Setting_ the_ World_ Stage_ 12x

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29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 1 μήνα)

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Setting the

World Stage

2Lt Baldwin

2Lt Carroll

2Lt Devries

2Lt Elliott

2Lt Krug

2Lt
Mealey

2Lt Moore

2Lt Pochron

2Lt Wright

Curriculum Area
Manager

Warfare
Studies/International Security
Studies

What is our context?


Three competing ideologies



Fascism



Communism



Democracy



If democracy remains
as the
predominant ideology
,…


why
do extremism, uncertainty,
and
violence still flourish?

Overview



Transnational Issues



Globalization



North
vs

South



Global War on Terror (GWOT)



Religious and Ethnic Factors



Religious Conflicts



Ethnic Conflicts

What holds
people together?



More than merely national titles



Often based in cultural roots



Ethnicity



Religion

How do each of these factors relate to conflict?


Ethnic Conflicts

Definitions:



Ethnic cleansing: Expulsion of an
“undesirable” population from a given territory
due to
religion, ethnicity,
political, strategic, or


ideological factors



Genocide
: Deliberate and systematic
destruction of a group of people because of
their ethnicity, nationality, religion, or race

Intent

differentiates ethnic cleansing (a desire to create ethnic
homogeneity) from genocide (primary goal is the destruction of a certain
group of people).

Ethnic Cleansing and
Genocide: Not
Just a
Historical Problem

Religious Conflicts



How has religion become the crucible for violence?



Belief
of belonging to a chosen people



Belief in
aggressive/forced
evangelism



Religion as symbolic structure of conflict



Often, religion becomes the vehicle for the expression

of deeply and widely held social aspirations




Religion can become the invoked ideology or
“…social

cleavage along which other struggles become

mapped”



Example
: Sunni
-
Shia

conflict in Iraq

Political or
religious struggle??

Connecting the
Dots


What’s the connection between religion
and conflict?


What’s the connection between ethnicity
and conflict?

Both of these aspects of
culture can unite and divide!

So, what happens
when a culture is
faced

with outside influences
?

Globalization

Definitions:



“[The] integration of markets, nation
-
states, and
technologies…enabling individuals, corporations
and nation
-
states to reach around the world farther,
faster, deeper…than ever before…”



“The compression of the world and the
intensification of consciousness of the world as a
whole…concrete global interdependence...”

Bottom
line: Globalization
is a widening,
deepening,
and
speeding up of interconnectedness in all aspects of
contemporary social life from the cultural to the criminal, the
financial to the spiritual.

Dimensions of Globalization


Economic


Environmental


Cultural


Political





Each can be analyzed separately, but
they
often have
powerful interconnections

But is globalization good or bad?


Many
view all globalization as pro
-
American


Fear the dominance of Western ideas,

culture
, institutions, and
power



“Rogues, Renegades, and Outlaws”


Blame United States for their

problems

easy
way to divert attention

from
actual cause of
problems



Have
-
nots”


Poverty makes them vulnerable to extremism

Globalization

Our adversaries see emerging global trends
as threatening their traditions and way of life


Our adversaries believe they must derail the
new emerging world order or be
run over by it


View
United States
as leader in shaping this


Can’t match our political, economic,
military, and cultural power


Resort to asymmetric approaches


Benefit from “ungoverned spaces” (i.e
.,
Western Pakistan, Indonesia, Africa, etc.)

Globalization

North vs South


The Cold War/East
-
West conflict is gone,
replaced by a “North
-
South Estrangement”


Economic rift between the “Haves” (North)
and the “Have
-
Nots
” (South) widens


Consider:


At least 80% of humanity live on less than
$10/day


Almost half the world

over 3 billion
people

live on less than $2.50/day

North vs South


Consider:


More than 2 billion
children in the world…
Nearly half
live
in poverty, and most lack
adequate shelter, potable water,
and health services



Global poverty trends improving, but sub
-
Saharan Africa poverty levels are
rising

The horrors of extreme poverty lead to hopelessness, which
fuels extremism

and often, extremism breeds terrorism.

“Those who study jihad will understand why Islam
wants to conquer the whole world. All the countries
conquered by Islam, or to be conquered in the future,
will be marked for everlasting salvation. Islam says:

Kill all the unbelievers just as they would kill you all!”









--

Ayatollah
Ruhollah

Khomeini, 1942

Militant extremism isn’t new…

“[The defense of the homeland]…is a means of
establishing the Divine authority within it so that it
becomes the headquarters for the movement of Islam,
which is then to be carried

throughout the earth to the
whole of mankind, as the object of this religion is all
humanity and its sphere of action is the whole earth.”



--

Sayyid

Qutb
, 1955

Global War on Terror

GWOT
-

Who is the enemy?


Various Islamic extremist groups (al Qaeda being the greatest threat
to the United States)
:


No state; no uniform; lives among the population


Believes religion is under attack and calls upon Muslims to
defend Islam


Vast numbers

Even support by 1% of the worldwide Muslim
population would equate to about 13 million “enemies”


While we view the enemy’s beliefs as dangerously misguided….


He is absolutely committed to his cause


His religious ideology successfully attracts recruits


He has a sufficient population base from which to protract the
conflict

How has the enemy become so dangerous?


Al Qaeda exemplifies the current
manifestation of violent extremists


Al
Zawahiri

identified “three foundations”
of Al Qaeda’s political ideology:


Quran
-
based authority to govern


Liberation of the homelands


Liberation of the human being


This ideology is the foundation of


Al Qaeda’s overall plan

Global War on Terror

An unprecedented ability to affect world events with

global ramifications

Information
Technology



Internet



News Media



Satellite TV



Cell Phones

Weapons
Proliferation



IEDs



Suicide Bombers



Missiles



Nuclear



Chemical/Biological

How Have Islamic Extremists Become

So Dangerous?

Perceived
Grievances



War in Iraq/Afghanistan



Belief US is fighting a


war against Islam



Palestine/Israel issue



Detainee Abuse

Populace willing to
listen to and support
their message

+

Ability to transmit
message more
effectively

+

Media attention

given to mass

effects of attacks

=

The equation for danger:

Al Qaeda’s Plan

“We are seeking to incite the Islamic Nation to
rise up to liberate its land and to conduct Jihad
for the sake of God.”

Osama bin Laden


Objective 1: Expel American influence from Iraq and the
Arabian Peninsula


Objective 2: Remove secular governments within the region


Objective 3: Eliminate
Israel
and purge Jewish and Christian
influence


Objective 4: Expand the Muslim empire to historical
significance

“Iraq would serve as the base of a new Islamic caliphate to extend throughout the
Middle East, and which would threaten legitimate governments in Europe,

Africa, and Asia.”
(Former
SecDef

Rumsfeld, 2005)

Implications of failure in this war are high


If
radical Islamist groups
are successful, then…


US global leadership
is
damaged and our
enemy is emboldened


They have
a
resource
-
rich
,
safe
haven


Failure to stop our
enemy now means a
larger
conflict later,
and at an enormous
cost!

Global War on Terror

The Good News

The enemy has vulnerabilities:



Monolithic view of Islam underestimates cultural

and religious differences



Majority of Muslims don’t believe in the Islamic

extremism that groups like Al Qaeda profess



Repressive Taliban
-
like regimes unappealing to

most Muslims



No military capability to expand their fight

beyond terrorist tactics

Understanding these vulnerabilities will put us in a better
position to win the Global War on Terror


Setting the

World Stage




Questions?

Summary



Transnational Issues



Globalization



North
vs

South



Global War on Terror (GWOT)



Religious and Ethnic Factors



Religious Conflicts



Ethnic Conflicts