Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis Study Guide

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DNA

1.

State where DNA is found

in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

2.

Describe the structure of DNA

a.

What is the general s
hape
?

b.

What are the
3
c
omponents

of a DNA nucleotide?

c.

What are the four

n
ucleotides
?

d.

Define
why it is
considered

complementary and antiparallel

3.

Describe the function of DNA

4.

Classify each of the four nitrogenous bases as either purines or pyrimidines

5.

Draw a picture of a DNA molecule

a.

Label the following parts:
phosphate, deoxyribose, nitrogenous base and
hydrogen bond

6.

Describe the process of DNA replication

a.

Why does it occur?

b.

Where does it take place?

c.

What is the product?

d.

Define replication fork and replication bubble

e.

Identify enzymes and explain their role in D
NA replication

RNA

7.

Describe the structure of RNA

a.

How many strands is it composed of?

b.

What are the four nucleotides?

c.

Identify examples of different types of RNA

d.

Where is RNA found?

e.

Identify each RNA molecule and its function?

8.

Make a table and compare DNA
and RNA (Include things like structure, function,
sugars, nitrogenous bases, location, etc…)


Protein Synthesis

9.

Identify the role of the ribosome in protein synthesis

Ch 11 & 13 Study Guide: Nucleic Acids, Protein
Synthesis, Genetic
Technology

Disclaimer:


This is only a
STUDY

GUIDE.
You should also read your notes and handouts again. I recommended that
if you don’t understand a topic, read the book,
look it up on the internet, call a friend, or ask me. Once you
have taken the time to learn the material on your own, find a partner to review with and form a study group.


10.

Identify t
he roles of DNA, mRNA, tRNA, and
RNA polymerase

in protein synthesis

11.

Identify where transcription occurs

a.

Describe what occurs during transcription

12.

Describe the RNA processing that occurs
before
the mRNA leaves the nucleus.

13.

Identify where translation occurs

a.

Describe what occurs during translation

14.

Identify a codon and an anticodon

15.

State the nucleotides that are recognized as a start codon and stop codon

16.

Provide a nine nucleotide DNA sequence

a.

State the mRNA sequence that is transcribed from it (Would you be ab
le to
reverse it?)

b.

Now use the mRNA sequence, determine the amino acid sequence from this
strand (Would you be able to reverse it?)

Mutation

17.

Define mutation

a.

Where does it occur?

b.

Provide an example of a point mutation

c.

Provide an example of a frameshift

mutation

18.

Describe the effects of both of these mutations

Ch
apter

13

1.

Define the following terms:

a.

Genetic engineering

b.

Recombinant DNA

c.

Transgenic Organism

d.

Plasmid

2.

D
escribe the uses and benefits of the following:

a.

Cloning

b.

G
ene therapy

c.

DNA fingerprinting

3.

Summarize the controversy over Genetically Modified Organisms.

4.

Provide the steps for extracting DNA from an organism. (ex: a strawberry)

5.

Provide the steps for splicing

a gene into a plasmid.

a.

Provide an illustration for these steps.

6.

Define the function of restriction enzymes.