a
n
y

a
uthor
id
e
nti
f
y
i
n
g

in
f
o
r
m
a
tion
f
r
om
F
ile

or

D
o
c
um
e
nt
P
r
op
er
ti
e
s, or

D
o
c
um
e
nt M
e
t
af
ile

a
rea
s.


Autho
r
s’

biog
ra
phi
c
a
l
a
n
d p
r
o
fe
ssion
a
l in
f
o
r
m
a
ti
o
n will be

re
qu
e
st
e
d if

a

p
a
p
e
r

is
a
cce
p
t
e
d
f
or
publi
ca
tion,
a
nd should not be

p
r
ovid
e
d in initi
a
l submissions.
W
h
e
n sub
mi
tt
e
d with
f
in
a
l,
ac
c
e
pt
e
d v
er
sions, the

b
i
o
g
r
a
phi
ca
l in
f
o
r
m
a
tion should be

limit
e
d to 150

wo
r
ds.

[
b
ac
k to top]


TITL
E

P
A
G
E


To m
a
int
a
in a

doubl
e
-
blind
re
vi
e
w, the

title

p
a
ge

must be

p
re
p
a
r
e
d
a
nd su
b
mitt
e
d
a
s a

s
e
p
a
r
a
te
do
c
um
e
nt
fr
om the

m
a
in

bo
d
y

of

t
h
e

m
a
nus
cr
ipt.

I
n

a
ddition to the

title

of

the

m
a
nus
cr
ipt, the

title

p
a
ge

must in
c
lude

the

a
ut
h
o
r
s’

n
a
m
e
s,
aff
ili
a
tions,
postal addresses, a
nd

e
-
m
a
il
a
dd
r
e
ss
e
s.
A
c
kn
o
wl
e
dg
e
m
e
nts should
a
p
p
ea
r

a
t the

bottom of

the title

p
a
g
e
.


[
b
ac
k to top]


M
A
I
N

BO
DY

O
F

T
H
E

M
A
N
US
C
R
I
P
T


The

m
a
nus
cr
ipt

s m
a
in
b
o
d
y

should in
c
lude

in the

f
ollowing

o
r
d
er
:



Title



Abst
ract



M
a
in
-
bo
d
y

t
e
x
t of

the

m
a
nus
cr
ipt



R
efere
n
ces



App
e
ndi
ce
s



T
a
bl
e
s



F
i
g
u
re
s

3

|
P a g e


T
he

f
i
r
st p
a
g
e

o
f

the

m
a
i
n bo
d
y

should in
c
lude

t
h
e

title

in bold
fac
e

c
a
pit
a
l
-
a
nd
-
low
e
r
-
ca
s
e

l
e
tt
er
s
f
ollow
e
d
b
y

a
n
a
bst
r
ac
t
o
f

no mo
r
e

th
a
n 250 w
o
r
d
s.

The abstract must
c
l
ear
l
y

a
n
d su
cc
in
c
t
l
y

c
onv
e
y the

m
a
nus
cr
ipt

s subj
ec
t

m
a
tt
er
, si
g
ni
f
i
c
a
n
c
e
,
a
nd

c
ont
r
ibution.
It
should
be

w
r
itt
e
n to
g
e
n
era
t
e

int
ere
st in the

m
a
nus
cr
ipt.


NO AUTHOR

I
D
EN
T
I
F
Y
I
NG

I
N
F
O
R
MA
T
I
ON

S
HO
U
L
D

A
PP
EAR

I
N

THE

M
A
I
N

B
ODY
OF

THE M
A
NU
SC
R
I
P
T
.


The

m
a
in bo
d
y

o
f

a

r
e
vi
s
ion or

re
sponse

to a

c
on
d
ition
a
l
acce
pt
a
n
c
e

must
n
ot in
c
lude

re
f
ere
n
ce
to the

re
vision numb
er
.
T
his in
f
o
r
m
a
tion should be

c
on
f
in
e
d to the

title

p
a
g
e
.

[
b
ac
k to top]


H
E
AD
I
N
G
S


M
a
jor

or

f
i
r
st
-
l
e
v
e
l h
ea
d
i
n
g
s should
a
pp
e
a
r

in
B
O
L
D
F
ACE

CA
P
I
T
AL

LETTE
RS

th
r
ou
g
hout
the

m
a
nus
cr
ipt
. Most manuscripts will have
f
our

to s
i
x

m
a
jor

h
ea
din
g
s
.

S
ec
ond
-
l
e
v
e
l h
e
a
di
n
g
s
should be

t
y
p
e
d in bold
f
ac
e

Ca
p
i
t
al
-
a
nd
-
L
o
w
er
-
Case

L
ett
e
r
s
.

Thi
r
d
-
l
e
v
e
l h
e
a
din
g
s sh
o
uld be

in
B
old
f
a
c
e

italic

l
e
tt
e
rs
b
e
g
inni
n
g

with t
h
e

f
i
r
st wo
r
d
c
a
pit
a
li
z
e
d
a
nd the

re
m
a
ini
n
g

w
o
r
ds in
low
er
-
c
a
se

l
e
tt
er
s. All

h
ea
di
n
g
s
a
nd subh
e
a
dings
ar
e

to be

l
e
f
t
-
justi
f
i
e
d.


The

f
i
r
st wo
r
d of

t
h
e

f
i
r
st

p
ar
a
g
r
a
ph
f
ollowi
n
g

a
n
y

h
ea
di
n
g

or

subh
e
a
ding

s
hould be

l
ef
t
-
justi
f
i
e
d. The

f
i
r
st wo
r
d of

sub
s
e
q
u
e
nt p
ar
a
g
ra
phs should
b
e

ind
e
nt
e
d.

[back to top]


MATHEMATICAL NOTATIO
N


All
e
qu
a
tions should be

s
e
t on s
e
p
a
r
a
te

lin
e
s,
ce
n
t
ere
d,
a
nd num
b
ere
d

c
on
s
ec
utiv
e
l
y

in s
e
qu
e
nti
al
A
ra
bic

numb
e
r
s
(
1, 2, 3,

…,
e
t
c
.)

in p
a
r
e
nth
e
s
e
s t
h
a
t
a
pp
e
a
r

f
lush with the

r
i
g
ht m
a
r
g
in of

the
p
a
g
e
. All m
a
th
e
m
a
ti
ca
l

f
un
c
tions
a
nd v
ar
i
a
bl
e
s

(
n
ot numb
er
s or

s
y
mbols)

i
n
e
qu
a
tions,
f
o
r
mul
a
s,
a
nd not
a
tions should be

in
r
e
g
ul
a
r

it
a
lic

t
y
p
e
,

a
nd

not bold
face
. All pow
e
r

v
ar
i
a
bl
e
s
a
nd su
b
-

v
ar
i
a
bl
e
s

should be

in
r
e
g
ul
a
r

it
a
lic

t
y
p
e
.

[back to top]


A
PP
E
N
D
I
C
E
S,

T
A
BLE
S,

AND

F
I
G
UR
E
S


App
e
ndi
ce
s,

t
a
bl
e
s,

a
nd
f
i
g
u
re
s should
b
e

pl
ace
d
i
n th
a
t o
r
d
e
r

in the

m
a
in
b
o
d
y

f
ile

af
t
e
r

t
h
e
ref
e
re
n
c
e
s. App
e
nd
i
ce
s,
t
a
bl
e
s,
a
nd
f
i
g
u
r
e
s should
c
l
ar
i
f
y

a
nd suppl
e
m
e
nt the

t
e
x
t,
a
nd not
dupli
ca
te

wh
a
t is
a
l
r
ea
d
y

st
a
t
e
d in wo
r
ds.

App
e
ndi
ce
s
a
nd t
a
bl
e
s s
h
ould be

us
e
d
wh
e
n
d
a
ta

c
a
n
be

p
re
s
e
nt
e
d mo
r
e

ec
o
nomi
ca
l
l
y

in this
f
o
r
m th
a
n in n
ar
r
a
tive

f
o
r
m. Visu
a
l
re
p
re
s
e
nt
a
tions of

the

m
a
nus
cr
ipt

s
c
o
n
c
e
pts should be l
a
b
e
l
e
d
a
s
f
i
g
u
r
e
s.


App
e
ndi
ce
s should be

c
o
ns
ec
utiv
e
l
y

l
e
tt
ere
d

with upp
er
-
c
a
se

l
e
tt
e
r
s
fr
om
t
he

b
e
g
inning

to the
e
nd of

the

a
r
ti
c
l
e
,
a
nd s
h
ould
a
pp
ea
r

on
s
e
p
a
r
a
te

p
a
g
e
s
fr
om the

t
e
x
t
af
t
e
r

t
he

re
f
ere
n
ce
s

a
nd
b
ef
o
r
e

t
h
e

t
a
bl
e
s
a
nd

f
i
g
u
re
s.

App
e
ndix

not
a
tions
ar
e

to
a
pp
ea
r

with both the

a
p
p
e
ndix

l
e
tt
e
r

a
nd
4

|
P a g e


the

a
p
p
e
ndix

ti
t
le

in upp
er
-
ca
se

bold
f
ac
e

t
y
p
e

st
ar
ti
n
g

with the

w
o
r
d,

A
PP
EN
D
I
X,”

f
ollow
e
d
b
y

the

a
pp
e
ndix

l
e
tt
er
,
f
ollow
e
d
b
y

a

c
olon,
f
ol
l
ow
e
d
b
y

the

a
p
p
e
ndix

tit
l
e
. The

a
p
p
e
ndix

l
e
tt
e
r

a
nd
title

should be

l
ef
t
-
justi
f
i
e
d on the

p
a
ge

a
s
i
n the

f
ollowin
g
:


E
x
a
mpl
e
:


AP
P
E
N
DIX A:

R
ESE
A
RCH VARIA
BLE
S

AND
M
E
A
S
UR
E
S


R
efere
n
ce
s
f
o
r

c
it
a
tions m
a
de

in the

a
pp
e
ndi
c
e
s should be

p
r
ovid
e
d in

the

main
re
f
e
r
e
n
ce
list.


T
a
bl
e
s
a
nd
f
i
g
u
r
e
s should be

c
ons
ec
utiv
e
l
y

num
b
ere
d in A
r
a
bic

num
e
r
a
ls
f
r
om the

b
e
g
inning

to
the

e
nd of

the

a
r
ti
c
le

a
nd

should
a
pp
ea
r

on
s
e
p
a
r
a
te

p
a
g
e
s
f
r
om
the

t
e
x
t
af
t
e
r

the

re
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

l
ist.
T
a
ble

a
nd
f
i
g
u
r
e

not
a
tio
n
s
a
pp
ea
r

with bold
fac
e

t
y
pe

f
or

the

w
o
r
d T
a
ble

o
r

F
i
g
u
r
e

a
n
d the

t
a
ble
or

f
i
g
u
r
e

numb
e
r
,
f
ollo
w
e
d
b
y

a

c
olon. The

t
a
ble

or

f
i
g
u
r
e

title

should be

i
n
r
e
g
ul
a
r

t
y
pe

with the
f
i
r
st wo
r
d
ca
pit
a
li
z
e
d
a
nd

the

re
m
a
ini
n
g

wo
r
ds in
l
ow
er
-
ca
se

l
e
tt
e
r
s. The

t
a
ble

or

f
i
g
u
r
e

numb
e
r
a
nd t
a
ble

or

f
i
g
u
r
e

title

should be

l
ef
t
-
justi
f
i
e
d on

the

p
a
g
e

a
s in the

f
ollowin
g
:


E
x
a
mpl
e
:


T
a
b
le

1:

M
ea
su
re
m
e
nt i
t
e
ms.


The

position of

the

t
a
ble

or

f
i
g
u
r
e

on the

p
a
g
e

sh
o
uld be

a
s
f
ollows:



------------------------------


Insert Table/Figure Here


------------------------------

[
b
ac
k to top]


FOOTNOTES
AND

ENDNOTES


DSJIE

do
e
s not
a
llow the

u
se

of

f
ootnot
e
s or

e
ndnot
e
s within the

t
e
x
t of

the

m
a
nus
cr
ipt.
How
e
v
er
,
f
ootnot
e
s to t
a
bl
e
s
ar
e

a
llow
e
d
a
nd should be

us
e
d

to
e
x
pl
a
in the

d
e
si
g
n
a
tions of

the

t
a
bl
e
, su
c
h
a
s
c
olumns or

r
ow h
e
a
d
i
n
g
s. E
a
c
h
f
ootnote

to a

t
a
ble

should be

d
e
si
g
n
a
t
e
d

b
y

a

su
p
er
s
c
r
ipt low
erca
s
e

l
e
tt
e
r

b
e
g
inning

with the

l
e
tt
e
r

“a
.


[
b
ac
k to top]


A
BBREVIATIONS AND
AC
R
O
N
Y
M
S


F
i
r
st use

of

a

t
er
m
f
or

w
h
i
c
h
a
n
a
c
r
o
n
y
m

will be

us
e
d must be

w
r
itt
e
n out
a
nd
f
ollow
e
d
b
y

the
acr
o
n
y
m in p
a
r
e
nth
e
s
e
s.

The

a
c
r
o
n
y
m should be

u
s
e
d in
a
ll subs
e
qu
e
nt t
e
x
t

m
e
ntions.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

The

a
pp
r
o
ac
h

r
e
li
e
s on the

use

of

a
n

a
g
e
nt building

sh
e
ll
(
A
B
S
)



T
e
x
t use

of

t
er
ms like


f
or

e
x
a
mpl
e
,”


th
a
t is,”

a
n
d simil
a
r

t
er
ms should be

w
r
itt
e
n out wh
e
n
outside

of

p
are
nth
e
s
e
s.



E
x
a
mpl
e
:


A p
ar
ti
c
ul
a
r

int
er
v
a
l m
e
thod m
a
k
e
s it p
o
ssible

to us
e
,
f
or

e
x
a
mpl
e
, some

5

|
P a g e


m
ea
su
ra
ble
a
tt
r
ibut
e
.


W
h
e
n inside

p
are
nth
e
s
e
s,

the

t
er
ms should be

a
bb
r
e
vi
a
t
e
d.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

A p
ar
ti
c
ul
a
r

int
er
v
a
l m
e
thod m
a
k
e
s it p
o
ssible

to use

some

m
ea
su
ra
ble

a
tt
r
ibute

(
e
.
g
., mon
e
y
)
.

[
b
ac
k to top]


S
P
E
C
I
F
I
C

US
A
G
E

A
N
D

S
T
Y
L
E


I
n no
n
-
m
a
th
e
m
a
ti
c
a
l
-
not
a
tion t
e
x
t, numb
er
s
z
er
o
t
h
r
ou
g
h t
e
n should be

w
r
i
tt
e
n out,
a
nd those
ov
e
r

t
e
n should be

p
r
e
s
e
n
t
e
d
a
s num
era
ls,
e
x
ce
pt

wh
er
e

m
a
t
h
e
m
a
ti
ca
l
e
x
p
r
e
ssions
ar
e

us
e
d.


E
x
a
mpl
e
s
:

W
e

g
a
v
e

poi
n
ts in multi
p
l
e
s of

th
ree
, s
i
x
,
a
nd 12.

D
e
m
a
nd
f
or

c
l
a
ss
e
s 1 to
(
j
-
1)

p
r
ov
e
s to be

g
rea
t
e
r

t
h
a
n
q
.


I
n

a

s
er
i
e
s, u
s
e

a

c
omma

b
ef
o
r
e

t
h
e

wo
r
d

a
nd.”


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

W
e

g
a
v
e

points in multipl
e
s of

th
ree
, si
x
,
a
nd 12.


I
t
e
ms list
e
d in a

s
e
r
i
e
s
a
n
d
e
mph
a
si
z
e
d with outli
n
e
/s
er
i
e
s t
er
ms in p
a
re
nth
e
s
e
s,
should be
p
rece
d
e
d
b
y

the

t
e
r
ms
(
i
)
,
(
ii
)
,
(
iii
)
…,
e
t
c
., or

sho
u
ld be

list
e
d with bull
e
ts.

Use

of

(
1
)
,

(
2
)
,
(
3
)
…,
e
t
c
., must be

limit
e
d to t
e
x
t
refere
n
c
e
s to
e
qu
a
tio
n
s. Use

of

(
a
)
,
(
b
)
,

(c)
…,

e
t
c
., must be

limit
e
d to
t
e
x
t
refere
n
c
e
s to p
r
opos
i
tions.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

Th
er
e

ar
e

t
h
re
e

w
a
y
s the

I
nt
e
r
n
e
t is uniqu
e
:
(
i)

The

I
n
t
er
n
e
t is a

m
a
n
y
-
t
o
-
m
a
n
y
c
ommuni
ca
tion mod
e
l;
(
ii)

the

c
on
ce
pt
o
f

e
n
g
a
g
e
m
e
nt is impo
r
t
a
nt,
a
nd
(
iii)
c
onsum
er
s on the

I
nt
e
r
n
e
t
e
ng
a
g
e

in b
e
h
a
vior

th
a
t

is
g
o
a
l
-
di
r
ec
t
e
d
o
r

e
x
p
er
i
e
nti
a
l.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

Th
er
e

ar
e

t
h
re
e

w
a
y
s the

I
nt
e
r
n
e
t is
u
niqu
e
:



The

I
nt
er
n
e
t is a

m
a
n
y
-
t
o
-
m
a
n
y

c
ommuni
ca
tion mod
el



The

c
on
c
e
pt of

e
n
g
a
g
e
m
e
nt is impo
r
t
a
nt



C
onsum
er
s on the

I
nt
er
n
e
t
e
n
g
a
g
e

in
b
e
h
a
vior

th
a
t is
g
o
a
l
-
di
r
e
c
t
e
d or

e
x
p
er
i
e
nti
a
l.


The

p
e
r
ce
nt si
g
n

(%
)

sh
o
uld

be

us
e
d with numb
e
r
s
ra
th
e
r

th
a
n the

wo
r
d

p
erce
n
t


unl
e
ss
a
t the
b
e
g
inni
n
g

of

a

s
e
nt
e
n
ce.


E
x
a
mpl
e
s
:

Ov
e
r

h
a
l
f

(
50
.
96
%
)

of

our

p
ar
ti
c
ip
a
nt
s
….

F
i
f
t
y
-
th
r
e
e

p
e
r
ce
nt of

o
u
r

s
a
mple

re
po
r
t
e
d…


S
imple

m
a
th
e
m
a
ti
ca
l
e
qu
a
tions should be

p
re
s
e
nt
e
d in p
are
nth
e
s
e
s to
e
ns
ur
e

a
c
c
u
ra
te

r
e
a
d
a
bili
t
y
.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

D
e
m
a
nd
f
o
r

c
l
a
ss
e
s 1 to
(
j
-
1)

p
r
o
v
e
s to be

in
e
x
ce
ss of

q
.

6

|
P a g e



P
r
op
e
r

h
y
ph
e
n
a
tion must be

us
e
d
f
or

a
dj
ec
tiv
e
s
v
e
r
sus nouns.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

This is a

willi
ng
n
e
s
s
-
to
-
p
a
y

mod
e
l.

This is
a
n
e
x
a
mple

of

the

c
ustom
er’
s
willin
g
n
e
ss to p
a
y
.


Numb
er
s
f
or

h
y
poth
e
s
e
s

should be

p
re
s
e
nt
e
d in it
a
li
c
s
a
s
H1, H2, H3,…Hn

(a
nd m
a
y

in
c
lude
d
e
si
g
n
a
tions
f
o
r

a
, b,
c
,

e
t
c
., if

n
ece
s
s
a
r
y
)
.

F
ollow

eac
h numb
e
r

b
y

a

c
olon

a
nd the

h
y
poth
e
sis.
I
n
d
e
nt
h
y
p
oth
e
s
e
s ½ in
c
h

fr
om
e
a
c
h m
a
r
g
in,
a
nd

a
li
g
n the

t
e
x
t v
er
ti
ca
l
l
y
.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

H1:

C
ost
e
ffi
c
i
e
n
c
y

c
ap
a
bility

is positi
ve
ly

asso
c
i
at
e
d
w
ith mar
ke
t
-
bas
e
d
p
e
rforman
ce
.

[
b
ac
k to top]


REFERENCES TO AUTHORS IN
TE
X
T


All m
e
ntions of

a
utho
r
s in the

bo
d
y

o
f

the

t
e
x
t should be

in
the

f
o
r
m
a
t
A
utho
r’
s

L
a
st N
a
me

(
D
a
t
e)
.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

S
c
h
aff
e
r

(
1985)

u
s
e
s the

th
e
o
r
y
….


M
e
ntions of

multiple

a
utho
r
s in the

bo
d
y

o
f

the

t
e
x
t should

in
c
lude

the

wo
r
d
“a
nd”

r
a
th
e
r

t
h
a
n
a
n
a
mp
er
s
a
nd.



I
n the

ca
s
e

of

two
a
utho
r
s, the

m
e
ntion should be

in the

f
o
r
m
a
t 1
st

Autho
r’
s

L
a
st N
a
me

a
nd 2
nd


Autho
r’
s

L
a
st N
a
m
e

(
D
a
t
e)
.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

B
r
o
wn
a
nd
S
a
mb
a
mu
r
t
h
y

(
1
999)

not
e
d in th
e
ir

wo
r
k
….


I
n the

ca
s
e

of

more than
two
a
utho
r
s, the

m
e
ntion should be

in the

f
o
r
m
a
t

1
st

Autho
r’
s

L
a
st
N
a
me, . . . , and n
th

Authors
L
a
st N
a
m
e

(
D
a
t
e)
.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

Vollm
a
n,
B
e
r
r
y
,
a
nd

W
h
y
b
ar
k
(
199
7
)

p
r
ov
e
d
t
h
a
t…

[
b
ac
k to top]


C
I
T
A
TI
O
NS


C
it
a
tions should not

in
c
lude

p
a
g
e

numb
e
r
s unl
e
ss

the

c
it
a
tion
ref
e
r
s to a

d
i
rec
t quot
a
tion.


All
c
it
a
tions m
a
de

to
ref
e
re
n
ce
s should
b
e

in

the

f
o
r
m
a
t
(
Autho
r

s

L
a
st

N
a
m
e
, Y
e
ar)
.

Y
e
a
r
re
p
re
s
e
nts the

y
e
a
r

of

p
u
bli
ca
tion.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:
(
S
c
h
af
f
er
, 1985)


7

|
P a g e


Multiple

c
it
a
tions should

a
pp
ea
r

in
o
r
d
e
r

fr
om
e
a
r
li
e
st to l
a
t
e
st d
a
t
e
s of

publi
ca
tion,
a
nd th
e
n
a
lph
a
b
e
ti
z
e
d
b
y

t
h
e

f
i
r
st

a
utho
r’
s l
a
st n
a
m
e
.
Utili
z
e

a

s
e
mi
-
c
olon
b
e
tw
ee
n

e
ac
h
c
it
a
tion
.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:
(
S
c
h
aff
e
r
, 1999;
S
mith, 1999;
B
ar
n
e
y
, 2004)


Multiple

refe
r
e
n
ce
s to
w
o
r
k
b
y

o
n
e

a
uthor

o
r

a

g
r
oup of

a
utho
r
s with the

s
a
me

y
e
a
r

of
publi
ca
tion should be

di
ffere
nti
a
t
e
d with the

a
ddition of

sm
a
ll l
e
tt
er
s
(a
, b,

e
t
c
.)

a
f
t
e
r

the

y
e
ar
.


E
x
a
mpl
e
s
:

1st
c
it
a
tion:
(
Z
it
z
l
er
, 1999
a
)


2nd
c
it
a
tion, di
ffere
nt w
o
r
k:
(
Z
it
z
l
er
, 1999b)

Or

1st
c
it
a
tion:
(
Vollm
a
n,
B
er
r
y
,

&

W
h
y
b
ar
k, 1997
a
)

2nd
c
it
a
tion, di
ffere
nt w
o
r
k:
(
Vollm
a
n,
B
e
r
r
y
,

&
W
h
y
b
ar
k, 1997b)


I
n the

ca
s
e

of

a

publi
c
a
tion w
r
itt
e
n
b
y

mo
r
e

th
a
n

one

a
utho
r
, the

l
a
st two
a
utho
r
s’

n
a
m
e
s in a
c
it
a
tion should be

join
e
d with
a
n
a
mp
er
s
a
nd

(
&
)
.


E
x
a
mpl
e
s
:

(
B
r
own

&

Sa
mb
a
mu
r
t
h
y
, 1999
)


(
Vollm
a
n,
B
e
r
r
y
,

&

W
h
y
b
a
r
k,

1997)


On
c
e

a

multiple

a
uthor

c
it
a
tion h
a
s b
ee
n us
e
d, su
b
s
e
qu
e
nt
c
it
a
tions of

th
a
t

publi
ca
tion
ca
n be
ref
e
rre
d to usi
n
g

f
i
r
st
a
u
t
hor

l
a
st n
a
me

e
t
a
l.,
d
a
t
e.


E
x
a
mpl
e
s
:

1st use

of

c
it
a
tion:
(
Vollm
a
n,
B
e
r
r
y
,

&

W
h
y
b
a
r
k,

1997)


2nd use

of

c
it
a
tion:
(
Vollm
a
n
e
t
a
l., 1997)


N
e
v
e
r

u
s
e

the

wo
r
d


S
e
e


in a

c
it
a
tion.


E
x
a
mpl
e
s
:
This is
a
n
e
x
a
mple

of

wh
a
t not to do
(
S
e
e

S
mith,
2
005
)


The

c
o
r
r
ec
t
a
p
p
r
o
a
c
h is p
r
ovid
e
d
(
S
mith, 2005
)

[
b
ac
k to top]


R
E
F
E
R
E
NCE
S


Autho
r
s
ar
e

re
sponsible

f
or

the

a
c
c
u
r
a
c
y

of

th
e
ir

r
efe
r
e
n
c
e

lists.
B
e

su
r
e

y
o
u h
a
ve

a

c
ompl
e
te
ref
e
re
n
c
e

f
or

e
a
c
h
c
it
a
ti
o
n,
a
nd a

c
it
a
tion
f
or

e
a
c
h

ref
e
re
n
c
e.
R
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
es sho
u
ld follow

th
e
se

st
y
le

guid
e
lin
e
s:




R
efere
n
ce
s should be

lis
t
e
d
a
t the

e
nd of

t
h
e

m
a
n
u
s
cr
ipt
a
lph
a
b
e
ti
ca
l
l
y

b
y

t
he

l
a
st n
a
me

of

the
f
i
r
st
a
utho
r
.

I
f

th
e
r
e

is no

indi
ca
tion of

a
n
individu
a
l
a
utho
r
, use

the

e
dito
r
,
c
o
r
po
ra
t
e

a
utho
r
, or p
er
iodi
ca
l n
a
m
e
.
R
efe
r
e
n
ce
s should be

l
ef
t
-
justi
f
i
e
d
,

a
nd
e
nt
r
i
e
s
should be

s
e
p
ara
t
e
d
b
y

double sp
ac
in
g
.




8

|
P a g e




All book/
ar
ti
c
l
e
/
c
h
a
pt
er
/
diss
er
t
a
tion/w
e
bsite

titl
e
s should be

p
r
ovid
e
d with the

f
i
r
st l
e
tt
e
r

of

the
f
i
r
st wo
r
d of

the

title

in upp
e
r

ca
s
e

a
nd the

ot
h
e
r

w
o
r
ds in low
e
r

c
a
s
e
.




All book n
a
m
e
s
a
nd diss
er
t
a
tion titl
e
s should be

p
r
ovid
e
d in it
a
li
c
s.




All p
er
iodi
ca
l
a
nd n
e
ws
p
a
p
e
r

n
a
m
e
s should be

p
r
o
vid
e
d in it
a
li
c
s with the

f
i
r
st l
e
tt
e
r

of

e
v
e
r
y wo
r
d
ca
pit
a
li
z
e
d.




I
n

ar
ti
c
le

titl
e
s, the

f
i
r
st

wo
r
d
f
ollowing a

c
olon
s
hould be

ca
pit
a
li
z
e
d.




I
n the

ca
s
e

of

two or

mo
r
e

c
iti
e
s
a
nd st
a
t
e
s/
c
ount
r
i
e
s of

publi
ca
tion, indi
ca
t
e

e
a
c
h in
a
lph
a
b
e
ti
c
a
l o
r
d
er
, s
e
p
ara
t
e
d
b
y

s
e
mi
c
olons.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

L
ondon,

U
K
; N
e
w Yo
r
k,
N
Y:
R
outl
e
d
g
e
,…


B
o
o
ks


S
in
g
le

a
utho
r
:

Autho
r’
s l
a
st n
a
m
e
,
f
i
r
st

initi
a
l. middle

in
i
ti
a
l.
(
y
e
ar)
.
Book

titl
e
.
C
i
t
y
,
S
t
a
te

of

publi
ca
tion:
P
ublish
er
.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

B
oll
e
n, K. A.
(
198
9
)
.
Stru
c
tural
e
quations
w
ith l
a
t
e
nt
v
ariabl
e
s
. N
e
w Y
o
r
k
, NY:
W
il
e
y
.


M
ultiple

a
utho
r
s
:
F
i
r
st
a
utho
r’
s l
a
st n
a
m
e
,

f
i
r
st initi
a
l. middle

ini
t
i
a
l
., &

S
ec
ond

a
utho
r’
s l
a
st

n
a
m
e
,
S
ec
ond
a
utho
r’
s
f
i
r
st initi
a
l. middle

initi
a
l.
(
y
e
ar)
.
Bo
o
k

titl
e
.
C
i
t
y
,
S
t
a
te

o
f

publi
c
a
tion:
P
ubl
i
sh
er
.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

B
r
own,
C
. V.,

&

S
a
mb
a
mu
r
t
h
y
, V.
(
199
9
)
.
R
e
po
s
itioning the

I
T

organiza
ti
on to
fa
c
ilitate busin
e
ss transformation
.

C
in
c
inn
a
ti, OH:
P
inn
af
l
e
x

P
re
ss.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

S
ilv
er
, E. A.,
P
y
k
e
, D.

F
.

&

P
e
t
er
son,
R
.
(
199
8
)
.
I
n
ve
ntory

mana
g
e
m
e
nt a
n
d
produ
c
tion planning and s
c
h
e
duling.
N
e
w Y
o
r
k, NY:
J
ohn
W
i
l
e
y

&

S
ons.


L
a
t
e
r

e
dition:

Autho
r’
s l
a
st n
a
m
e
,
f
i
r
st

initi
a
l. middle

in
i
ti
a
l.
(
y
e
ar)
,
Book

title

(e
dition numb
e
r
)
.
C
i
t
y
,
S
t
a
te

of publi
ca
tion:
P
ublish
er
.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:


Nunn
a
l
l
y
,
J
.
C
.
(
1978
)
.
Psychometric theory (2
nd

ed.).
N
e
w Y
o
r
k, NY: M
c
G
ra
w
-
Hill.

[
b
ac
k to top]


C
h
a
pte
r
s

i
n
B
o
o
ks


C
h
a
pt
e
r

a
utho
r’
s l
a
st
n
a
m
e
,
f
i
r
st initi
a
l. middle

i
n
iti
a
l.
(
y
e
ar)
.
C
h
a
p
t
e
r

titl
e
.

I
n book

e
dito
r’
s
f
i
r
st
initi
a
l. l
a
st n
a
m
e
,
(
Ed.
)
,
Book

titl
e
.
C
i
t
y

o
f

publi
c
a
tion:
P
ublish
er
, p
a
g
e
s
x
-
y.


9

|
P a g e


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

W
int
er
,
S
. A.
(
1987
)
. Knowl
e
dge

a
nd

c
omp
e
t
e
n
c
e

a
s st
ra
t
e
g
ic

a
s
s
e
ts.

I
n D.

J
.
T
eec
e

(
Ed.
)
,
T
he
c
omp
e
titi
v
e

c
hall
e
n
g
e
:

S
t
rat
e
gi
e
s for industrial i
n
no
v
ation and
r
e
n
e
w
al
.
C
a
mb
r
idg
e
, MA:
B
a
lling
er
, 159
-
184.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

Z
e
ith
a
ml, V. A.

(
1981
)
.

How
c
onsum
e
r

e
v
a
lu
a
ti
o
n p
r
o
ce
ss
e
s di
f
fe
r

b
e
tw
ee
n
g
oods
a
nd
s
er
vi
c
e
s.
I
n
J
. H. Donn
e
l
l
y
, &

W
.

R
. G
e
o
r
g
e

(
Eds
.
)
,
M
ar
k
e
ting in s
e
r
v
i
ce
s
.
C
hi
c
a
g
o,

I
L
: A
m
er
i
ca
n M
ar
k
e
ti
n
g

Asso
c
i
a
tion,
1
86
-
199.

[
b
ac
k to top]


P
er
i
o
d
i
c
a
l
s


Autho
r’
s l
a
st n
a
m
e
,
f
i
r
st

initi
a
l.
middle

in
i
ti
a
l
(
y
e
a
r)
. A
r
ti
c
le

titl
e
.
P
e
riodi
c
a
l
T
itl
e
,
Arabic

Volume

N
umb
e
r x

(
A
ra
b
i
c

I
ssue

Numb
e
r

y
)
, p
a
g
e
s

x
-
y.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

B
ar
n
e
y
,
J
.
B
.
(
1991
)
.

F
i
r
m
re
sou
rce
s

a
nd sust
a
in
e
d
c
omp
e
titive

a
dv
a
nt
a
g
e
.

J
ournal of

M
anag
e
m
e
nt
,
17
(
1
)
, 99
-
1
20.


Multiple

a
utho
r
s
should be

list
e
d with the

l
a
st two
a
utho
r
s’

n
a
m
e
s
s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d
b
y

a

c
omma

a
nd
a
n
a
mp
er
s
a
nd
(
&
)
.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

J
e
ul
a
nd, A.
P
., &

S
hu
g
a
n
,
S
. M.
(
1983
)
. M
a
n
a
g
i
n
g
c
h
a
nn
e
l p
r
o
f
its.
M
ar
ke
t
i
ng
S
c
i
e
n
ce
,
2
(
3
)
, 239
-
272.

E
x
a
mpl
e
:

B
ou
r
l
a
nd, K.
J
.,
P
ow
e
ll,
S
. A., &

P
y
k
e
, D. M.
(
1
9
96
)
. E
x
ploiting

tim
e
l
y

d
e
m
a
nd
in
f
o
r
m
a
tion to
re
du
c
e

in
v
e
nto
r
i
e
s.
Eur
o
p
e
an
J
ournal of Op
e
rational R
e
s
e
ar
c
h,
92
(
2
)
, 23
9
-
253.

[
b
ac
k to top]


N
e
w
s
p
a
p
e
r
s


Autho
r’
s l
a
st n
a
m
e
,
f
i
r
st

initi
a
l. middle

in
i
ti
a
l
(
y
e
a
r)
. A
r
ti
c
le

titl
e
.
P
e
riodi
c
a
l titl
e
. Month A
ra
bic

D
a
y
, p
a
g
e
s
x
-
y.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

v
a
n
R
y
z
in,

G.
J
.
(
2000
)
. The

b
ra
ve

n
e
w w
o
r
ld of

p
r
i
c
in
g
.
T
he

Finan
c
ial
T
im
e
s
.
O
c
tob
e
r

16,
6
-
7


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

B
a
k
e
r
,
J
. A., &

B
us
t
a
mont
e
, M. T.
(
2004
)
.
D
y
n
a
m
ic

p
r
i
c
in
g
.
T
he

W
all Str
ee
t
J
ournal.
M
a
y

4, 8.


[
b
ac
k to top]


U
npub
l
i
s
hed
P
a
pe
r
s
,

D
iss
e
rt
a
t
i
o
n
s
,

a
nd

P
re
s
ent
e
d
P
a
per
s


Autho
r’
s l
a
st n
a
m
e
,
f
i
r
st

initi
a
l. middle

in
i
ti
a
l.
(
y
e
ar)
,
T
itle

of pap
e
r / diss
e
rtation / pr
e
s
e
nt
e
d
pap
e
r
e
ntr
y
.
D
e
f
inition of

t
y
pe

(e
.
g
., d
o
c
to
ra
l diss
er
t
a
tion
)
,
a
f
f
ili
a
tion
(e
.
g
.,

A
r
i
z
ona

S
t
a
te
Univ
er
si
t
y
,
C
i
t
y
,
S
t
a
t
e
/
C
ount
r
y
.


10

|
P a g e


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

Z
it
z
l
er
, E.
R
.
(
1999
)
.
E
v
o
lutionary

algorithms for

multiobj
ec
ti
v
e

optimization:

Me
thods and appli
c
ations.
Do
c
to
ra
l diss
er
t
a
tion,
S
wiss
Fe
d
e
r
a
l

I
nstitute

of

T
ec
hnol
og
y

(
ETH
)
,

Z
u
r
i
c
h,
S
wit
z
er
l
a
nd.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

S
e
idm
a
nn, A. V., &

S
o
u
nd
ara
r
a
j
a
n, A.
R
.
(
199
7
)
.

C
omp
e
tition,
c
ontra
c
ting, and
c
oordination
c
osts:

C
riti
c
al anal
y
sis
o
f logisti
c
s informa
t
ion s
h
aring mod
e
ls.
P
re
s
e
nt
a
tion m
a
de

a
t the

Multi
-

E
c
h
e
lon

I
nv
e
nto
r
y

C
on
f
e
re
n
ce
,

N
e
w

Yo
r
k
Univ
e
r
si
t
y
,

N
e
w

Yo
r
k, NY.

[
b
ac
k to top]


P
r
o
cee
d
i
n
g
s
,

P
u
b
l
is
hed
R
ep
o
r
t
s
,

M
o
n
og
r
a
p
h
s
,

a
nd S
p
ec
i
f
i
c

Ed
i
t
io
n
s


Autho
r’
s l
a
st n
a
m
e
,
f
i
r
st

initi
a
l. Middle

ini
t
i
a
l.
(
y
e
ar)
.
P
r
o
c
ee
di
n
g
/
R
e
po
r
t
/
Mono
g
r
a
ph titl
e
.

Pro
cee
dings of the

C
onf
e
r
e
n
c
e

N
am
e
,
C
i
t
y
,
S
t
a
t
e
:
P
ublish
er
, p
a
g
e
s
x
-
y.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

S
c
h
aff
e
r
,
J
. D.
(
1985
)
. Multiple

obj
ec
tive

optimi
z
a
tion with v
ec
tor

e
v
a
lu
a
t
e
d
g
e
n
e
tic

a
l
g
o
r
ithms.
Pro
cee
dings of the

First
I
nt
e
rnational
C
onf
e
r
e
n
c
e

on G
e
n
e
tic

Algorithms.
Hillsd
a
l
e
, N
J
:
L
a
w
re
n
c
e

E
r
lb
a
um Ass
o
c
i
a
t
e
s, 93
-
100.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

C
h
r
is
t
y
, D.
P
., &

N
a
ndk
e
o
l
y
ar
,

U. M.
(
1986
)
. A s
i
mul
a
tion inv
e
sti
g
a
tion of

the

d
e
si
g
n
o
f

g
r
oup t
ec
hnolo
g
y

ce
lls.
Pro
c
ee
dings of the

1986 Annual
Mee
ting of the

D
e
c
ision S
c
i
e
n
ce
s

I
nstitut
e
,
Atl
a
nt
a
, GA, 22
-
32.

[
b
ac
k to top]


Web
s
i
t
e
s

a
nd
UR
L
s


Autho
r’
s l
a
st n
a
m
e
,
f
i
r
st

initi
a
l. middle

in
i
ti
a
l.
(
y
e
ar)
. Title

of

r
e
f
ere
n
ce
,
ac
ce
ss
e
d month d
a
y
,
y
ea
r
,
a
v
a
il
a
ble

a
t

I
n
s
ert

U
R
L

h
e
re
.


E
x
a
mpl
e
:

B
itpipe

(
2004
)
.
Re
a
d
er
s
h
ip
a
nd us
a
g
e

of

white

p
a
p
er
s
b
y

c
o
r
p
o
ra
te

a
nd

I
T

m
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
nt,
ac
c
e
ss
e
d
J
u
l
y

14, 2004,
a
v
a
il
a
ble

a
t
http://it
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s
earc
h.
f
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e
s.
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o
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