IT and Engineering Systems

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21 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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IT Systems In Engineering

Syed Tanweer Hussain,

M.S(NZ), M.S(Au), PGD(NZ), B.Sc(Pak
)

Department of Electrical Engineering, CIIT Islamabad

Introduction


Engineering History



Role of Engineer



Engineering Systems


Engineering in 20th Century


IT Systems and Engineering


Future Design Practice


cont..

Introduction


Research Directions


IT based Engineering Systems Tools and
Techniques



Education for Next Century Engineers



Preparing Engineering Students for
International Workplace



Conclusion


Engineering History


Honzo Habilis was the first species of
mankind who use stones as tools. They
designed, developed and manufactured first
engineering product in 250000 BC.

Fig.1 A Flint Axe (courtesy of British museum)

Engineering History cont..


Technical innovation was started after 1600 in which
science played a major part.


Up till mid
-
19th century engineering faces cultural
prejudices in the education system due to the
influence of writers like M. Arnold (1869) and J. H.
Newman (1852)


o

Arnold’ blamed engineers for the worst features of


industrial civilization.


o

Newman advocated an education system which rejected


industrial and commercial values.


Engineering History cont..


Post
-
1700 industrial growth can be divided
into five (5) groups of vital interacting
industries

1. The first period was created by the
engineering components and systems of the
textile, coal and iron industries, and was
marked by an increasing use of water power
and steam power.

Engineering History cont..

2. The next phase was dominated by the steam
railway with its attendant industries and services,
within which came the new ideas and practices
which continued to transform industrial society.

3. The third period is Heavy duty industrial
electrification which was dominated by machines
in its early phase and later by the motor car
industry and by services dependent on scientific
research. These included wireless telegraphy,
chemical manufacture and aviation.

Engineering History cont..

4. The fourth period began with the engineering
innovations of the 1939
-
1945 war: electronics,
aviation and rocketry, nuclear power, computing
and telecommunications.


5. The fifth era is now being intimidated by artificial
intelligence, nanotechnology and, biotechnology
The engineering system is emerging from
studies of the brain and mind.

Engineering History cont..


The evolving process in Engineering System
with higher levels of awareness, language
and analysis is still going on.


Today, the radically changing nature of
engineering is creating problems which
can no longer be ignored and the
Education System and the Professional
Engineers need to meet this challenge.


Engineering


Engineering is much more than the
manufacturing of products by mechanical
methods.


Design is essentially a mental activity.



Intelligence or virtual reality are of great
practical import, and are the material with
which the engineer works.

Engineering Systems


The systems are defined as man
-
made, created and
utilized to provide services in defined environments
for the benefit of users and other stakeholders.



These systems may be configured with one or more


of the following:


Hardware, Software, Processes, Procedures
Facilities and Naturally occurring entities (
e.g. water,
organisms, minerals
).


In practice, they are thought of as products or services.

Engineering Systems cont..


The definition ,architecture and elements of
particular system depend on an observer’s
interests and responsibilities.


One person's system
-
of
-
interest can be
viewed as a system element in another
person system.


Engineering Systems cont..


Whatever the boundaries chosen to define
the system, the concepts and models are
adapt individual instances of life cycles to its
system principles.


A Typical system
-
of
-

interest in an aircraft
and its environment of operation are shown
in Fig.2.


Engineering Systems cont..

Fig 2. Typical system view of an aircraft in its environment of use

Courtesy of ISO / IEC

Engineering Systems cont..


Humans are considered as users and as elements of
a system.


In the first case the human user is a beneficiary of the
operation of the system.


In the second case the human is an operator carrying out
specified system functions.


An individual can be, simultaneously or sequentially, a user
and an element of a system.


That a system can be viewed in isolation as an entity, i.e. a
product, or as an ordered collection of functions capable of
interacting with its surrounding environment, i.e. a set of
services.

Engineering in 20th Century


Since

1600
,

Engineering

has

become

science
.

Engineering

science

is

a

practical

experience

analyzed

and

expressed

through

theory
.



DESIGN in
Engineer Head

Computer Model

Laboratory
Model

DESIGN in
Engineer Head

Math, Physics &
Computer Science
Engineering, other
Technologies

Proto Type
Model

Imaginary
Concept

Laws, Principles
Methods and
Procedures


Testing for
reliability and
efficiency

Actual
Product

Actual
Product

Actual
Product

Fig

3
.

Design

cycle

from

idea

to

product

Engineering in 20th Century cont..


Engineering, Medical Technology,
Microelectronics, Neuroscience,
Nanotechnology and Computer Science
are combining to create Engineering
Systems.


Research into Artificial Intelligence,
Biological Intelligence uses new
concepts, constructs and theories which
serve as tools for solving practical
problems..

Engineering in 20th Century cont..


Therefore Engineering could be
systematically analyzed and
redefined in an increasingly
scientific manner


This will probably make engineering
the exemplary science in the next
century,

Role of Engineer


The engineer of the mid
-
2lst century will be as
different from his 20th century counterpart as the
latter differs from a 19th century ironmaster, a
mechanic in an 18th century coal mine, a 15th
century bell founder



It would be unjust to claim that those who come later
are better engineers than those in earlier times.



All are engineers but they differ in that they work with
technology which changes its nature from age to
age, and this transforms engineers themselves.

Role of Engineer


In

some

ways

their

role

does

not

change

as

in

each

age

the

engineer

serves

his/her

community
.

IT and Engineering Systems


Use of information technology in Engineering
Systems makes engineering system more
mature, flexible and powerful.


Lets have a look on


Past design
environments and


Modern Design
environments


IT and Engineering Systems


Past Design Environments


In the past, control was often achieved by
mechanical means.


Embedded computational platforms were
extremely resource
-
limited.


Systems generally were designed for separate
operation, with a limitation of function and
performance.


The environments into which they were
deployed were believed to be well defined.

IT and Engineering Systems


Past Design Environments


Dependence on human operation
permitted engineering systems to be
simple and often unchanged over the
lifetime of the system.


Over
-
design was used to achieve wide
margins of safety at the expense of
performance.

IT and Engineering Systems


Modern Design


Modern design assumptions are rapidly
changing largely as a consequence of
the integration of IT.


1.
Embedded

systems

will

be

a

key

source

of

leverage

for

innovation

in

engineered

systems
.

These

systems

will

be

deployed

in

contexts

that

also

are

information

intensive

and

subject

to

embedded

control
.

IT and Engineering Systems


Modern Design


As system functionality demands increase,
so does the expectation that systems can
operate largely autonomously and offer
high
-
performance response.


For example, no driver could be asked to
perform the independent wheel control
operations implemented by an ABS
automated braking system.


Such critical tasks are increasingly
delegated to embedded systems.

IT and Engineering Systems


Modern Design


Performance
-
based designs are needed in a wide
range of efficiency and constrained
-
usage problems,
many of which are fundamentally dynamic.


For example


Control of hybrid gas
-
electric automobile engines.


Complex control of air vehicles that must accommodate
constrained landing situations through vertical takeoff and
landing, yet require high
-
performance forward flight.
Sophisticated environmental control must manage energy
resource demands and air quality requirements under
changing operating conditions.


IT and Engineering Systems


Modern Design


Closed system designs are a thing of the
past, and attention must turn to open
systems. IT
-
intensive systems now interact
with equally IT Intensive contexts and may
share computational resources..

Future design practice


in IT based Engineering Systems


Rigorous design approaches are needed
that can be guaranteed to yield timely and
safe adaptation, fault and intrusion
tolerance, fault and intrusion isolation, and
autonomous recovery.


In the past, complex systems were built
using centralized, distributed designs. In
Future systems are “aggregated” rather
than based on a distributed design.


Future design practice


in IT based Engineering Systems


For example,


Medical intensive care units and operating rooms focus on
the “plug and play” situational usage of oxygen,
temperature, and blood glucose sensors, as well as control
elements such as infusion pumps for anesthesia and
insulin, ventilators, and surgical micro
-
robotic devices.


The electric power grid requires the ability to flexibly include
and exclude regions so that cascading failures can be
contained yet supply sustained.


Renewable resources such as solar and wind power are
inherently intermittent, and future control systems to exploit
them will need to adapt dynamically for their variable
capacity and ability to participate in generation.


Future Needs of IT Based Engineering


Greater alignment is needed with the
physical and engineering design disciplines,
in particular control design.


Building scientific and engineering
foundations for IT based engineering
systems.


Research directions


in IT based Engineering Systems



Embedded and Hybrid Systems




These are embedded control systems, where “hybrid” refers to a
rigorous combination of discrete and continuous control.



Hybrid control determines both, the discrete mode switching or state
transition behavior of a software controller, and the evolution of
system state via “closed
-
loop” continuous or cyclic controllers.




A growing base of principles for hybrid control can advise both, the
understanding of modal structure in the underlying system dynamics,
and the design of cooperative control regimes required for high
performance and safe operation.

Research directions


in IT based Engineering Systems


Real
-
time and resource
-
constrained

systems
.


Previously, research focused almost exclusively on
hard real
-
time scheduling. New strategies are seen for
mixed hard and soft, and dynamic real time scheduling
regimes.



Time
-
triggered methods
.


The integration of cyclic and reactive system
requirements is sought, e.g., through mixed time
-
triggered and event
-
triggered system frameworks.


Research directions


in IT based Engineering Systems


Power
-
aware computing
.


Due to limitations imposed by battery life and
onboard energy sources, the area of power
-
aware computing also has become extremely
active. A scientific focus on the integration of
services to simultaneously assure critical
properties has become an urgent priority, timing
and power performance and guarantees,
concurrency control, isolation for
noninterference, fault tolerance, and security.

Research directions


in IT based Engineering Systems


Model
-
based design



This aims to integrate the modeling and
design of the physical system with that of the
embedded computing system.



Current research seeks the automatic
generation of code from models.



Tools and Techniques


User
-
Machine Interface (UMI)


UMI makes explicit the method by which the
users’ interact with the system to perform tasks.


UMI features include software, display
characteristics, and input/output devices.


UMI facilitates or impairs the decision making
process.


The well
-
designed user interface contributes to a
significant improvement in performance.


Tools and Techniques


User
-
Machine Interface (UMI)


UMI Design Depends upon following:
-


What data are required and relevant at each step?


How data should be presented (text, Audio etc.)?


What input devices and methods should be provided for
the user (keyboards, pointing devices, etc.)?


What output and communication capabilities are needed
(display types,, networks, Motors, solenoids etc.)?


To eliminate confusion, data also must be available to the
user in a consistent fashion.



Tools and Techniques


User
-
Machine Interface (UMI)


The interface must be sufficiently flexible to
accommodate variations in user skills.


UMI designer may promote problem solving
processes by incorporating constructive
solutions to some of the classic barriers to
effective problem solving, such as rigid
thinking and predisposition toward certain
approaches which results in a failure to
consider all possible alternatives.

Education for next century Engineers


In the 18th century engineers used watchmaker’s tools to
make microscopes, telescopes and other scientific
instruments.


Today they use scanning tunneling microscopes and
superconducting quantum interference devices in
engineering research carried out with industrial
application in mind.



The developments in the engineering technology led to
widespread changes in the profession and in education,
and the current radical transformation of the nature of
engineering will demand, fundamental changes in
engineering education.

Education for next century Engineers


The

standards

setting

engineering

of

the

next

century

may

result

from

neuroscience,

evolutionary

genetics,

computer

science,

microelectronics,

nanotechnology,

molecular

physics,

microbiology

and

quantum

mechanics
.



Education for next century Engineers


Fig.4. Future Engineering Students Course Module

Engineering
Student

Math

Physic

Chemistry

Computer Science

Neuroscience

Microelectronic

Nanotechnology

Quantum Mechanics

Microbiology

Evolutionary Genetics

Electrical Engineering

Communication

Mechanical Engineering

Management Sciences

Conventional Classrooms


Conventional learning uses books, Labs and
expertise. Networking and Internet brought
new resources as transfer of teaching
materials between computers, hypertext in
programmed presentations, e
-
mail and chat.
as a demand for advanced description of
learning related objects as teaching
programs, student schedules, teaching
materials, etc.

Conventional Classrooms


Some of the main problems in Conventional
education are huge amount of information, quick
change of teaching programs and materials,
shortage of time both at teacher and student
side, shortage of resources, lack of
infrastructure, Political interference,
administrative problems and demand by students
for individually configured and scheduled
programs, etc.


Some of the main advantages are person to
person contact, interaction with expertise on
personal level etc.

Virtual Classrooms


Application of advanced computer technology in
higher education is not only a tool for advanced
distance learning. Application of modeling
makes utilization of advances in virtual
technology possible. Virtual higher education is
considered not only as a possible solution for
problems of advanced distance learning but also
as solution for problems of campus style higher
education.

Virtual Classrooms


Virtual university is considered as a place of
teaching to fulfill special learning demands
as a system for teaching in an unlimited area
using powerful computer networks and one
of the tools for reform in higher education.
Virtual higher education is highly based on
conventional learning. Application and
methodology of multimedia

Virtual Classrooms


The following quotation was taken from the UNESCO
report.


“The progress of the information and communications
technologies should give rise to a general deliberation on
access to knowledge in the world of tomorrow.


The Commission recommends:


-

the diversification and improvement of distance
education through the use of new technologies, greater
use of those technologies in adult education and
especially in the in
-
service training of teachers, the
strengthening of developing countries’ infrastructure and
capabilities in this field and the dissemination of such
technologies throughout society; these are in any case
prerequisites to their use in formal education systems.”

Virtual Workplace


Virtual teams reduce economic, geographical
and Time constraints. However, they also
place new demands on engineers who must
be able to function effectively on such virtual
teams, which in many cases are
internationally dispersed

Virtual Workplace


For engineering educators, the challenge is
to prepare their students to enter this
-

“new
workplace” with the appropriate skills to
succeed.


Future environments will allow diverse,
geographically dispersed science and
engineering teams to share information and
transform this information to knowledge by
combining and analyzing it in new ways.


Virtual Workplace


This

also

points

to

another

aspect

of

the

way

engineers

need

to

work

together

in

the

future

and

develop

a

systems

thinking
.

Systems

thinking

require

that

engineering

projects,

no

.
matter

how

small,

are

treated

as

a

system

and

not

as

a

mere

collection

of

components
.



A

System

Model

of

Virtual

International

Engineering

Education

Team

is

shown

in

Table

1

A System Model

Virtual International Engineering Education Team

Table 1. Virtual International Engineering Education Team : A System Model

Culture Norms and Expectations

*Collectivist vs. individuality

*Uncertainty avoidance

Team Structure

*Sub
-
group by location

*Cross located subgroups

*Dispersed individuals

*Opportunities for face to face

exchange

Stated Team Objectives

*Technical performance

*International Awareness

*Team Skill


Development

Process Inputs

Individual Differences

*Technical Expertise

*Social Interaction

*Motivation

Information Linking

Technology

*Quality of Linking

*Syn. vs Asyn

*Visual Links

Virtual Group Dynamic

Team leadership
behavior

*
consideration

*Initiating structure

*Intellectual Stimulator

Group Process

*Conflict management

*Role clarity

*Communication

*Culture dominance

Affective Moderators

*Team

Member

Affectivity

*Moral

*Trust

*Citizenship

*Commitment

Performance

Outcomes__

*Technical

Knowledge

*Satisfaction

*Team skill

development

*Cross culture

understanding

Preparing Engineering Students for
the International Virtual Workplace


The “new workplace” for engineering is
increasingly at the interface of three
environments:


The Virtual environment,


The Product Realization environment,


The Human environment


The Virtual environment
, in which designs can
be created and explored, with activities that
range from interaction via the Internet to 3
-
D
visualization and immersion in alternative
designs of engineered systems.

Preparing Engineering Students for the
International Virtual Workplace


The Product Realization environment
, in
which physical embodiments of designs can
be produced and evaluated


The Human environment
, in which people
work together.


The demands of the business world are
increasingly being met by the use of virtual
teams to conduct engineering work to design
and implement products and services.


Intelligent Synthesis Environment
(ISE)


For

example

Intelligent

Synthesis

Environment

(ISE)

developed

by

NASA

represents

a

fundamental

cultural

change

in

engineering

design,

mission

synthesis

and

scientific

research
.

It

is

an

extension

of

the

concurrent

engineering

and

SBD

approaches,

based

on

simulating

the

entire

life

cycle

of

the

engineering

system

before

physical

prototyping,

from

concept

development

to

detailed

design,

prototyping,

qualification

testing,

operations,

maintenance

and

disposal
.



Conclusion


The changes in the nature of strategic engineering
require changes in the way engineering is defined,
described, analyzed, interpreted and realized.


The implications for professional organization and for
education and training are great and the time has
come to organize link between different technologies.


Today engineering is filling the enlightening, educative
and culturally creative roles once enjoyed by classical
studies, theology, philosophy and history in former
periods.

Conclusion


IT

integrates several methods for gaining insight into
the nature of things and makes radically new
disclosures of man, nature, technology, industry and
culture.


IT
-
intensive Engineering systems contain many
scientific challenges and great opportunity.


Its importance for the future economic vitality of all
engineering fields that it cannot be overstated.
Therefore, we must now confront the difficulty and
necessity of achieving assured IT based Engineering
Systems for critical applications.

Conclusion


Design, implementation and certification
methods need to be better integrated. IT
based engineering system development
must become a repeatable engineering
discipline, based on firm scientific
foundations, and equipped with efficient and
dependable methods of production.

What Next?

Fig. Microelectronics, Information Technology and Network Theory model the
working of the cerebellum (Bradford/MIT Press, 1988.)


THE END


If interlinking brain through
information networks becomes
possible, this will question existing
concepts of individuality and
personality. If these developments
do take place, they will change the
make
-
up of engineering and other
professions.