Aerospace Technology: Thinking Ahead


18 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Aerospace Technology:
Thinking Ahead
IASSA 2010 is proudly convened by the Aeronautical
Society of South Africa (AeSSA) and the Flight Test Society
of South Africa (FTSSA) and incorporates the Technical
Aerospace and Unmanned Systems Conference (TAUSC) .
IASSA 2011
Once again the Aeronautical Society of South Africa (AeSSA),
the Flight Test Society of South Africa (FTSSA) and the
Technical Aerospace & Unmanned Systems Conference (TAUSC)
welcome you to the International Aerospace Symposium of South
Africa. IASSA 2011 promises to be as successful as its predecessors,
and judging by the quality of abstracts received, and the
speakers selected to present, IASSA is growing in
status and recognition as the preferred event for the
aerospace community to network, share and learn.
Thank you to our speakers, delegates, exhibitors for
your participation, and to our sponsors for their support.
Monday 26 September 2011
08h00 Registration
09h30 Opening Address - Linden Birns, MD Plane Talking and PR Advisor to Airbus and the Interna-
tional Air Transport Association (IATA) Southern Africa
10h00 Keynote Speaker - Paul Potgieter Jnr:
From Dream to Reality - the story of AHRLAC to date
10h45 Tea
11h00 Student Session A
11h00 Bosman van der Merwe
Increasing the pressure ratio of a micro-gasturbine centrifugal compressor
11h20 Jean-Paul Appel
Angle-of-attack estimation and sensing of unmanned aerial vehicles for system identification
11h40 Stephan Roux
Heat transfer and flow field in a rectangular channel equipped with dimpled, short pin-fins
12h00 Lunch
13h30 Parallel Session 1A Parallel Session 1B
Manufacturing & Materials Aerodynamics & Simulation
Structures and Aircraft Sub-systems
13h30 Chris Burger Hamed Roohani
Speech systems for autonomous The aerodynamics of accelerating
unmanned aircraft airfoils at low subsonic Mach numbers
14h00 Shlomo Dinur John Monk
Implementation of ultra high cycles Further developments of the CSIR
fatigue (giga-cycles) in propeller- Modular UAS by undergraduate
induced sonic fatigue analysis engineers
14h30 Mehmet Colakoglu
Energy absorption properties of
laminated composite materials
15h00 Tea
15h15 Panel Discussion - Aeronautical Degree Training in South Africa - setting the scene:
15h15 Laurent Dala
An integrated and multi-disciplinary approach to aeronautical degree training
15h30 Rob Jonkers
Aeronautical Sector skills survey carried out by AeSSA
15h45 Panel Discussion - Aeronautical Degree Training in South Africa
How do universities and industry respond to current challenges and create a strong synergy? New
graduates are the future of the Aeronautical industry. How do academic programmes evolve with
the requirements of the industry? How does industry support academic research? How does the
academic curriculum find the balance between applied and fundamental research? How can industry
and academic better partner through internship, short and long term research programmes, com
mon laboratories etc to overcome the economic, ecological and social challenges facing aeronautics
17h00 Close of Day One
Aeronautical Engineering Solutions for the Civil and Military Aviation Industry
Tuesday 27 September 2011
08h00 Registration
09h00 Keynote Speaker - Chris Burger:
Adapting existing training standards for unmanned aircraft
09h45 Student Session B
09h45 Sean Mowatt
Shock wave/boundary layer interaction on a missile-shaped body due to the bow shock from an
adjacent body
10h05 Etienne Claase
A robust variance-constrained control approach to autonomous airborne refuelling via linear matrix
inequality optimisation
10h25 Yogandra Naidu
Composite wing design for a light aircraft
10h55 Tea
11h20 Parallel Session 2A Parallel Session 2B
Certification, Testing, Flight Operations Aerodynamics & Simulation
11h20 Graham Roughton Simon Pauck

11h50 Danie Viljoen Kevin Jamison
12h20 Benjamin Broughton Kavendra Naidoo
12h50 Michael Boer Igle Gledhill
13h20 Lunch
14h30 Panel Discussion - Automation addiction - setting the scene:
14h30 Desmond Barker
Automation addiction- Is innovative aerospace engineering getting too far ahead of itself?
15h00 Preven Naidoo
South African airline pilots’ perceptions of advanced flight deck automation
15h30 Tea
15h45 Panel Discussion - Automation addiction - setting the scene
In a world of high paced technological innovation, aviation has been on the forefront of integrated, automated,
flight management systems. The next generation of pilots have become highly ambidextrous beings, able to
utilise keypads at high speed; but they also seem to have an unwavering faith in the latest technologies which
are being introduced at a rate beyond which pilot training is able to match. Is it possible that the advanced
technologies instituted to ameliorate human deficiencies could turn out to be a bigger threat to safety than the
human factor?
Is the threat real? Are engineers getting ahead of, and out of synch with, the pilot’s abilities to deal with the
complexities of modern ‘smart’ systems? Is regulator knowledge adequate to guide the formal training require
ments for highly automated aircraft? What role should test pilots be fulfilling during this revolution in tech
nological affairs? Well, unless methods of reconciliation can be found between pilots, engineers and regulators,
this may very well prove to be a major challenge of the future.
17h00 Close of Day Two
The integration of the A-Darter
short range air-air missile on the
Gripen fighter aircraft
Bifurcation analysis of the generic
transport model to aid automatic
recovery of flight from upset conditions
Avionics flight testing in the systems
engineering process
Establishment of a South African flight
test capability for FBW equipped
fighter aircraft
Development of new non-type
certificated aircraft regulations, technical
standards and airworthiness guidelines

Characterisation of the flow regimes
of arbitrary manoeuvre in absolute
and relative frames
Analysing the effects of rigid and flexible
aircraft dynamics on the ejection of a
large store
Experiments in dynamic shock wave
reflection phenomena in a steady
supersonic free stream
Wednesday 28 September 2011
Keynote Speakers
Chris R. Burger
Paul Potgieter Jnr & team
Linden Birns
08h00 Registration
09h00 Student Session C
09h00 Jonathan Nash
The design, construction and calibration of a transonic wind tunnel
09h20 Jeanne Marie Venter
Automatic aerial refuelling of large aircraft: a comparative study
09h40 Sampie Smit
Precision landing of a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle in windy conditions
10h00 Tea
10h30 Session 3 - Control & Automation
10h30 Steven Kriel
Receptacle control for autonomous aerial refuelling of a large receiver aircraft
11h00 Francoise Retat-Masson
Parametric thermal modelling for efficient boundary layers control
11h30 Johann Treurnicht
Development of a larger rapid-deployment quad-rotor UAV demonstrator for a RF payload
12h00 Lunch & Student Awards
Close of IASSA 2011
Chris R. Burger is a Senior Researcher in the CSIR Meraka Institute, specialising in artificial intelligence applications. In
addition to BCom and MEng degrees from the University of Pretoria, Chris holds Airline Transport Pilot Licences and instructor
ratings in South Africa and the USA. He is also a Designated Flight Examiner for the South African Civil Aviation Authority
and a volunteer VIP jet pilot for the South African Air Force. He is actively involved in flight training at all levels. Chris’s PhD
research revolves around unmanned aircraft, especially the technologies required to enable them to be integrated into civil
airspace. His vision extends beyond current remote-controlled aircraft into the truly autonomous aircraft of the future.
Chris’ abstract Adapting existing training standards for unmanned aircraft was selected as the best abstract
submitted to the IASSA 2011 Technical Committee review panel.

AHRLAC is a new generation, multi role, aerial reconnaissance & surveillance platform. Paul Potgieter Jnr - AHRAC Program
Manager, Nico Kotze - AHLRAC -Chief Loads and Stress Engineer and Gus Brown - Chief Aerodynamics and Performance
engineer all bring they specialities into the program. Paul - following in the tracks of Paul Potgieter Snr who took Rooivalk from
concept to first flight - has assembled a team of engineers who are the best in their respective fields and is taking AHRLAC
from concept to first flight and beyond. He is Mechanical Engineer, avid pilot and aviation fanatic. Nico Kotze, also a Mechanical
Engineer and pilot, brings a lot of experience to the team having worked overseas on programs like the Super Lynx design.
He also has vast experience in 5 Axis machining, firmly establishing that into AHRLAC’s facility and the design. Gus Brown
- Aeronautical Engineer and RC pilot brings to the team tremendous experience working on programs like A-DARTER,
Seeker,Umbani and Gripen Tactical Simulation. He is an expert in CFD and Matlab analysis and programming

Linden graduated in 1985 from Rhodes University, Grahamstown, with a degree in Journalism & Media Studies, following
which he set out on what would be an unconventional and circuitous route into the aerospace and aviation industry.
Between 1985 and March 1989, Linden worked in South Africa and Namibia (then South West Africa-Namibia) as a radio
broadcaster, TV news reporter, TV sports anchor, commentator, producer, newspaper journalist and drummer in a popular
Boere Musiek band. During this time he also gained his first exposure to aviation as a national serviceman in the SA Air Force.
After a year abroad, Linden joined Business Day, initially reporting on the Harms Commission into State-sponsored hit squads until
violence exploded across the Witwatersrand’s townships. Linden worked extensively as a news reporter and award-winning
photographer documenting the conflict during that turbulent period. Besides Business Day, Linden’s reports and images
were also published in the Los Angeles Times, Newsweek, Associated Press, The Guardian and The Sunday Times.
Several incidents involving a camera, a mob murder, an ambush, a stoned and wrecked car and the muzzle of an AK-47 pressed against the
back of his head led Linden to reconsider his career path. It was while discussing with his editor an impromptu alphabetical list of subjects
with greater life expectancy prospects that he might rather want to write about, that he stumbled onto “Aviation”.
With knowledge based on schoolboy comics and the limited air force experience, Linden was re-appointed (and promoted)
as the newspaper’s “Aerospace & Defence Correspondent”.
By the end of the decade, Linden had written and co-published a series of five books on aviation and aerospace in South Africa
and co-produced several television features and programmes on the topic. Linden continues to provide expert advice and
comment to several radio channels and TV news stations, on aviation, air transport, aerospace and related issues.

In 1992 Linden established Plane Talking, a Public Affairs and Communications practice, which specialises in the air transport,
aerospace and related industries. In this capacity, he has worked with and advised industry leaders at various organisations
and companies, including the International Air Transport Association (IATA), Airbus, Airbus Military, Eurocopter,
ExecuJet, ACSA, SAA, Airlink, Lufthansa, Star Alliance, Gripen International, Saab Aerospace, BAE Systems and Volvo Aero.
Linden is also a specialist in Crisis Communications with Kenyon International the global disaster management group, where he consults
and trains airlines, charter operators, aircraft manufacturers and police forces, among others, on crisis communications and
reputation management.
In this role, Linden has participated in, led and advised on crisis communications response in several aircraft accidents and even the
2008 collapse of Iceland’s economy. In December 2004, Linden was assigned to Phuket, Thailand where he was part of a specialist
team responding to the Asia Tsunami, where he was responsible for coordinating public service communications for the international
disaster victim identification programme.

Coming to a border near you
a new generation, Multi-Role, Aerial reconnaissance & surveiLlance Platform
Panel Discussion Members
Aeronautical Degree Training
Ms Barbara Barbieri obtained the degree MS (Aeronautics) from Pisa University, Italy. She is currently a Lecturer in the
Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering (University of Pretoria) teaching Thermoflow and Aeronautics. She
supervises final year students doing their designs and projects in the field of aeronautics and organises guest lectures and events
related to aeronautics. Her PhD will address heat transfer and aerodynamic loss analysis involving measurement in non-axisymmetric
endwalls in a linear cascade of highly waded turbine vanes. She will employ her experience with CFD and will use wind
tunnel facilities in the department.
Prof Japie van Wyk was born 10 May 1937, matriculated at Potchefstroom Boys High and graduated from Witwatersrand
University. He is a lecturer at the University of Johannesburg. He was involved in the procurement, installation and commissioning
of the High Speed Wind Tunnel and later the Medium Speed Wind Tunnel as well as experimental aerodynamics and turbo-
machine technology at the CSIR. At the University of Johannesburg his work involves the application of smart materials
and optical fibre sensors to aeronautical applications.
Prof Laurent Dala is Head of Aeronautical Engineering at the University of the Witwatersrand. He is graduated for the French
Grandes Ecoles, ESTP in 1988 and ESTA in 1989. He received a PhD in Aerodynamics from the University of Manchester (UK)
in 1997 and is a Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society (FRAeS), Chartered Engineer, European Chartered Engineer (Eur-Ing),
Member of the Aerodynamics Specialist Group of the Royal Aeronautical Society. For the last 20 years, he has developed an
International experience in aerospace Industry and research working as a Senior Aerodynamicist at ONERA (France); Chief
Aerodynamicist and Deputy Head of Flight Science Division at CargoLifter (Germany); Aerodynamics Specialist at Institut
AéroTechnique (IAT/CNAM); and at the Aircraft Research Association Ltd (UK). This has allowed him to have close association with
notable Eastern European institutes like TsAGI (Russia) and the Warsaw University of Technology. He also served as Chairman of
the Advisory Group for the European Project New Aircraft Concepts Research (NACRE) European Commission
Framework Programme for the past 5 years.
Dr Deon Labuschagne was born and raised in Pretoria. He completed his BScEng degree in mechanical Engineering
at Pretoria University in 1976, followed by MScEng in 1978 and a PhD in 1988. He started his career at the NIDR at
CSIR, working mainly on hydraulic servo control and cannon systems for aircraft. He and his team were responsible
for the development of the mechanical systems for the Rooivalk attack helicopter. He is one of the founder members of
Aerosud, and spends most of his time today refining and understanding of production systems for the aerospace industry.
Mr Rob Jonkers is currently President of the Council of the Aeronautical Society of South Africa. He has been involved
in Aerospace Design & Manufacturing activities for 30 years and notably was involved in the development of the
Rooivalk Attack Helicopter from its birth. He held the post of Production Manager of the Rooivalk as well as
Programme Manager until leaving Denel in 2004 to fill the position of Director of Programmes at Aerosud Aviation.
Automation Addiction

Captain Glen Warden, manager of Commercial Operations at Comair, started his flying career as a school boy back in 1973,
completing his PPL the following year. In the same year, he joined the South African Air Force, ultimately qualifying as a fighter
pilot. During this tour of duty he qualified as an “A” Category instructor and Pilot Attack Instructor, also serving as combat
instructor as an exchange pilot to the Chilean Air Force. His team was rewarded with the Defence Force productivity award
for a total redesign of the SAAF Fighter pilot training philosophy and introduced one of the first integrated Computer Aided
Training Schemes into the SAAF. He has furthered his studies through the Universities of Stellenbosch, Newport (California)
and Dallas. He has worked as a Marketing Manager and Project Manager for SAAB and Bell Helicopter. He has since 1999 been
with Comair South Africa and launched the first Comair Cadet Training Scheme, and has developed and established the Comair
Training Centre (CTC) providing turnkey training solutions on the B737-200, -300, -400, -500 and -800 with the ATR42/72 to
follow by September 2011. He is rated on all types as well as the SA Presidential BBJ where he still serves as a reserve officer.
Mr Brian Wilford was born in South Africa and served a large percentage of his career in the South African Air Force
from 1968 to 1997. During his air force career, he flew DC-3 Dakotas, Cessna 400 and C-160 Transall. He qualified
as an A1 Category instructor on multi-engine aircraft and was seconded to the Department of Civil Aviation as
Director Aviation Safety from 1997 to 1998. He was thereafter assigned the post of General Manager Air Safety Operations
and Air Safety Investigation at the Civil Aviation Authority until 2000. He is currently assigned to the CAA as a Part
Born in Germany, Captain Stefan Poprawa is currently Chief Technical Pilot SAA. He previously held the post of Acting Chief
Executive Officer SAA Technical, Technical pilot on the SAA Maintenance System, Airbus A340 and A319 and holds an instructor
pilot rating on Airbus A340 and Boeing B737. At the engineering level, Capt Poprawa holds a BSc Mech Eng (Aero Option
Cum Laude) from WITS, MSc Mech Eng, and an MBA (Cum Laude) and from the California Institute of Technology, a MSc in
Aeronautic. He received his airline training from the Lufthansa Airline Pilot School and has served with Lufthansa, BA Comair
and South African Airways.
Born in Johannesburg, Captain Laurie Kay is a recently retired SAA captain, having qualified as a pilot in the Royal Air Force,
returned to South Africa to join the SAAF where he served on 5 Squadron and later as a a Reserve Force pilot at 4 Squadron.
As an instructor in the SAAF, he qualified as an Instrument Rating Examiner and in SAA flew HS 748, B727’s B737’s Airbus
A300, B747-200 B747-300, B747SP. B747-400. He was a Training Captain on all the above except B727, Grade 1 Instructor,
Designated Flight Examiner and held the post of Authorised Officer for SACAA Flight Operations Inspector Part 121. He was
a display pilot on Impala, with Winfield Team, Chubb Team, Smirnoff Team and won the SA Aerobatic Championship in 1970’s.
He also displayed the B747 at various airshows and was invited to display the B747 at Royal International Air Tattoo in the
UK. He put together the 3 Ship B747 display at ex Pres T. Mbeki inauguration and flew the World Cup Rugby final flight at
Ellis Park. Helped set up the B747 operation with Air Mauritius and Air Namibia and is currently running the SA Express Cadet
Pilot Training scheme. He has a vast experience of classic as well as ‘glass cockpit’ experience with +- 22, 000 hours total
flying time, including +- 10, 000 instructional hours and +- 7,000 Simulator Instructional hours (i.e. +- 17000 instructional hours).
Telephone: 012 472 2700
Manufacturing, Materials & Structures
Mr Shlomo Dinur
Implementation of Ultra High Cycles Fatigue (Giga-cycles) in Propeller-induced Sonic Fatigue Analysis
The temporal behaviour of the propeller-induced sonic loading could be characterized as consisting of both broadband and
discrete frequency components, but dominated by the discrete frequency components at the blade pass frequency of the
propeller and harmonics thereof. For multi-blades propellers such as A400M (8 blades) this could imply cycles of more than 1E+10
cycles per A/C life. Therefore, it requires using “Ultra high cycles fatigue” (Gicacycle fatigue) considerations. The presentation
illustrates the usage of Gigacycle fatigue SN curves extracted by means of Ultrasonic fatigue apparatus for the design and analysis of
the A400M / WFF, from sonic fatigue viewpoint.
Mehmet Colakoglu
Energy absorption properties of laminated composite materials
The purpose of this study is to determine the energy absorption properties of laminated composite materials.
Two types of tests are selected: testing the energy absorption and testing the effect on energy absorption of impact
closer to the fringes of the plate. The deflection results from the drop test and FEA are compared and the results are very
close. This means that the analysis holds and the energy absorption properties measured in the drop test are accurate.
The results state that between 20 and 35 percent of the impact energy gets absorbed and the rest is reflected.
Aircraft Sub-systems
Chris Burger
Speech systems for autonomous unmanned aircraft
Airspace control is currently based largely on the exchange of speech between aircraft and Air Traffic Service Units,
or between aircraft themselves. ICAO policy is that the existing airspace system will not be modified for unmanned
operations. The availability of speech capability is therefore imperative for autonomous operations in civil airspace.
The paper assesses the feasibility of automated speech in unmanned aircraft given the current state of the art.
Aerodynamics & Simulation
Hamed Roohani
The aerodynamics of accelerating airfoils at low subsonic Mach numbers
The main objective of this study is to compare the unsteady aerodynamics of accelerating airfoils during low subsonic flight
with the steady state scenario at specific Mach numbers. Fluent is used as the CFD software using two-dimensional numerical
models. It was found that during acceleration subsonic lift was lower and subsonic drag was higher than the corresponding
steady state values at the same Mach number, with the opposite effect identified during retardation. The angle of stall was also
affected by acceleration. It was concluded that most unsteady effects were predominantly due to flow history and fluid inertia.
John Monk
Further developments of the CSIR Modular UAS by undergraduate engineers
One of the goals of the CSIR Modular UAS project was to provide a baseline platform in support of typically post-grad
student research projects. Recently this goal has been achieved through the work of final year engineering students
from the University of Pretoria. In particular, a new wing and retractable undercarriage have been designed and the
changes in the stability and control of the airframe predicted. These and other related achievements will be discussed.
Simon Pauck
Bifurcation Analysis of the Generic Transport Model to Aid Automatic Recovery of Flight from Upset Conditions
Stellenbosch University is performing research funded by the NAC and Airbus, aimed at automatic recovery of normal flight,
following an upset to an aircraft. To this end, this paper documents initial results of a continuation and bifurcation analysis
of the Generic Transport Model (GTM), developed by NASA. The longitudinal dynamics of the aircraft were analysed, to characterise
control regions with distinct dynamic and stability properties. These results can be used to guide control designs and
upset recovery strategies. The analysis also provides insight into which simulations to run for validating these designs
as well as insight into aircraft performance boundaries.

Kevin Jamison
Analysing the effects of rigid and flexible aircraft dynamics on the ejection of a large store
A large store is required to be released from the outboard pylon of a small combat aircraft. It is necessary to consider the impact
of the flexible and rigid body dynamics of the aircraft on the release trajectory of the store. A Matlab program, AnalyseEjection,
was developed as an add-on to the ARUV store release analysis code to analyse the ejection dynamics of the store and aircraft
combination. It was found for this particular aircraft that the flexible dynamics did not play a significant role in the release trajectory.
Kavendra Naidoo
Experiments in dynamic shock wave reflection phenomena in a steady supersonic free stream
Ernst Mach performed the first studies on the regular and Mach reflection of shock waves in 1878.
Subsequently, there have been numerous studies on the steady-state transition criteria between regular and Mach reflection
of shock waves generated by a stationary, two-dimensional wedge in a steady supersonic flow. This paper describes the
development and details of a novel experiment to investigate the dynamic phenomena associated with a rapidly pitching
wedge in a steady supersonic free stream. Results from experiments and flow simulations are compared and discussed.
Igle Gledhill
Characterisation of the flow regimes of arbitrary manoeuvre in absolute and relative frames
A set of dimensionless parameters for the characterisation of flow regimes relevant to manoeuvre of missiles undergoing significant
acceleration is derived. A relative frame formulation of the continuity, momentum and energy equations is used. The application
of this system is illustrated with reference to CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) results using an inertial frame formulation.
Policy for South African Aerospace
Chris Burger
Adapting existing training standards for unmanned aircraft
As unmanned aircraft are introduced into civil airspace, a framework for training and licensing dispatch and operating staff will
be required. This paper assesses existing pilot training unit standards and proposes a framework within which staff can be trained
and licensed. The result is a list of useable unit standards, a list of new standards to be developed and a list of standards that
can be used in modified form. A comparison is also made between South African, European and American licensing regimes
to suggest a possible framework for licensing operators and dispatchers of both remote-controlled and autonomous aircraft.
Certification, Testing & Flight Operations
Graham Roughton
The Integration of the A-Darter Short Range Air-Air Missile on the Gripen Fighter Aircraft
The A-Darter missile was cleared for carriage and launch from the wing tip of the Gripen aircraft. The integration of external
stores on aircraft follows a pre-defined process. In some cases, testing can be reduced / eliminated by modelling and simulation or
by performing similarity analysis to other stores. The A-Darter missile has unique physical properties and therefore similarity to
previously cleared missiles on the Gripen wingtip, would not suffice as supporting evidence for the full integration and clearance
process. A series of flight test campaigns were performed to support the clearance of the A-Darter Missile on the Gripen Wingtip.
Danie Viljoen
Avionics flight testing in the systems engineering process
The system development component of a requirements based systems engineering process can be broken
down into the life cycle stages of concept definition, requirements analysis, design, implementation, verification
and validation. The efficiency of the planning, execution and reporting processes of a flight test program can
be improved if they are structured to be aligned with the specific objectives of the particular life cycle stage .
Dr Benjamin Broughton
Establishment of a South African Flight Test Capability for FBW Equipped Fighter Aircraft
This paper outlines work performed at the CSIR, SAAF, and the Gripen Flight Test Centre as part of the acceptance
process of Gripen into the SAAF. The principal aim of the work was to establish a local capability in evaluating the flight dynamics
of highly augmented fighter aircraft. The work included the development of a Gripen Flying Qualities Reference
Specification, new test and analysis techniques, and a Gripen flying qualities baselining flight test programme. This paper
gives an overview of the motivation of the project, the work performed, and the impact it has had on local capabilities.
Michael Boer
Development of new non-type certificated aircraft regulations, technical standards and airworthiness guidelines
The Recreation Aviation Administration of South Africa experienced difficulty in performing its mandated oversight of
non-type certificated aircraft (NTCA) in South Africa. They contracted the University of the Witwatersrand to assist in
the oversight of NTCA. The civil aviation regulations and technical standards for NTCA have been re-written to properly
separate non-type and type certificated aircraft in terms of airworthiness, maintenance and operation. Competency, in assisting
NTCA owners with new aircraft designs, modifications, structural testing and aerodynamic analysis, is being created by linking
postgraduate engineering students and industry experts to promote market growth, increase skill levels and application.
Desmond Barker
Automation Addiction - Is Innovative Aerospace Engineering Getting Too Far Ahead of Itself?
In a world of high paced technological innovation, aviation has been on the forefront of integrated, automated, flight management
systems. The next generation of pilots have become highly ambidextrous beings, able to utilise keypads at high speed; but they also
seem to have an unwavering faith in the latest technologies which are being introduced at a rate beyond which pilot training is able
to match. Is it possible that the advanced technologies instituted to ameliorate human deficiencies could turn out to be a bigger
threat to safety than the human factor?
Preven Naidoo
South African airline pilots’ perceptions of advanced flight deck automation.
The article discusses the construction and results of the Automation Attitude Questionnaire (AAQ), which was used to
assess airline pilots’ perceptions about operating advanced automated aircraft. A total of 262 airline pilots from a large South
African carrier participated in the validation of the psychometric instrument. A five-factor measurement model was established
from exploratory factor analysis. The five factors associated with perceptions of advanced automated systems were
labelled as: Comprehension, Training, Trust, Workload, and Design. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients and the mean inter-item
correlation of each factor were highly satisfactory and confirmed the homogeneity and unidimensionality of a five-factor solution.
Control & Automation
Steven Kriel
Receptacle Control for Autonomous Aerial Refuelling of a Large Receiver Aircraft
A control system was developed to achieve the automated aerial refuelling of an Airbus A330 MRTT. Promising results were
obtained from a non-linear simulation in a Matlab environment. Airbus invited the student to travel to France and implement the
controller on a high fidelity simulation in Toulouse. The linear model and controller is briefly discussed, but the presentation
focuses on the simulation results.
Francoise Retat-Masson
Parametric thermal modeling for efficient Boundary Layers Control
Dynamic Data-Driven Application Systems imply a set of techniques that allow the linkage of simulation tools with measurement
devices for real-time control of systems and processes. DDDAS need accurate and fast simulation tools, hence the off-line
computations. All the sources of variability are introduced as extra-coordinates in order to solve only once the model off-line to
obtain its most general solution. However, such models result defined in highly multidimensional spaces. A technique recently proposed,
called Proper Generalized Decomposition, allows circumventing this redoubtable curse of dimensionality. The focus of this work is to
explore some possibilities in the context of parameter estimation, verification and control in real time. The application of this
research is the development of new boundary control method. This would influence not only the buffet onset and change but also
laminar-turbulent transition and boundary layer separation, allowing an improvement in economic efficiency and safety of airplanes.
This new boundary layer control method will then comply with the ACARE 2020 requirements i.e. reduced emissions, and
low manufacturing and life cycle impact.
Johann Treurnicht
Development of a larger rapid-deployment Quad-rotor UAV demonstrator for a RF payload
The development of an electric quad rotor UAV is described. This vehicle can be rapidly deployed, carry a large payload and can fly
on a course decoupled from the direction of the payload pointing without adding the complexity of a gimballed payload platform.
Aeronautical Engineering Solutions for the Civil and Military Aviation Industry
Bosman Van Der Merwe (Stellenbosch University)
Increasing the Pressure Ratio of a Micro-Gasturbine Centrifugal Compressor
A small scale vaneless centrifugal compressor was designed by utilising a mean-line approach in conjunction with a blade geometry
generation code. This design was further optimised with the use of CFD software. The requirement of the compressor was
to deliver a pressure ratio of 5 at an efficiency of 90% (total-total), 120 krpm and a mass flow rate of 0.325 kg/s. There was
also a size constraint on the compressor.
Jean-Paul Appel (Stellenbosch University)
Angle-of-Attack Estimation and Sensing of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for System Identification
The Angle of Attack (AOA) is an important parameter in aircraft control and automation. A cheap, inexpensive and
computationally efficient method of determining the AoA for small unmanned aircrafts (UAV) is proposed. This method
makes use of a state estimator in conjunction with a 3-hole pressure probe to determine the AoA of a UAV. This provides
the UAV with a smooth and accurate measurement of AoA that can be used in an online System Identification scheme.
Stephan Roux (University of Pretoria)
Heat transfer and flow field in a rectangular channel equipped with dimpled, short pin-fins .
Arrays of short pins-fins are a cornerstone of internal turbine blade cooling and by adding dimples to the pin-fins it is possible to further
increase heat transfer with a very small change in pressure drop. This research determines the effects dimples have on a staggered array of short
pin-fins. This includes an experimental study to determine pressure drop and heat transfer correlations as well as measuring the flow field.
Sean Mowatt (University of the Witwatersrand)
Shock wave/boundary layer interaction on a missile-shaped body due to the bow shock from an adjacent body
This study examines the complete three-dimensional flow around a missile shaped body when a shock wave from an adjacent
body impinges on it. An experimental and numerical study is described which identifies the very complex shock wave boundary
layer interaction (SWBLI) that occurs. The two bodies were placed a fixed distance apart with their axes parallel at zero incidence
in a Mach 3 supersonic stream and the interaction examined using schlieren photography and surface oil flow visualisation.
These results are supported by three-dimensional numerical simulations from which details of the flow topology are extracted.
Etienne Claase (Stellenbosch University)
A robust variance-constrained control approach to autonomous airborne refuelling via linear matrix inequality optimization
An overview of Sensitivity Weighted Linear Quadratic Gaussian control and Polytopic Model control is presented. The two control
techniques are extended to include input and state variance-constraints. This is achieved by formulating the control problems in the
linear matrix inequality framework. An example problem is used to demonstrate the application to autonomous airborne refuelling.
Yogandra Naidu (University of KwaZulu Natal)
Composite Wing Design for a Light Aircraft
An aluminium wing from a popular light aircraft has been re-designed using composite materials. The aim of this project
was to determine the weight savings that could be achieved when composite materials are used to replace aircraft grade
aluminium. A Finite Element Analysis will also be conducted to verify the results and validate the use of a composite wing.
Jonathan Nash (University of the Witwatersrand)
The Design, Construction and Calibration of a Transonic Wind Tunnel
A transonic wind tunnel was designed and constructed based on a normal shock tube. The wind tunnel airflow was
created using the accelerated air formed by the passing of a shockwave. An RAE2822 aerofoil was tested in the
wind tunnel with the experimental results being compared to results obtained numerically as well as data found
Student Presentations
in the literature. The results compared well showing that the test section and wind tunnel itself were correctly
designed as well as that a shock tube could be used to create an accurate wind tunnel, despite the short flow times.
Jeanne-Marie Venter (Stellenbosch University)
Automatic Aerial Refuelling of Large Aircraft: a Comparative Study
The aerial refuelling of large aircraft is very pilot-intensive due to the long refuelling time and the slow
dynamic response of the aircraft. This project investigates several control strategies that can be applied to
the receiver aircraft in order to automate aerial refuelling. The performance of these control strategies are
evaluated and compared for straight and level flight, and a banked turn, under varying turbulence conditions.
Sampie Smit (Stellenbosch University)
Precision landing of a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle in windy conditions
This project aims to improve the autonomous landing of a fixed-wing UAV by designing a robust control
system that is capable of landing the UAV accurately in windy conditions. The project proposes different landing
strategies to be tested in a simulation environment and finally to be implemented and tested practically.