HEMP Concrete

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29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Hemp concrete

HEMP CONCRETE

Insulation plant

1

Alexandre GACOIN

ERASMUS INTENSIVE PROGRAM 2010

PASSIVE HOUSE CONCEPT

Multi
-
Disciplinary

International Project in Passive Design & Construction

Hemp concrete

Summary


Alexandre GACOIN

2

1 Hemp concrete, why?

1.1 Sustainable Development

1.2 Importance of energy
-
efficient buildings for the environment


2 Hemp concrete

2.1 Hemp

2.2 Lime


3. The characteristics of hemp concrete (
data TRADICAL®)

3.1 Evolution of the mechanical characteristics

3.2 Energy performance


4. Implementation

4.1 Wall insulation: Wood frame

4.2 Dubbing interior insulation: mineral media

4.3 Moisture Coating: Inside/Outside

4.4 Insulation covering

: Soil and floor

4.5 Roof Insulation

Hemp concrete

1. Hemp concrete, why?

1.1 Sustainable Development

Alexandre GACOIN

3

1961

1961

2009

humanity's accumulative ecological debt

Number of Earth

1

0.5

1.5

Throughout

the

nineteenth

century,

the

concept

of

economic

growth

was

based

on

economic

criteria
.

In

1970
,

it

is

estimated

that

man

consumed

each

year

more

natural

resources

than

the

nature

would

regenerate
.

In

the

same

year,

the

concept

of

sustainable

development

appeared

and

became

a

significant

factor
.

In

the

late

twentieth,

the

developed

countries

realized

that

their

wealth

was

based

on

intensive

use

of

natural

resources

and

that

this

mode

would

not

last
.

=

wealth

intensive use of natural resources

Hemp concrete

Alexandre GACOIN

4

The

concept

of

sustainable

development

was

defined

in

1987

by

the

World

Commission

on

Environment

and

Development
:


"development

that

meets

the

needs

of

the

present

without

compromising

the

ability

of

future

generations

to

meet

their

own

needs
.



The
three pillars
of sustainable development

Economy

Society

Environment

Sustainable

development

implies

economic

growth

together

with

the

protection

of

environmental

quality
.



This

form

of

development

is

a

stable

relationship

between

human

activities

and

the

natural

world,

which

does

not

reduce

the

prospects

for

future

generations

to

enjoy

a

life

quality

at

least

as

good

as

our

own
.

Hemp concrete

1.2 Importance of energy
-
efficient buildings


Alexandre GACOIN

5

In

the

context

of

sustainable

development,

the

construction,

representing

for

30
%

to

40
%

of

global

consumption

of

energy,

plays

a

significant

role
.


It

is

urgent

to

reduce

the

impact

of

buildings

on

the

environment

and

to

make

buildings

more

energy
-
efficient
:



Significantly

reduce

the

energy

consumption

of

buildings

and

improve

energy
-
efficiency

Hemp concrete

Alexandre GACOIN

6

In

the

fight

against

global

warming
,

you

must

develop

new

resources

that

have

an

ecological
,

social

and

economic

interest

.


Among

these

new

resources,

materials

derived

from

plants

are

increasingly

used

in

the

buildings

due

to

their

considerable

strengths
.

The

hemp

concrete

combines

the

hemp

qualities

and

lime

qualities
.

Knowledge

of

these

two

products

enables

the

implementation

of

hemp

concrete

and

optimize

its

performance
.

Hemp

Flax

Jute

Ramie

Kenaf

Bamboo

Hemp concrete

2. Hemp concrete


Alexandre GACOIN

7

+

Hemp

Pure limestone

Hemp
shives

Lime

(slaked
-
lime)

Hemp concrete !

Hemp concrete

2.1 Hemp

Alexandre GACOIN

8

Robust
plant
that can quickly
produce large quantities of material

Its culture is very respectful
for
the
environment





little
or no pesticides



no fertilizers



little
water
...

Hemp concrete

Alexandre GACOIN

9

Hemp

cultivation


Reims

In France

Plant

cycle

Harvest

Hemp concrete

2.1.1 Hemp fiber

Alexandre GACOIN

10

In

a

cross

section

of

hemp

stalk,

one

notices

that

the

thick
-
walled

cells

at

the

periphery
:



they

are

fibers
.



They

serve

to

keep

the

right

plant

for

its

growth,

and

are

the

backbone
.


When

the

hemp

is

mature,

the

dried

fibers

represent

approximately

35
%

of

the

weight
.

They are used for making paper pulp and for the
manufacture of
wool insulation
.

Hemp concrete

2.1.2 Hemp
shives

Alexandre GACOIN

11

The
hemp
shives

are
the central part of the hemp
stalk. It’s
the wood of
the hemp stalk.


It represents 45% of the weight of dried hemp
.


The hemp
shives

are in the form of aggregates.


The hemp
shives

particles have a very low density and are very efficient in thermal and sound
insulation.


For building applications, the hemp
shives

are sifted and sorted to obtain the desired size.

They are used for making mortars and light
-
weighted concrete insulation

Hemp concrete

2.2 Lime

2.2.1 Definition

Alexandre GACOIN

12

The lime comes from cooking of the purest limestone up to 900
°

C .







It is a healthy material for natural buildings




Foundation



Mortar



Waterproofing



Masonry


limestone

Hemp concrete

2.2.2 The Limestone Life
-
Cycle


13

Limestone

Calcium
Carbonate

(CaO
3
)

Quicklime

Calcium Oxyde

(CaO)

Slaked lime

Calcium
Hydroxide
Ca(OH)
2

Fresh

mortar

Water (H
2
O) evaporation
when drying

Surface
is

exposed

to
Carbone dioxyde and
uses

(CO
2
)

CARBONATION

Adding

Sand

and

Water

Added

Water (H
2
O)


Extract

Carbon
dioxyde

(C0
2
)

Water (H
2
0)

CALCINATION

(Burn at 900
°
C)

SLAKING

AGED

ADDING

MINERALS

APPILCATION







powder

A
limestone

quarry

extraction

blast furnace

Hemp concrete

3. The characteristics of hemp concrete (
data TRADICAL®)

3.1 Evolution of the mechanical characteristics

3.1.1 Durability


Alexandre GACOIN

14



The new hemp concrete have a very good cohesion and very low density (<500kg/m
3
).



He had good results with
freeze
-
thaw

tests.


0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
NHL2
NHL 3,5
NHL Z5
Tradical
PF70
number of cycles

Hemp

concrete

made

with

pure

hydraulic

binders

(NHL)

does

not

resist

more

than

2

cycles
.


The

hemp

concrete

TRADICAL®

resists

20

cycles
.



(This

result

is

comparable

only

to

pure

limestone!)

0

°
C

t

Hemp concrete

3.1.2 Compressive strength

Alexandre GACOIN

15



The

tests

on

hemp

concrete

made

with

natural

hydraulic

lime

NHL

does

not

exceed

the

compressive

strength,

(
0
.
46

MPa
)
.



The hemp concrete
Tradical
® resists to 1.46
MPa
.

0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
NHL2
NHL 3,5
NHL Z5
Tradical
PF70
MPa 90 days

Hemp concrete

3.2 Energy performance

3.2.1 Hemp concrete and RT 2005


Alexandre GACOIN

16


The thermal transmittance of a wall is rated “U”.


It characterizes the amount of heat passing through a wall, per unit time per unit area and unit
temperature difference between the atmospheres located on both sides of the wall.


The heat transfer coefficient expressed in W / m² K is the inverse of thermal resistance (R) of the
wall.
If its value is low, the construction will be well insulated.




26 cm concrete hemp
Tradical

® provides a heat transfer coefficient U=0.38 W/m
2
.K,
compatible with the existing thermal regulation RT 2005.




heat

Inside

Outside

U=0.38 W/m
2
.K

Hemp Concrete

220 kg/m
3

26 cm

Hemp concrete

Alexandre GACOIN

17



Compared to other common materials with similar thermal resistance, “embodied energy”
requirements for the manufacture of 1m
2

hemp concrete wall are low.


(“Embodied energy” is the sum of all the energy needed to produce, use and recycling materials
for industrial products)


2.36

2.5

2.36

2.5

0
0.3
0.6
0.9
1.2
1.5
1.8
2.1
2.4
2.7
3
Thermal esistance (R)

3.94

11.69

6.36

5.6

0
1.2
2.4
3.6
4.8
6
7.2
8.4
9.6
10.8
12
Embodied energy

Hemp concrete

3.2.2 Hemp concrete and RT 2010


Alexandre GACOIN

18



chaleur

Inside

Outside

U=0.2 W/m
2
.K

Hemp Concrete

110 kg/m
3

220 kg/m
3

26 cm

To be consistent with the thermal regulation in 2010, the building walls must have a heat
transfer coefficient U of the order of 0.2 W/m
2
.K.


By varying the composition of hemp concrete can reach these values without much increase of
the wall thickness.

5 cm

5 cm

Hemp concrete

3
.
2
.
3

Hemp

concrete

=

Negative

Carbon

Alexandre

GACOIN

19

Like

all

plants,

hemp

uses

carbon

dioxide

(CO
2
)

from

the

air

for

growth
.

One

hectare

of

hemp

can

use

15

tons

of

CO
2

before

its

maturity
.

300

round

trips

between

Paris

and

London

by

plane!

The

impact

"Greenhouse

Effect"

of

hemp

concrete

is

-
0
.
35

kg

of

CO
2

while

most

materials

emit

CO
2

0
.
50

kg

or

more

...



Negative

Carbon

Hemp

Walls

are

7

times

Stronger

than

Concrete

-
0.35

1.47

0.49

0.5225

-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
kg CO2

Hemp concrete

4. Implementation

4.1 Wall insulation: Wood frame

Alexandre GACOIN

20

W
a
t
e
r


L
i
m
e

p
u
t
t
y


B
o
o
n




+


+


=200 L
H
e
m
p

c
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

60 à 70 L


44 kg


200 L



Composition

to

be

determined

220

kg/m
3

Density

330

kg/m
3

Thermal

conductivity

λ

=

0
,
085

W/m
.
k

Compressive

strength

at

90

days

0
,
9

MPa

Characteristics

Hemp
shives

Air lime

Hemp concrete

4.2 Dubbing interior insulation: mineral media


Alexandre GACOIN

21





D
u
b
b
i
n
g

i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

d
e 5 à 20 cm

Finish Coatin
g

R
o
u
g
h
-
c
a
s
t
=
+
+60 L
s
a
n
d

W
a
t
e
r


L
i
m
e

p
u
t
t
y


B
o
o
n




+


+


=200 L
H
e
m
p

c
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

80 à 100 L


66 kg


200 L







D
u
b
b
i
n
g

i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

d
e 5 à 20 cm

Finish Coatin
g

R
o
u
g
h
-
c
a
s
t
=
+
+60 L
s
a
n
d

Mortar

to

be

determined


330

kg/m
3

Density


440

kg/m
3

Thermal

conductivity


λ

=

0
,
㄰1


m
.
k





D
u
b
b
i
n
g

i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

d
e 5 à 20 cm

Finish Coatin
g

R
o
u
g
h
-
c
a
s
t
=
+
+60 L
s
a
n
d

Hemp
shives

Air lime

From

5 to 20 cm

Hemp concrete

4.3 Moisture Coating: Inside/Outside


Alexandre GACOIN

22












R
o
u
g
h
-
c
a
s
t

=
+
+
60 L sable

C
o
a
t
i
n
g












R
o
u
g
h
-
c
a
s
t

=
+
+
60 L sable

C
o
a
t
i
n
g












R
o
u
g
h
-
c
a
s
t

=
+
+
60 L sable

C
o
a
t
i
n
g

W
a
t
e
r


L
i
m
e

p
u
t
t
y


B
o
o
n




+


+


=200 L
H
e
m
p

c
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

110 L


165 kg


200 L



Dosage

825

kg/m
3

Density


935

kg/m
3

Thermal

conductivity


λ

=

0
,



m
.
k





D
u
b
b
i
n
g

i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

d
e 5 à 20 cm

Finish Coatin
g

R
o
u
g
h
-
c
a
s
t
=
+
+60 L
s
a
n
d

Hemp
shives

Air lime

sand

Hemp concrete

W
a
t
e
r


L
i
m
e

p
u
t
t
y


B
o
o
n




+


+


=200 L
H
e
m
p

c
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

_80 à 100 L


55 kg


200 L



Air lime

4.4 Insulation covering

: Soil and floor


Alexandre GACOIN

23

Hemp
shives

275

kg/m
3


385

kg/m
3


λ

=

0
,
〹0


m
.
k


1
,
1

MPa


Composition

to

be

determined



Density



Thermal

conductivity



Compressive

strength

at

90

days



Terracotta tile on hemp concrete floor

Wooden floor on hemp concrete

Hemp floors on wooden boards

Hemp concrete

4.5 Roof Insulation

Alexandre GACOIN

24

W
a
t
e
r


L
i
m
e

p
u
t
t
y


B
o
o
n




+


+


=200 L
H
e
m
p

c
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

40 à 50 L


22 kg


200 L



Mortar

to

be

determined


110

kg/m
3

Density


220

kg/m
3

Thermal

conductivity


λ

=

0
,
06

W/
m
.
k

Hemp
shives

Air lime

Hemp concrete

Alexandre GACOIN

25

Thanks for your attention

Alexandre.gacoin@univ
-
reims.fr