Lecture for Chapter 1

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21 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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MICROBIOLOGY

What is it?

The study of microbes

Some important subdisciplines include:


Bacteriology


Virology


Mycology


Parsitology


Protozoology


Immunology


Biotechnology

Why is the study of microbiology important
?


microbes make up 60% of the biomass on the earth


microbes are responsible for recycling vital elements


microbes clean up pollutants


microbes are the mainstays of biotechnology


microbes are responsible for many human and animal
diseases


many products in normal use are derived from microbes

(can you think of one?
http://www.bacteriamuseum.org/niches/foodsafety/goodfood.shtml

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1630158.stm

http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2002/thornton/antibiotics.htm)


the study of microbes has let to major scientific
discoveries that apply to human processes


bacteria were here first (by about 2 billion years)


bacteria are the first to colonize inhospitable
environments and serve as the foundation for
colonization by other organisms


bacteria form many important symbiotic relationships


bacteria can live where other organisms cannot live




and lots more!!!

Worldwide infections

Cell types of microorganisms:

prokaryotes


are smaller, less complex, contain no
nucleus. These include bacteria

eukaryotes


are larger, more complex, contain
nucleus and complex internal membrane
-
bound
organelles. fungi, algae, small parasitic worms, most
protists

viruses are in a class by themselves. Some say that
they are not even living. They are considered to be
obligate, intracellular parasites.

Diagram of General Cell Types

Changing units

do it any way that makes sense to you

if you are having trouble, consider going by
increments of 1,000. If you are going from
smaller size to larger size, divide. If you are
going from larger to smaller, multiply. For
instance, when 150 nm to μm you are going larger
and it is only one 1,000
-
fold step so divide by
1,000. If you were going from 150 nm to mm you
would divide by 1,000 twice.


Question: If microbiology is study of organisms that
cannot be seen with the naked eye, when did the
science of microbiology begin?

Answer: When the microscope was invented

Replica of Leewenhoek’s Microscope

Question: If this magnified 300X and a bacterium is 4 μm long, how long
would it appear to the naked eye?

The microscope and deductive experiments combined
to disprove spontaneous generation

Redi’s experiment

Jablot’s experiment

Shultze and Schwann

Pasteur

Development of aseptic technique


early on people sensed that there was some connection
between dirt, garbage, etc and disease (cultural science)


Semmelweiss showed tha women in the maternity ward
often became infected by physicians coming directly from
the autopsy room


Lister introduced aseptic technique into the operating
room and operating room deaths dropped significantly

Koch and Pasteur were major players in microbiology


Koch developed Koch’s postulates that are still used
today to link a disease to a causative agent. He proved
that anthrax was caused by
Bacillus anthracis


Pasteur developed the germ theory of disease and
developed a vaccine for rabies.

Classification of organisms (us)


Kingdom
-

Animalia


phylum or division
-

Chordata


Class
-

Mammalia


Order
-

Primates


Family
-

Hominoidea


Genus
-

Homo


Species
-

sapiens

Naming micoorganisms


Binomial (scientific) nomenclature


Gives each microbe 2 names


Genus

-

noun, always capitalized


species

-

adjective, lowercase


Both italicized or underlined


Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)


Bacillus subtilis

(B. subtilis)


Escherichia coli

(E. coli)


Classifying Organisms (the classical scheme)

Classifying Organisms Based on rRNA homology