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Coffee,

the Gentech
Fingerprint

Prof. Klaus Ammann,

University of Bern,

Switzerland


X

X

X

X

backcrosses

Resistant Crops

Hybrid breeding

Gene Technology

Werner Arber, Nobel Laureate 1978:


Interestingly, naturally occurring molecular evolution,

i.e. the spontaneous generation of genetic variants has

been seen to follow exactly the same three strategies
as those used in genetic engineering14. These three
strategies are:

(a) small local changes in the nucleotide sequences,

(b) internal reshuffling of genomic DNA segments, and

(c) acquisition of usually rather small segments of DNA


from another type of organism by horizontal gene

transfer.

Arber, W. (2002)

Roots, strategies and prospects of functional genomics. Current Science, 83,
7, pp 826
-
828

http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Mutations/Arber
-
Comparison
-
2002.pdf


Arber, W. (2000)

Genetic variation: molecular mechanisms and impact on microbial evolution. Fems
Microbiology Reviews, 24, 1, pp 1
-
7

http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Mutations/Arber
-
Gen
-
Variation
-
FEMS
-
2000.pdf


http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/1978/arber
-
autobio.html

However, there is a principal difference between
the procedures of genetic engineering and those
serving in nature for biological evolution. While
the genetic engineer
pre
-
reflects his alteration
and verifies its results
, nature places its genetic
variations more randomly and largely
independent of an identified goal.

Arber, W. (2002)

Roots, strategies and prospects of functional genomics. Current Science, 83, 7, pp 826
-
828

http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Mutations/Arber
-
Comparison
-
2002.pdf


Arber, W. (2002)

Roots, strategies and prospects of functional genomics. Current Science, 83, 7, pp 826
-
828

http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Mutations/Arber
-
Comparison
-
2002.pdf

Institute of
Radiation Breeding

Ibaraki
-
ken, JAPAN

http://www.irb.affrc.go.jp/

100m
Radius


89 TBq

Co
-
60
Radiation
source in
center

On 8m high
post

Gamma
Radiation
Mutation

Better Spaghetti,

Better Whiskey

1800 new traits

Etienne, H., Anthony, F., Dussert, S., Fernandez, D., Lashermes, P., & Bertrand, B. (2002)

Biotechnological applications for the improvement of coffee (Coffea arabica L.). In Vitro Cellular &
Developmental Biology
-
Plant, 38, 2, pp 129
-
138


http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Coffee/Etienne
-
Biotech
-
Coffee
-
2002.pdf

Etienne, H., Anthony, F., Dussert, S., Fernandez, D., Lashermes, P., & Bertrand, B. (2002)

Biotechnological applications for the improvement of coffee (Coffea arabica L.). In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology
-
Plant
, 38, 2, pp 129
-
138


http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Coffee/Etienne
-
Biotech
-
Coffee
-
2002.pdf

This is the first report of cloning of the
promoter for a gene involved in caffeine
biosynthetic pathway and it opens up the
possibility of studying the molecular
mechanisms that regulate the production of
caffeine.

Satyanarayana, K.V., Kumar, V., Chandrashekar, A., & Ravishankar, G.A.
(2005)

Isolation of promoter for N
-
methyltransferase gene associated with caffeine
biosynthesis in Coffea canephora. Journal of Biotechnology, 119, 1, pp 20
-
25

http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Coffee/Satyanarayana
-
Isolation
-
Promoter
-
2005.pdf


Fig. 5.
Biosynthesis of caffeine from xanthosine and the conversion of xanthosine to
xanthine and its breakdown to CO2 and NH3 via the purine catabolism pathway.
Abbreviations: CS, caffeine synthase; MXS, methylxanthosine synthase; MXN,
methylxanthosine nucleotidase; NSD, inosine

guanosine nucleosidase; SAH, S
-
adenosyl
-
L
-
homocysteine; SAM, S
-
adenosyl
-
L
-
methione; XDH, xanthine
dehydrogenase.

Ashihara, H. & Crozier, A. (2001)

Caffeine: a well known but little mentioned compound in plant science. Trends in Plant
Science, 6, 9, pp 407
-
413

http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Coffee/Ashihara
-
Caffeine
-
2001.pdf

The cloning of caffeine biosynthesis genes opens up the possibility of

using genetic engineering to produce naturally decaffeinated tea and coffee.


PCR amplification of DsRFP gene and visual detection of the
red fluorescent protein demonstrated 33% transformed
embryos.

The protocol presented here produces reliable transgenic
coffee embryos in two months.

Canche
-
Moo, R.L.R., Ku
-
Gonzalez, A., Burgeff, C., Loyola
-
Vargas, V.M., Rodriguez
-
Zapata, L.C., & Castano, E. (2006)

Genetic transformation of Coffea canephora by vacuum infiltration. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 84, 3, pp 373
-
377

http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Coffee/Canche
-
Mo
-
Transform
-
Vacuum
-
Coffee
-
2006.pdf


Hatanaka, T., Choi, Y.E., Kusano, T., & Sano, H. (1999)

Transgenic plants of coffee Coffea canephora from embryogenic callus via Agrobacterium tumefaciens
-
mediated transformation.
Plant Cell Reports, 19, 2, pp 106
-
110


http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Coffee/Hatanaka
-
Transgenic
-
bact
-
tum
-
1999.pdf

Coffee plants transformed with the GUS gene 1

Coffee plants transformed with the GUS gene 1

Hatanaka, T., Choi, Y.E., Kusano, T., & Sano, H. (1999)

Transgenic plants of coffee Coffea canephora from embryogenic callus via Agrobacterium
tumefaciens
-
mediated transformation. Plant Cell Reports, 19, 2, pp 106
-
110


http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Coffee/Hatanaka
-
Transgenic
-
bact
-
tum
-
1999.pdf

Ribas, A.F., Kobayashi, A.K., Pereira, L.F.P., & Vieira, L.G.E. (2006)

Production of herbicide
-
resistant coffee plants (Coffea canephora P.) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens
-
mediated
transformation. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 49, 1, pp 11
-
19

http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Coffee/Ribas
-
herbic
-
resist
-
Coffee
-
2006.pdf


Cattaneo, M.G., Yafuso, C., Schmidt, C., Huang, C.
-
y., Rahman, M., Olson, C.,
Ellers
-
Kirk, C., Orr, B.J., Marsh, S.E., Antilla, L., Dutilleul, P., & Carriere, Y. (2006)

Farm
-
scale evaluation of the impacts of transgenic cotton on biodiversity, pesticide
use, and yield

10.1073/pnas.0508312103. PNAS, 103, 20, pp 7571
-
7576

http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/103/20/7571 AND
http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Cotton/Cattaneo
-
Farmscale
-
Bt
-
cotton
-
2006.pdf

Average number of broad
-
spectrum
insecticide applications in nonTr,

Bt, and BtHr cotton (with95%confidence
intervals). The number of insecticide

applications was significantly higher in
nonTr than in transgenic cotton in

2002 (one
-
tailed contrast,
t

4.13, df 72,
P

0.0001) (
a
) and in 2003

(one
-
tailed contrast,
t
1.99, df72,
P
0.025)
(
b
). The number of insecticide

applications was higher in 2003 than in
2002 (
P
0.058), although differences

in insecticide applications among cotton
types did not vary between years

(
P

0.47).

Figure 3. Anti
-
herbivore effects of transgenic plants.


(A)
Tobacco cutworm (S. litura)

larvae at the third instar were

allowed to feed on six leaf dics, three from caffeine producing,

and three from control plants. Bar indicates 5 mm.


(B) Leaf disc choice test. After feeding for 3 h in the dark, each

disc was collected and photographed. Two transgenic lines

were tested; lines #1 (Test 1) and #2 (Test 2) contained caffeine

at 5 lg and 0.4 lg per g fresh weight, respectively. Disc

samples are from caffeine containing (1 and 3) and control

leaves (2 and 4).


(C) Quantification of feeding behavior.

Twenty replicate tests were performed for one transgenic

plant as described above, and fed leaf areas (vertical axis)

were calculated with the aid of an image analyzer. The horizontal

axis indicates the duplicated test (Test 1 and Test 2)

with discs from caffeine containing (1 and 3) and control

leaves (2 and 4), respectively. Some tests which showed no

feeding were excluded from the evaluation.

Uefuji, H., Tatsumi, Y., Morimoto, M., Kaothien
-
Nakayama, P.,
Ogita, S., & Sano, H. (2005)

Caffeine production in tobacco plants by simultaneous expression of
three coffee N
-
methyltrasferases and its potential as a pest repellant.
Plant Molecular Biology, 59, 2, pp 221
-
227

http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Coffee/Uefuj
-
Coffein
-
Tobacco
-
2005.pdf


F
Transformed plants from
C. canephora

during bioassays. The Cry1Ac protein was detected by

Western blotting in both plants, and they were exposed to the

insects at the same time.
Plant 1
shows leaves susceptible to the

pest,
plant 2
is resistant to the pest

Leroy, T., Henry, A.M., Royer, M., Altosaar, I., Frutos, R., Duris, D., &
Philippe, R. (2000)

Genetically modified coffee plants expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis cry1Ac
gene for resistance to leaf miner. Plant Cell Reports, 19, 4, pp 382
-
389

http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Coffee/Leroy
-
Bt
-
resistance
-
2000.pdf

Comparison of the gene ontology
-
based gene annotation categories for the coffee EST
-
derived unigene set, tomato ESTderived

unigene set and the Arabidopsis proteome. Figure contains only categories in which more than 1% of the coffee unigenes were

assigned. Categories for which coffee differs most significantly from Arabidopsis are shown in underline bold.

Lin, C.W., Mueller, L.A., Mc Carthy, J., Crouzillat, D., Petiard, V., & Tanksley, S.D. (2005)

Coffee and tomato share common gene repertoires as revealed by deep sequencing of seed and cherry transcripts.

Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 112, 1, pp 114
-
130

http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Coffee/Lin
-
Coffee
-
Tomato
-
2005.pdf

Coffea

sp. nov. One of the
newly discovered species of
coffee, found for the first time
in 1996 at Tsingy de
Bemaraha, western
Madagascar.


The bizarre winged fruits are
unlike any other coffee
species.


Aaron Davis, Herbarium,
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew,
Richmond Surrey, TW9 3AB,
UK. E
-
mail:
A.Davis@kew.org


Coffee Biotech Research Group in Campinas, Brazil

Cohen, J.I. (2005)


Poorer nations turn to publicly developed GM crops (vol 23, pg 27, 2005). Nature Biotechnology, 23, 3, pp 366
-
366


http://www.botanischergarten.ch/PublicSector
-
Danforth
-
20050304/Cohen
-
Naturebiotech
-
2005.pdf


The national percentage of cropland planted with conservation tillage technology surpassed the percentage
of plowed ground in 1997. Indiana was one of the top five contributors to the increase in acreage farmed
with the erosion
-
busting technology. Here a farmer plants into corn stalk residue. (Purdue Agricultural
Communications Service Photo by Mike Kerper)

Color photo, electronic transmission, and Web and ftp download available. Photo ID: Evans.Notill

Zunahme der pfluglosen Landwirtschaft in den USA *
Fawcett, R. & Towery, D.

(2002)
,

Electronic Source: Conservation tillage and plant biotechnology: How new technologies can
improve the environment by reducing the need to plow., published by: Purdue University,
accessed: 2003

www.ctic.purdue.edu/CTIC/CTIC.html or http://www.botanischergarten.ch/HerbizideTol/Fawcett
-
BiotechPaper.pdf

Fütterungs-Zeit kürzer bei Gentech-Soya-Anbau *
Fawcett, R. & Towery, D.

(2002)
,

Electronic Source: Conservation tillage and plant biotechnology: How new technologies can
improve the environment by reducing the need to plow., published by: Purdue University,
accessed: 2003

www.ctic.purdue.edu/CTIC/CTIC.html or http://www.botanischergarten.ch/HerbizideTol/Fawcett
-
BiotechPaper.pdf

Old Order Amish Farmer in Lancaster, Penssylv.

Mäder, P., Fliessbach, A., Dubois, D., Gunst, L., Fried, P., & Niggli, U. (2002)

Soil Fertility and Biodiversity in Organic Farming. Science, 296, 5573, pp 1694
-
1697

http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Organic/Maeder
-
Science
-
2002
-
p1694.pdf

European Safety Attitude: let not the Europeans decide about

Biosafety in Africa,
do your own safety assessment

Not this kind of future, PLEASE!