Shared Corridor Railway Maintenance Scheduling - Institute for ...

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INFORMS 2012

Shared Corridor Railway Maintenance Scheduling

Brennan M. Caughron

Graduate Research Assistant

Rail Transportation and Engineering Center (
RailTEC
)

University of Illinois at Urbana
-
Champaign

Outline


FRA shared corridor research needs study


Introduction and
background


Maintenance planning


Strategic planning


Tactical scheduling


Integrated train and maintenance scheduling


SRC research needs

Project Description:


New high speed rail (HSR) developments


in the U.S. need to address technical


challenges of shared rail corridors in the


North America rail environment


The objectives of this project are to
identify


shared rail
corridor technical challenges,


existing
and on
-
going
research,


knowledge gaps
and research needs

INVESTIGATING TECHNICAL CHALLENGES AND RESEARCH
NEEDS RELATED TO SHARED CORRIDORS FOR HIGH
-
SPEED
PASSENGER AND RAILROAD FREIGHT OPERATIONS

Research Sponsor:




BROAD AGENCY ANNOUNCEMENT

BAA
-
2010
-
1

Research and Demonstration Projects Supporting
the Development of High Speed and Intercity
Passenger Rail Service


Impact on the Railroad Industry:


Reducing the operational and program


deployment risks associated with shared


rail corridors


Identification of critical areas to address in


planning new HSR systems


Expediting the process of developing


efficient and safe HSR shared corridors


with better prioritization in planning

Shared
-
Use Corridor Operating Configurations

Shared track:

tracks shared
between passenger and freight or
other service.

Shared right of way (ROW):

dedicated high
-
speed passenger
tracks separated from freight or
other service tracks up to 25’

Shared corridor:

dedicated high
-
speed passenger tracks separated
from freight or other service tracks
by 25
-
200’

High
-
speed rail

service

Freight or conventional
passenger rail service

Adjacent track

centers >25’ ≤ 200’

Adjacent track

centers ≤ 25’

Shared track & shared ROW

Shared corridor

Shared Corridor Categories


Safety technology and operating practices


Rail infrastructure and equipment


Economic and institutional issues


Planning and operations


Infrastructure upgrade prioritization


Rail
capacity
planning


Train scheduling patterns


Passenger train schedule reliability


Maintenance
-
of
-
way scheduling


Railway Periodic Inspection


Inspection activities occur on regular
intervals depending on quality (class) of track


Inspection

events


Visual inspection monthly to 1
-
3 times
per week (speed, track function, traffic)


Rail flaw detection 2 yearly or before
40MGT (with passenger traffic)


Gauge restraint measurement system
annually for classes 8 and 9


Automated track geometry 1
-
2 yearly up
to twice every 120
days


Joint bar flaw detection


Ground penetrating radar


Machine vision systems


Personnel and equipment must usually
occupy track to perform inspection (some
exceptions)


Railway Periodic Maintenance


Track is taken out of service for
maintenance to occur


Operation on adjacent tracks can be
impacted by maintenance activities


Activities occur on intervals based on
cumulative traffic or time

Categories of maintenance work


Rail relay


Curve gauging


Tie replacement


Ballast cleaning


Shoulder ballast cleaner


Undercutting


Surfacing


System high
-
speed


Spot surfacing


Track renewal


Bridge maintenance


Modeling Maintenance Scheduling


Numerous individuals have applied
optimization techniques to problems
related to planning and scheduling
railway maintenance


Model categories


Strategic planning


Tactical scheduling


Maintenance scheduling
within existing schedule


Integrated train and
maintenance scheduling

Strategic Maintenance Planning


Long term planning horizon (year)


Large time increment (week)


Schedule work crews to specific projects on the network


Generally preventative (rail, ties, ballast) vs. reactive
maintenance (fixing slow orders)


Considers various network constraints


Number and type of work crews


Work crew location constraints


Multiple projects on each network segment


Benefits of maintenance blitz strategies


Longer term disruption of rail traffic


Precedence relationship between activities


Weather or seasonal constraints

Strategic Maintenance Planning

A

C

D

B

E

F

Network

1

3

5

6

2

4

7

1

1

1

?

?

?

?

?

Strategic Planning
-

Previous Work


Grimes (1995)


Genetic algorithm


Track surfacing planning


Track quality, degradation rate, various costs


Budai

et al. (2006)


Preventative maintenance scheduling problem (PMSP)


Minimize total track possession cost


Considers one network segment


Gorman et al. (2010
)


Maintenance production gang scheduling


Minimize labor, equipment, repositioning/travel costs


Labor agreements, precedence relationships, early start/late
finish constraints

Strategic Planning
-

Previous Work


Pouryousef

et al. (2010
)


Refined PMSP from
Budai


Simultaneous planning of several segments


Minimize track possession cost, maintenance cost, and
penalty for performing work too early


Peng

et al. (2011
)


Minimize travel costs of production gangs (travel cost more
variable than relative fixed cost of performing work)


Weather, network disruption, activity precedence constraints
included


Methodology integrated into maintenance planning process
of a class 1 railroad


Tactical Maintenance Scheduling


Short term planning horizon (weeks or days)


Small time increment (hours)


Planning for one or several lines vs. network


Scheduling maintenance activities into existing traffic
pattern


Train schedule typically adopted before maintenance
schedule


Not able to reschedule some types of rail traffic


Passenger (+
-

minutes)


Intermodal (+
-

hours)


Manifest (+
-

hours)


Delay costs for different traffic types


Productivity losses for maintenance crews with interrupted
or split work windows


Limited number of crews

Tactical Maintenance Scheduling

Time

Distance

1

2

3

Shared ROW with High Speed Rail

Time

Distance

Existing RR

New HSR

High speed trains

1

2

3

Previous Work

Higgins (1998)


Schedule maintenance activities and crews in an existing
rail traffic pattern


Decision support tool for operation and maintenance
managers


Activities considered


Inspection


Cross ties


Rail (replacement and grinding)


Ballast cleaning


Track surfacing


Case study line (302 km, 45 sidings)


Manually constructed maintenance schedule


7.4% increase in activity finishing time


18% increase in train and maintenance delay





Integrated Train and Maintenance Scheduling


Maintenance activities and train schedules planned
simultaneously


Objective function: minimize total cost of train delay and
maintenance activities


North American operating environment


Unscheduled trains (bulk commodities)


Scheduled trains (passenger, intermodal, manifest)


Long trains


Long shipment distances (2,000+ miles)


European operating environment


Scheduled

trains (freight and passenger)


Meet and pass
planning


Temporal separation of traffic types


Integrated train and maintenance scheduling may have
limited application in the N. American operating
environment




Previous Work

Albrecht et al. (2010)


Problem space search (PSS) meta
-
heuristic


Simultaneous scheduling of maintenance activities and rail
traffic


Minimize total delay to rail traffic and maintenance crews


Considered additional metric


delay experienced by worst
performing train (better consideration of distribution of
delays)


Applied to case study line


Total delay reduced 17% vs. manual schedule


Maximum delay reduced 34%


Shared Corridor Research Needs


Strategic planning


Passenger traffic delay constraints related to network and
seasonal conditions


Tactical scheduling


Delay cost for different train types


Cost of lost maintenance productivity in interrupted or split
windows


Threshold for integrated rail traffic and maintenance
planning


Threshold for temporal separation (maintenance at night,
rail traffic during the day)


Tactical scheduling with stochastic train and maintenance
events (longer planning horizon, more uncertainty)

Questions?

Brennan M. Caughron

bcaughr2@illinois.edu