Chapter 1: Size and complexity

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21 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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BIOLOGY IN CONTEXT

Biology

is a science for the study
of
living things

or
organisms
.


It also includes the study of MAN.

What is biology ?

There

are

numerous

branches

of

biology
:


Anatomy,

Study of the bodily structure of an animal or plant.

There

are

numerous

branches

of

biology
:


Anatomy,

Bacteriology,

The study of bacteria.

There

are

numerous

branches

of

biology
:


Anatomy,

Bacteriology,

Biochemistry,

Study of the chemistry of living organisms.

There

are

numerous

branches

of

biology
:


Anatomy,

Bacteriology,

Biochemistry,

*
Botany,

The study of plants.

Cytology,


The study of cells.

*
Ecology,

The study of the inter
-
relationship between
living organisms and their environment.

There

are

numerous

branches

of

biology
:


Anatomy,

Bacteriology,

Biochemistry,

*
Botany,

Cytology,


*
Ecology,


Embryology,

The study of embryos.

Entomology,

The study of insects.

*
Genetics,


The study of how characteristics are passed
from generation to generation.

Histology,

The study of tissues.

Immunology,

The study of body defence systems.

There

are

numerous

branches

of

biology
:


Anatomy,

Bacteriology,

Biochemistry,

*
Botany,

Cytology,


*
Ecology,


Embryology,

Entomology,

*
Genetics,


Histology,

Immunology,

Microbiology,

The study of microorganisms.

There

are

numerous

branches

of

biology
:


Anatomy,

Bacteriology,

Biochemistry,

*
Botany,

Cytology,


*
Ecology,


Embryology,

Entomology,

*
Genetics,


Histology,

Immunology,

Microbiology,

Morphology,

The study of the external features of
living organisms.

There

are

numerous

branches

of

biology
:


Anatomy,

Bacteriology,

Biochemistry,

*
Botany,

Cytology,


*
Ecology,


Embryology,

Entomology,

*
Genetics,


Histology,

Immunology,

Microbiology,

Morphology,

Pathology,

The study of pathogens (disease
-
causing agents).

There

are

numerous

branches

of

biology
:


Anatomy,

Bacteriology,

Biochemistry,

*
Botany,

Cytology,


*
Ecology,


Embryology,

Entomology,

*
Genetics,


Histology,

Immunology,

Microbiology,

Morphology,

Pathology,


*
Physiology,

The study of the normal functions of
organisms.

There

are

numerous

branches

of

biology
:


Anatomy,

Bacteriology,

Biochemistry,

*
Botany,

Cytology,


*
Ecology,


Embryology,

Entomology,

*
Genetics,


Histology,

Immunology,

Microbiology,

Morphology,

Pathology,


*
Physiology,

Taxonomy,

The study of classification.

There

are

numerous

branches

of

biology
:


Anatomy,

Bacteriology,

Biochemistry,

*
Botany,

Cytology,


*
Ecology,


Embryology,

Entomology,

*
Genetics,


Histology,

Immunology,

Microbiology,

Morphology,

Pathology,


*
Physiology,

Taxonomy,

*
Zoology,


The study of animals.

There

are

numerous

branches

of

biology
:


Anatomy,

Bacteriology,

Biochemistry,

*
Botany,

Cytology,


*
Ecology,


Embryology,

Entomology,

*
Genetics,


Histology,

Immunology,

Microbiology,

Morphology,

Pathology,


*
Physiology,

Taxonomy,

*
Zoology,


Molecular Biology,

The study of chemical molecules
in cells, e.g. DNA

There

are

numerous

branches

of

biology
:


Anatomy,

Bacteriology,

Biochemistry,

*
Botany,

Cytology,


*
Ecology,


Embryology,

Entomology,

*
Genetics,


Histology,

Immunology,

Microbiology,

Morphology,

Pathology,


*
Physiology,

Taxonomy,

*
Zoology,


Molecular Biology,

Palaeontology.

The study of fossils.


New branches of biology
:


Biotechnology


is the application of scientific and engineering
principles to the production of materials by
biological agents.

Genetic engineering


is the technology which allow genes to be
manipulated, altered and transferred from organism
to organism.

THE DEFINITION
OF LIFE

-

It distinguishes
living things

from
non
-
living things

THE DEFINITION OF LIFE

-

It distinguishes
living things

from
non
-
living things

1
.

Feeding

or

Nutrition

-

take in food

to provide energy for living & growth

-

Plants
: use
chlorophyll

to make food by

photosynthesis


(
autotrophic nutrition
)


Animals
: obtain food from other organisms

(
heterotrophic nutrition
)

2
.

Respiration

It is
necessary for living.
It occurs in every
living plant and animal
cells.

Energy

is
released from food by oxidation:


glucose + oxygen



carbon dioxide + water


to take in oxygen & give out carbon dioxide,


e
.
g
.

humans

use

lungs
;

fish

use

gills

+
energy

Breathing
:

Plants

do

not

have

excretory

organs
.

Wastes

are

turned

into

harmless

substances

&

stored

within

the

body
;

OR

by

leaf

fall
.

3.
Excretion

Metabolism are

chemical processes taking place inside cells.

Some by
-
products of metabolism are useless &
harmful

if accumulate.

Excretion

is the removal of such waste substances,
e.g.
carbon dioxide

is removed by lungs;

urea

is removed by kidneys


Growth

needs

food

to

provide

energy
.

4.
Growth

Every organism gets bigger & more complex
as it gets older.

Cells grow from within by forming new
living matter called
cytoplasm
.

5.
Reproduction

Living organisms eventually die.

The ability to
continue the living of their own
species

is called
reproduction
.

Sexual reproduction:

Male gamete (
sperm
) + female gamete (
ovum
)

X (zygote)

Y (embryo)

1

cell/organism



2

捥汬l⽯牧慮楳浳

䅳數畡氠l数e潤畣瑩u渺

6.
Irritability (or Sensitivity)

is the ability to detect
changes

in both the
internal & external environment, e.g.

skin becomes red when hot to increase heat loss,

plants can also detect external changes (
stimuli
)
but react more slowly.

7.
Movement

Animals move from place to place to search
for
food
, escape their enemies.

Plants
move

or grow
towards light

for
photosynthesis.

They anchor more deeply into soil by
roots

-

growth movements

Levels of Organization

Atoms



molecules



Cells



Colonies



Tissues



Organs




Systems



Organisms



Population

In school cert level:
cells, tissues, organs, systems, organism
.

1
.
1

ATOMIC

ORGANIZATION

Atoms

are

the

smallest

unit

of

a

chemical

element

exist

independently
.

Atoms

do

not

have

any

overall

charge
.

An

atom

consists

of
:

protons,


electrons

and



neutrons


1
.
1
.
1

Ions

If

an

atom

loses

or

gains

electrons

it

becomes

an

ion
.


Oxidation
:

an

atom

loses

an

electron
;


Reduction
:

an

atom

gains

an

electron
.

1
.
1
.
2

Isotopes


Isotopes

are

elements

have

the

same

chemical

properties

as

the

normal

element

but

have

a

different

mass
.

1
.
1
.
2

Isotopes


Isotopes

are

elements

have

the

same

chemical

properties

as

the

normal

element

but

have

a

different

mass
.

Isotopes

can

be

traced

by

various

means,

even

when

incorporated

in

living

matter
.


This

makes

them

exceedingly

useful

in

tracing

the

route

of

certain

elements

in

a

variety

of

biological

processes
.


1
.
2

MOLECULAR

ORGANIZATION

A

H
2

molecule

is

more

stable

than

a

single

H

atom

by

sharing

electrons

and

forming

covalent

bonding
.


Single

bond
:

two

atoms

sharing

a

single

electron,


e
.
g

H
2

(H
-
H)


Double

bond
:

two

atoms

sharing

two

electrons,

e
.
g
.

CO
2

(O=C=O)


1
.
2
.
1

Ionic

bonding

Oppositely

charged

atoms

attract

one

another

forming

ionic

bonds,

e
.
g
.

NaCl


1
.
2
.
2

Hydrogen

bonds

A

weak

electrostatic

(

+



-

)

bond

is

formed

between

two

similar

polarized

molecules,

e
.
g
.

water

molecules
.


1
.
3

CELLULAR

ORGANIZATION

Cell
:

Hooke

(
1665
)

used

a

compound

microscope

to

discover

'cells’
.


Cell

Theory

(Schleiden

&

Schwann,

1838
)
:


cells

are

the

fundamental

unit

of

structure

and

function

in

living

organisms
.


Cytology
:

the

study

of

cell

ultrastructure

by

the

electron

microscope
.


Colonial organization

1
.
4

COLONIAL

ORGANIZATION

Colonies

occurred

when

individual

unicells

failed

to

separated

after

cell

division
.


Advantage
:

larger

size

deters

predators

thus

increases

survival
.


Differentiation
:

individual

cells

within

a

colony

become

different

from

one

another

in

both

structure

and

function
.

Specialization
:

further

differentiation

result

in

cells

performing

a

single

function,


thus

cells

are

more

dependent

on

one

another
.


Cells

within

the

colony

must

be

highly

organized

and

integrated
.


When

cells

are

no

longer

capable

of

surviving

independently,

they

form

a

multicellular

organism
.

Tissue organization

1
.
5

TISSUE

ORGANIZATION

Similar

cells

performing

the

same

function

are

grouped

together

into

a

tissue
.


Histology
:

the

study

of

tissues


1
.
6

ORGAN

LEVEL

OF

ORGANIZATION

An

organ

(e
.
g
.

stomach)

is

a

structural

&

functional

unit

of

a

living

organism
.


It

comprises

of

tissues

which

are

co
-
ordinated

to

perform

a

variety

of

functions
.


Organs

grouped

together

to

form

organ

systems
,

e
.
g
.

digestive

system
.

The leaf: an organ for
photosynthesis

Heart: an organ for
pumping blood

System level of organization

Social level of organization

1
.
7

SOCIAL

LEVEL

OF

ORGANIZATION

A

population

is

a

number

of

individuals

of

the

same

species

which

occupy

a

particular

area

at

the

same

time
.


Individuals

form

a

society

if

they

exhibit

some

organization

in

which

they

cooperate

for

their

mutual

benefit,

e
.
g
.

more

successful

hunting

in

wolves
.


There

is

division

of

labour

which

leads

to

differentiation

of

individuals

in

order

to

perform

specialized

functions,


e
.
g
.

in

honey

bees
:

queen,



drones

(male

bees)
,



workers

(sterile

females)
.