Biotechnology Research and Development in Yemen - Regional ...

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21 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Agricultural Biotechnology

Iqbal Harbi Mohammed

General Board of date Palm

What is biotechnology?


as

a

set

of

tools

that

uses

living

organisms

(or

partsof

organisms)

to

make

or

modify

a

product,

improve

plants,

trees

or

animals,

or

develop

microorganisms

for

specific

uses
.

Agricultural

biotechnology

is

the

term

used

in

crop

and

livestock

improvement

through

biotechnology

tools

Biotechnology

encompasses

a

number

of

tools

and

elements

of

conventional

breeding

techniques,

bioinformatics,

microbiology,

molecular

genetics,

biochemistry,

plant

physiology,

and

molecular

biology
.

Biotechnology:

A collection of technologies

The biotechnology tools that are important for
agricultural biotechnology

include


Conventional plant breeding


-

Tissue culture and micropropagation


-

Molecular breeding or marker assisted
selection


-

Genetic engineering and GM crops


-

Molecular Diagnostic Tools


Integration of conventional and modern biotechnology

methods in crop breeding

The Applications of
Biotechnology


Agricultural Biotechnology


Plant agriculture


Animal agriculture


Food processing

Applications of
Biotechnology





Tissue culture


Organic fertilizers


Bio
-
fertilizer



Genetic Engineering


Agricultural Biotechnology in Iraq



Ministry of Agriculture:



-

Tissue culture laboratory



-

Biotechnology laboratory



Why is Plant Tissue Culture Important?


It has made significant contributions in:


The production of plant material


Plant breeding


Gene banks


The production of chemical compounds

Tissue culture

Formation Stage

Vegetative
multiplication
stage

Field

Acclimation

Root Formation
Stage


Elongation

Tissue culture

Biotechnology laboratory

DNA extraction.


PCR amplification.


Agarose and PAGE gel
-
electrophoresis.


DNA fingerprinting



A) Infrastructure:

B) The human resources:


Biotechnology expert (Ph.D.)



Tissue Culture expert (Ph.D)



Agriculture engineers (M.Sc.)



Agriculture engineers (B.Sc.)



Technicians



Temporary technicians



Workers


C)

Objectives
:


Introduction of tissue culture and molecular techniques to the

Iraq.


propagation of local and imported date palm cultivars (and other
species )using the tissue culture technique.



Multiplication of other plant species for different national projects.



Establishment of a genetic map for date palms and other
species.(olive,potato.wheat,Barley,)



Molecular characterization of the Iraq genetic resources.



Molecular diagnostics.


Identification of genetically modified crops


Identification of fingerprint by protien
electrophorese


Checking of the genetic stability of tissue
culture plants



DNA finger printing for many plant species by
using different types of molecular markers


RAPD


AFLP


SSR





Development of a date palm breeding program.




Fingerprinting of date palms cultivars.


Natural
Agriculture

Organic
fertilizers

Bio
-
fertilizer

2


Applications of Biotechnology


The

term

biofertilizer

refers

to

preparation

containing

live

microbes

which

helps

in

enhancing

the

soil

fertility

either

by

fixing

atmospheric

nitrogen,

solubilization

of

phosphorus

or

decomposing

organic

wastes

or

by

augmenting

plant

growth

by

producing

growth

hormones

with

their

biological

activities
.


Biofertilizers


Bacteria in root surface

Bacteria in root surface

Legume inoculation

Rhizobium Bacteria

Advantages of Biofertilizers

Renewable source of nutrients

Sustain soil health

Supplement chemical fertilizers.

Replace
25
-
30
% chemical fertilizers

Increase the grain yields by
10
-
40
%.

Decompose plant residues, and stabilize C:N ratio of soil

Improve texture, structure and water holding capacity of soil

No adverse effect on plant growth and soil fertility.

Stimulates plant growth by secreting growth hormones.

Secrete
fungistatic

and antibiotic like substances

Solubilize

and mobilize nutrients

Eco
-
friendly, non
-
pollutants and cost effective method

BIOFERTILIZER ORGANISMS


RHIZOBIUM

AZOSPIRILLUM

VA
-
MYCORRHIZA

BLUE GREEN ALGAE

AZOTOBACTER

PSB

Organic fertilizers

an

ecological

production

management

system

that

promotes

and

enhances

biodiversity,

biological

cycles

and

soil

biological

activity
.

It

is

based

on

minimal

use

of

off
-
farm

inputs

and

on

management

practices

that

restore,

maintain

and

enhance

ecological

harmony
.


the Important Role of Organic Matter in Soils

􀁺

Physical

-

Improves aggregation (glue)

-

Improves water holding capacity (surface area)

􀁺

Chemical

-

Increases nutrient availability (cycling, P and

micronutrient solubility

-

Increases CEC (200
cmolc

kg
-
1)

-

Buffers the soil against pH changes

􀁺

Biological

-

Increases microbial diversity

-

Assists in pathogen suppression

Justification for establishing agricultural biotechnology network




The network will enable scientists of
member countries to get acquainted with
experiences gained and progress achieved.


The network will enable scientists to learn
more about recent advances in
technologies.



Less developed countries will capitalize
on more advance member countries in
training..


Justification for establishing agricultural biotechnology
network


The network will allow less advanced countries
get acquainted with these achievements and
adopt them .


The network will help less advanced countries
learn more on how biotechnology research has
been integrated in development .


How decision makers came to support this type
of research.



Lessons learnt can be made available via the
network in the annual meetings or through the
periodical publications
.


Recommendations




Develop an annual report for each joint research presented in
each country in the field of agricultural and biological
technologies by way which is accessible, compares them and
identifies common similarities and differences.


Conduct joint research on some of the common crops grown
between the participating countries to enable work out
through the study of environmental and genetic conditions
that affect the quality and productivity of these crops.


Development of a shared location (web site) for the
dissemination of research and the latest developments
.