General Microbiology

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General Microbiology

Nickolas V. Kapp Ph.D

How to get a hold of Nick


Office: 738
-
4415


E
-
mail: Kapp@smccd.net


FAX: 738
-
4499


Office 7224



Office hours:M,W,F 9 to 11.
TTh By Arrangement


The micro class


We will normally have lecture from 9:35 till
10:50.


See Course Outline


Attendance and promptness will count
towards your grade

What if I want to look at my
plates at some other times?


Open Lab hours are


Mon and Wed 9 to 12


Friday 10
-
2


Check the notice on the lab door



Remember you are working with live organisms
and they have their own time schedule. Someone
from your lab group will have to check on your
materials

Looking at plates during other
classes


Mostly no


If you must make some observations during
another lab class


Don’t bother a lecture in progress


Find the instructor and ask


Be prepared for a no


You are meeting a possible instructor for your
next class

Materials required for this class.


Text, Totora, Funke and Case
Microbiology: An Introduction, 10
th

ed.


Case and Johnson
Laboratory Experiments
in Microbiology 9
th

ed.


A lab coat or a large Lab shirt to cover
yourself.


Safety Glasses


NO eating in the laboratory

As you can see

Sometimes there is a blur between
what we do in lab and what we do in
class.

Evaluation


See class outline

Grading Scale


A 90% and above


B 80%90%


C 68%
-
80%


D 50%
-
67%


Fail below 50%


Attendance will be
taken in the first
minutes of class.


Each absence will
result in the loss of
points from the total
possible.

Extra Credit is possible.



Participation Credit


Joining ASM or NCMS (5pt)


Answer question or ask one 1pt


Enter microbe of the month 1pt


Attend a meeting or lecture on
microbiology and hand in a report (10pt)


Field trip (to be announced) (5pt)


Max of 15pt

While some of the lecture
material will change

The Exam dates will not.

Nick Kapp Ph.D.

7384415

Kapp@smccd.net

8224

What is a Microbe


Smaller than 0.1mm


Includes bugs, things, germs, viruses,
protozoan, bacteria, animalcules, small
suckers


Nomenclature


Carolus Linnaeus (1735)


Genus species



By custom once mentioned can be
abbreviated with initial of genus followed
by specific epithet.
E. coli


When two organisms share a common
genus are related.

Why study Microbiology


Microbes are related to all life.


In all environments


Many beneficial aspects


Related to life processes (food web, nutrient
cycling)


Only a minority are pathogenic.


Most of our problems are caused by microbes

EID’s


Emerging infectious diseases


Weapons of mass destruction


New evolutionary features


Response to man encroaching on the
environment



Can you name an example?


Microbes in research


10 trillion human cells
10x this number
microbes


Easy to grow


Biochemistry is
essentially the same


Simple and easy to
study

Biotechnology


Use of biological systems to produce useful
items


The use of biological information to make
things or improve the human condition

Diversity of Microbes


Bacteria
-
single celled prokaryotes


Protozoa
-
eukaryotic, single celled, colonial,
many ways of nutrition


Fungi
-

absorb nutrients, single celled
filamentous


Viruses
-
acellular entities


Others
-

worms, insects


Prokaryotes


Peptidoglycan cell
walls


Binary fission


For energy, use
organic chemicals,
inorganic chemicals,
or photosynthesis

Bacteria

Figure 1.1a


Prokaryotic


Lack peptidoglycan


Live in extreme
environments


Include:


Methanogens


Extreme halophiles


Extreme thermophiles

Archaea:

Halobacteria not
from book

Eukaryotes


Chitin cell walls


Use organic
chemicals for energy


Molds and
mushrooms are
multicellular
consisting of masses
of
mycelia
, which are
composed of
filaments called
hyphae


Yeasts are unicellular

Fungi

Figure 1.1b


Eukaryotes


Absorb or ingest
organic chemicals


May be motile via
pseudopods, cilia, or
flagella


Most free some
parasites

Protozoa

Figure 1.1c


Eukaryotes


Cellulose cell walls


Use photosynthesis for
energy (primary
producers)


Produce molecular
oxygen and organic
compounds


Metabolically diverse

Algae

Figure 1.1d


Acellular


Consist of DNA
or
RNA core


Core is surrounded by
a protein coat


Coat may be enclosed
in a lipid envelope


Viruses are replicated
only when they are in
a living host cell

Viruses

Figure 1.1e


Eukaryote


Multicellular
animals


Parasitic
flatworms and
round worms are
called helminths.


Microscopic
stages in life
cycles.

Multicellular Animal Parasites

Figure fluke

The Scientific Method


Make an observation


Make a hypothesis


Test the hypothesis


Draw your conclusions


repeat

Requirements for Scientific
methods


Single variables


Experimental controls


How can this be used to discover things?



Does HIV cause AIDS??? Discuss

Knowledge of microorganisms:


Allows humans to


Prevent food spoilage


Prevent disease occurrence


Others?



Led to aseptic techniques to prevent
contamination in medicine and in
microbiology laboratories.


Universal precautions set up by
CDC


Use gloves, gowns, masks and goggles


Minimize risk of needle sticks


Disinfections procedure


Preventative treatment after exposure


Reduce risk


Treat all patients the same


HBV greater risk than HIV



The hypothesis that living organisms arise from
nonliving matter is called spontaneous
generation. According to spontaneous
generation, a “vital force’ forms life.


The Alternative hypothesis, that the living
organisms arise from preexisting life, is called
biogenesis.

The Debate Over Spontaneous
Generation


1668: Francisco Redi filled six jars with
decaying meat.

Evidence Pro and Con

Conditions

Results

3 jars covered with fine
net

No maggots

3 open jars

Maggots appeared

From where did the maggots come?

What was the purpose of the sealed jars?

S
pontaneous generation or biogenesis?


1765: Lazzaro Spallanzani boiled nutrient
solutions in flasks.

Evidence Pro and Con

Conditions

Results

Nutrient broth placed in
flask, heated, then sealed

No microbial growth

S
pontaneous generation or biogenesis?


Pasteur’s S
-
shaped flask kept microbes out
but let air in.

The Theory of Biogenesis

Figure 1.3

Where is Microbiology currently
being practiced? I.e. jobs


Put your Choice here

A timeline of Microbiology


Fig 1.4


Some highlights


1665 Hooke


1673 van Leeuwenhoek’s microscopes


1735 Linnaeus Nomenclature


1798 Jenner vaccine


1857 Pasteur Fermentation


1876 Koch germ theory of disease


The Golden Age of
Microbiology


1857
-
1914


Beginning with Pasteur’s work,
discoveries included the relationship
between microbes and disease,
immunity, and antimicrobial drugs


Pasteur showed that microbes are responsible for
fermentation.


Fermentation is the conversation of sugar to
alcohol to make beer and wine.


Microbial growth is also responsible for spoilage
of food.


Bacteria that use alcohol and produce acetic acid
spoil wine by turning it to vinegar (acetic acid).

Fermentation and Pasteurization


Pasteur demonstrated that
these spoilage bacteria
could be killed by heat that
was not hot enough to
evaporate the alcohol in
wine. This application of a
high heat for a short time is
called
pasteurization.

Fermentation and Pasteurization

Figure 1.4


1835: Agostino Bassi showed a silkworm disease
was caused by a fungus.


1865: Pasteur believed that another silkworm
disease was caused by a protozoan.


1840s: Ignaz Semmelwise advocated hand
washing to prevent transmission of puerperal
fever from one OB patient to another.

The Germ Theory of Disease


1860s: Joseph Lister used a chemical disinfectant
to prevent surgical wound infections after
looking at Pasteur’s work showing microbes are
in the air, can spoil food, and cause animal
diseases.


1876: Robert Koch provided proof that a
bacterium causes anthrax and provided the
experimental steps, Koch’s postulates, used to
prove that a specific microbe causes a specific
disease.

The Germ Theory of Disease


Treatment with chemicals is chemotherapy.


Chemotherapeutic agents used to treat infectious
disease can be synthetic drugs or antibiotics.


Antibiotics are chemicals produced by bacteria
and fungi that inhibit or kill other microbes.


Quinine from tree bark was long used to treat
malaria.


1910: Paul Ehrlich developed a synthetic arsenic
drug, salvarsan, to treat syphilis.


1930s: Sulfonamides were synthesized.

The Birth of Modern
Chemotherapy


1928: Alexander
Fleming discovered
the first antibiotic.


He observed that
Penicillium

fungus
made an antibiotic,
penicillin, that killed
S.
aureus
.


1940s: Penicillin was
tested clinically and
mass produced.

The Birth of Modern
Chemotherapy


Similar to
Figure 1.5

Bacteriology is the study of bacteria.


Mycology is the study of fungi.


Parasitology is the study of protozoa and
parasitic worms.


Recent advances in genomics, the study of an
organism’s genes, have provided new tools for
classifying microorganisms.


Proteomics is looking at the gene products

Modern Developments in
Microbiology

* The first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Selected Novel Prizes in
Physiology or Medicine

1901*

von Behring Diphtheria antitoxin

1902

Ross Malaria transmission

1905

Koch

TB bacterium

1908

Metchnikoff

Phagocytes

1945

Fleming, Chain, Florey

Penicillin

1952

Waksman

Streptomycin

1969

Delbrück, Hershey, Luria

Viral replication

1987

Tonegawa

Antibody genetics

1997
Prusiner

Prions

2003
Agre, Mackirron water and ion channels

2005 Marshall, Warren Helicobacter and ulcers

2008 Hausen Papilloma and viruses

Principles of Microscopy


Metric units (table 3.1)


Micrometer


Nanometer


angstrom

Compound light microscopy


Basic parts


Eyepieces (ocular lens)


Base


Condenser


Iris diaphragm


Objective lens


Body tube


Mechanical stage


Adjustment knobs

Magnification


Calculation:


Objective power x ocular power = total power


Parafocial


Paracentric


Microscopic measurement


Micrometer? Why must we calibrate it?

Modern Developments in
Microbiology


Diagnostics


Prevention


Use as a tool


Surveys and vigilance

What you should know?


What are microbes?


What types of microbes?


Some history Highlights


The Magic Bullet


Microbes and human Welfare


Microbes and Human Disease


The CDC