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21 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Open Access Publishing:

The

Bio
Med

Central

Model



Change is occurring:


From print to electronic


From limited access to unlimited
access


From paid access to free access


From output
-
paid to input
-
paid


From slow to fast publication


From expensive to less expensive

Traditional role of the publisher
is under scrutiny

Subscriptions and licences limit access

To be useful, research must be used

To be used (read, cited, applied, extended) it must be accessible

Prices do not reflect quality or costs

Subscription prices have increased by as much as 146% in 10 years


e.g.

Brain Research

1991: £3,713

2001: £9,148

Authors lose rights

e.g. to put their paper on a publicly accessible server

Often inefficient and slow

What is being done?


PR Initiatives


Public Library of Science


Budapest Open Access Initiative


Facilitators


SPARC


Open Archives Initiative


Publishers


BioMed Central

“What are publishers doing for us?”

‘I think scientists all over would be
shocked to realise what a phenomenally
lucrative business scientific publishing
can be.’


Nicholas Cozzarelli
-


editor in chief of the PNAS


Public Library of Science

Researcher
-
led initiative, open letter had
30,000+ signatories

Advocated a boycott by researchers of
journals that do not make available their
articles in open access within 6 months of
publication

Not to submit

Not to review

Not to serve as editor or on an editorial board

But, this has not proved successful

many
signatories haven’t stuck to their promise

Budapest Open Access
Initiative

Soros Foundation
-
led initiative

Activists and innovators brought together
last December by the Soros Open Society
Institute in Budapest

Signatories are institutions and
individuals

Agreed outcome

To stimulate ‘self
-
archiving’

To stimulate ‘open access’ journals


SPARC

Library
-
led initiative in US and Europe

Partners with BioMed Central

Institutions become SPARC members

Advocate open access, and also low
-
cost alternatives to conventional
journals

Urging authors and librarians to declare
independence



Open Archives Initiative

Library
-
technology
-
led initiative

Develops interoperability
standards (metadata harvesting)

Enhances access to e
-
print
archives

Facilitates self
-
archiving


BioMed Central

Commercial initiative, independent
company

Open access for research papers

80+ open access online journals

Authors pay at input

Supplemental income from advertising
and acting as sales agent for review
journals published by sister companies

Beneficiaries of open access

Scientists

Much higher visibility: thousands of
downloads/uses per paper vs. a few hundred in
the conventional journals

Speed: publication immediately upon acceptance
after peer
-
review

Libraries

Open access = free resource, freeing up budget

Enabling libraries to play active part in changing
the model


How does open access
work?

Taking BioMed Central as an
example:

Article submitted for publication

Peer
-
review

If accepted, charge of $500 or waiver granted

Immediately published in manuscript
-
pdf form

Fully
-
coded HTML and hi
-
res pdf one week later

No restrictions on access whatsoever


Bio
Med

Central


Independent online publishing house

launched in May 2000

Part of the Current Science Group of
independent companies

Publishing peer
-
reviewed research across all
areas of biology and medicine

Immediate, barrier
-
free open access for all


Bio
Med

Central


Advantages

Immediate and continuous publication online

None of the spatial constraints of print

True
free

access for all

Not even compulsory registration, except when using
search function

Fast, efficient peer review

Very high visibility

200 downloads per article per month

Authors have access to download figures

Authors keep copyright and control


Bio
Med

Central


More Advantages

Permanence

Archived on PubMed Central

Searchable and retrievable

Indexed in PubMed immediately upon publication

Published in one journal, but cross
-
listed in other
relevant ones

Deposited in CrossRef, included in BIOSIS,
ISI, CAS, Open Citation Project, and others

Extensive PR for outstanding articles

Opportunities to link to and from email
updates




Peer

Review

Online


rapid

2 reviewers plus statistician, if necessary

Reviewers chosen from large network of
experts in their field

Decision on whether to publish based on
validity
(even negative results are published)

Editorial directorate


Dr Harold E Varmus

President of the Memorial Sloan
-
Kettering Cancer Center (USA)



Professor Elizabeth H Blackburn

Professor, Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco (USA)


Dr Steven E Hyman

Director of the National Institute of Mental Health (USA)


Professor Marc W Kirschner

Head of the Department of Cell Biology at Harvard Medical School. (USA)


Professor Philippe Kourilsky


Director General, Pasteur Institute (France)


Professor Joseph Boyd Martin

Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at Harvard Medical School (USA)


Dr David G Nathan

Faculty Dean for Academic Programs at the Dana
-
Farber Cancer Institute (USA)


Dr Paul Nurse

Director
-
General of Cancer Research UK


Sir David Weatherall

Honorary Director of the ICRF Laboratories at the Institute of Molecular Medicine, University
of Oxford (UK)


Professor Mitsuhiro Yanagida

Kyoto University and President of the Molecular Biology Society of Japan



BMC Open Access Journals



Biology

Biochemistry

Bioinformatics

Biotechnology

Cell biology

Chemical Biology

Developmental Biology

Ecology

Evolutionary Biology

Genetics

Genomics

Immunology

Microbiology

Molecular Biology

Neuroscience

Pharmacology

Plant biology

Structural Biology


Plus Journal of Biology

www.jbiol.com



Medicine

Anesthesiology

Blood Disorders

Cancer

Cardiovascular Disorders

Clinical Pathology

Clinical Pharmacology

Complementary and
Alternative Medicine

Dermatology

Ear, Nose and Throat
Disorders

Emergency Medicine

Endocrine Disorders

Family practice

Gastroenterology

Geriatrics

Health Service Research

Infectious diseases

International Health and
Human Rights

Medical Education

Medical Ethics

Medical Genetics

Medical Imaging

Medical Informatics and
Decision Making

Medical Research
Methodology

Musculoskeletal Disorders

Nephrology

Neurology

Nuclear Medicine

Nursing

Ophthalmology

Oncology

Ophthalmology

Oral Health

Palliative Care

Pediatrics

Pregnancy and Childbirth

Psychiatry

Public health

Pulmonary Medicine

Surgery

Urology


Journal of Biology (J.Biol)


An international journal publishing biological research
articles of
exceptional interest and importance

Editor
-
in
-
Chief: Martin Raff, University College London

Striving to achieve the fairest system of peer review

Rapid publication schedule

A variety of commissioned commentaries to accompany
every research article

All research articles available immediately on
publication,
free of charge
, over the web, with
copyright retained by the author







New
Journals

Start your own

Empowering scientists to launch new journals
in specialist areas (small niches)

All they have to do is:

Provide a scope statement

Assemble an editorial board

Select a journal title

Provide lists of potential authors

BioMed Central provides:

the publishing platform

the web site and technical expertise

Promotional campaigns to ensure that papers are submitted

for publication

BioMed Central New Journals

Some examples of new, autonomous, journals using
BioMed Central’s infrastructure and technology:

Bio
Med

Central


Revenues

Article Processing Charges (APCs) of
$500 per published paper

Automatic waivers for authors from developing
countries


and to others on a case
-
by
-
case basis

Institutional membership

Includes automatic APC
-
waivers for authors
from member institutions

Advertising

Sales of subscription products (Faculty
of 1000, images.MD, etc)



Institutional

Membership

Annual fee

proportional to number of biology and
medical researchers at each institution


Automatic waivers

of article processing charges


Customized
member’s pages

on BioMed Central site
on which papers by researchers at the institution
published in BMC journals are listed


15% discount

on paid
-
for products such as Faculty of
1000 and images.MD



Bio
Med

Central’s

members include:

L’Institut Pasteur

Imperial College, London

Cancer Research UK

Harvard University

The NIH of the US


Princeton University

University of California
(all campuses)

Lund University

University of Helsinki


World Health
Organization

John Innes Centre

CNRS

University of Amsterdam

University of Toronto

Utrecht University

Rockefeller University

University of York

Kyoto University


Bio
Med

Central


Open Access: The New Scenario

Authors take charge: author choice

Publishing becomes a
service

to researchers and their
communities


not
selling

of content

No need for copyright transfer

from author to publisher

Massively increased exposure for research work

Introduces competition


breaks monopolies journals
(publishers) have


enhances market efficiency

Librarians are empowered and can take active part in
changing the model



So what is holding academia
back?

Given the clear benefits to scientists and
libraries, why is the emergence of open access
journals so slow?


Because what is required is a ‘cultural
revolution’


Open access can only succeed if enough
researchers choose to publish in open access
journals

The ‘Prestige’ question

Scientists want to publish in prestigious, high
IF journals, most of which are published in the
conventional model

Most open
-
access journals are new and it
takes time for new journals to gather prestige,
even if their quality is impeccable from the
start.

The solution:

Create more open
-
access journals, staff them with
first
-
rate editors, and give them time.


What can librarians do?

Publicise widely the availability of open access journals to
potential authors

Arrange for the article processing bill to be picked up for the
author

(e.g. by becoming a member in the case of BioMed
Central)

Put up posters and distribute flyers from open access
initiatives

Hold seminars to educate authors about these resources and
their benefits

Include open access journals in library catalogues


‘It is the scientists who are going to
have to figure out how they want
their work to be available’

Mary Case



Association of Research Libraries

Bio
Med

Central



Thank You