Introduction to Microbiology - Biology East Borneo

beefzoologistΒιοτεχνολογία

21 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

461 εμφανίσεις

1.
Pengantar Mikrobiologi

Bahan kuliah bagi mahasiswa S
-
1 FMIPA
UNMUL Samarinda

Tahun 20
10



Oleh


Drs. Sudrajat,S.U.

FMIPA UNMUL SAMARINDA

18/03/2013

1

Pengenalan Mikrobiologi

2

Mikroba dan Kita


10
14

cell

di dalam tumbuh kita


10%

adalah sel asli manusia


90%

adalah mikroba komensalisme

3

Can’t live with ‘em, can’t live without ‘em…


Virus telah membunuh banyak orang
dibandingkan perang


BUT
,
kehidupan kita tanpa mikroba maka kita
tak dapat eksis


Microb
a menyebar di mana
-
mana

4

Kita memerlukan mereka




Ba
k
teri

mengubah suatu bentuk tanaman untuk
dapat digunakan


Mikroba bertanggung jawab melakukan degradasi
:


Mikroba membantu menguraikan material menjadi
lebih sederhana



Berperanan di dalam proses penjernihan kotoran
dan air limbah



Hidup di dalam usus ruminansia, seperti sapi,
kambing dan rusa

5

Kita menggunakan mikroba




aplikasi biologi untuk
menyelesaikan masalah praktis
dan menghasilkan produk
bernilai ekonomis


Yeast

membantu membuat
roti dan bir
(yum!)


Ba
k
teria

membantu
membuat
yogurt, cheese
dan

buttermilk (yum again!)





menggunakan mikroba hidup
untuk mendegradasi polutan
lingkungan


Membantu membersihkan
tumpahan minyak


Membantu perlakuan
terhadap limbah radioakatif


Ba
k
teri

dapat merusak
polutan senyawa kimia
berbahaya


Suatu bakteri dapat hidup
pada
TNT? That’s right!

6

Genetic Engineering




Produce medically important products


Engineer plants


Transfer antibody
-
eliciting genes into plants


Gene therapy


Produce vaccines

We can introduce genes from one organism
into an unrelated organism



7

They can kill us…


1918
-
1919 more Americans killed by influenza
than WWI, WWII, Korean War and Vietnam
War combined!


Where did this flu come from?


Can we overcome?

8

Worldwide Flu Epidemic


1910’s

9

Small Pox


Eradicated worldwide 1980

10

Polio


Worldwide eradication soon?

11

SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): a recently
emerging viral disease

(a)

(b)

12

Emerging Viruses: Hantavirus and Ebola Virus

Hantavirus

Ebola Virus

13

Emerging Viruses: Avian Flu

14

Emerging Diseases!


Diseases


Change in infectious agents allows them access to
new hosts


Changing lifestyles bring new opportunities for
infectious agents

15

Chronic Diseases Caused by Bacteria


Illnesses thought be result from other
causes now shown to be caused by
microbes




thought be caused by diet, stress

responsive to antibiotics




known to be caused by a worm →
worm must be carrying a specific
bacterium which causes disease

1.5 The Impact of Microorganisms on Humans


Microorganisms can be both beneficial and harmful to
humans


Emphasis typically on harmful microorganisms (infectious
disease agents, or pathogens)


But many more microorganisms in nature are beneficial
than are harmful


Microorganisms as Disease Agents


Control of infectious disease during last century (Figure 1.8)


Death Rates and the Leading Causes of
Death in the U.S.

Figure 1.8

1.5 The Impact of Microorganisms on
Humans


Microorganisms and Agriculture


Many aspects of agriculture depend on
microbial activities


Nitrogen
-
fixing bacteria


Cellulose
-
degrading microbes in the
rumen


Regeneration of nutrients in soil and
water


The Impact of Microorganisms on Humans

Figure 1.7

1.5 The Impact of Microorganisms on
Humans



Microorganisms and Food


Negative impacts



Food spoilage by microorganisms requires
specialized preservation of many foods


Positive impacts


Microbial transformations (typically fermentations)
yield


Dairy products (e.g., cheeses, yogurt, buttermilk)


Other food products (e.g., sauerkraut, pickles,
leavened breads, beer)

1.5 The Impact of
M
icroorganisms on
Humans


Microorganisms, Energy, and the Environment


The role of microbes in
biofuels

production


e.g., methane, ethanol, hydrogen


The role of microbes in cleaning up pollutants
(
bioremediation
)



1.5 The Impact of Microorganisms on
Humans


Microorganisms and Their Genetic Resources


Exploitation of microbes for production of
antibiotics, enzymes, and various chemicals


Genetic engineering of microbes to generate
products of value to humans, such as insulin
(
biotechnology
)



1.5 The Impact of Microorganisms on
Humans


Microbiology as a Career


Clinical medicine


Research and development


pharmaceutical, chemical/biochemical,
biotechnology


Microbial monitoring in food and beverage
industries, public health, government


“The role of the infinitely small in nature is
infinitely large”


Louis Pasteur