Brief History of Architecture Frameworks

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13 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Brief History of
Architecture Frameworks

Late 60s…


Dewey Walker, the
grandfather of
architecture
methodologies


IBM’s Director of
Architecture in the late
1960s


Produced architecture
planning documents
that later became
known as
Business
Systems Planning

1980s…


During the mid 1980s, one of
Walker’s students,
John
Zachman
, contributed to the
evolution of BSP


Published “Business Information
Control Study” in the first edition
of the IBM Systems Journal in
1982.


Became widely recognized as a
leader in the field of enterprise
architecture, identified
the need
to use a logical construction
blueprint (i.e., an architecture
)
for
defining and controlling the
integration

of systems and their
components
.

“…how those disciplines crossed the
analogous bridge.”



During the 1980s, I became
convinced that
architecture
,
whatever that was, was the thing
that
bridged the strategy and its
implementation
. This led me to
investigate other disciplines

that manufactured complex
engineering products
to learn
how those disciplines crossed
the analogous bridge
. I
published the result of this
investigation in the September
1987 issue of the IBM Systems
Journal in an article entitled

A Framework for Information
Systems Architecture
.”


Mid
-
80s…


Zachman
developed a
structure or
framework for
defining and
capturing an
architecture


This framework
provides for 6
perspectives or
“windows” from
which to view the
enterprise.

Mid
-
80s…


The six abstractions or models associated with
each perspective covers

1.
how

the entity operates

2.
what
the entity uses to operate

3.
where

the entity operates

4.
who

operates the entity

5.
when

entity operations occur

6.
why
the entity operates

Mid
-
80s…

The windows include the:

1.
strategic planner

2.
system user

3.
system designer

4.
system developer

5.
subcontractor

6.
system itself



Mid
-
80s…


He also proposed
six
abstractions or models
associated with each
of these perspectives
.


His framework
provides
a way to
identify and describe
an entity’s existing and
planned component
parts’ relationships
,
BEFORE the entity
begins the costly and
time
-
consuming efforts
associate with
developing or
transforming itself.

Since Zachman introduced his
framework…


The
FEAF

described an approach, including
models and definitions, for developing and
documenting architecture descriptions for
multi
-
organizational functional segments of
the federal government.


Similar to the Zachman Framework,
the
FEAF proposed models to describe an
entity’s
business
,
data
,
applications

and
technology
.

Since Zachman introduced his
framework…


Since 1989, other federal entities have issued
frameworks including the DoD and Treasury
Department.


In September 1999, the federal CIO Council
published the Federal Enterprise Architecture
Framework (FEAF) to provide a common
construct for architectures.


Explosion Path of EA Frameworks

Frameworks


TAFM


JTA


Joint Technical Architecture


DoD TRM


C4ISR

Command, Control, Communications, Computers,
Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition and
Reconnaissance


DoDAF


Department of Defense Architecture Framework


TOGAF


The Open Group Architecture Framework


ISO/IEC 14252


International Standards
Organization/International Electrotechnical Commission




Refer to
http://www.opengroup.org/architecture/togaf8
-
doc/arch/p4/others/others.htm



Frameworks


EAP
-

Enterprise Architecture Planning


FEAF


Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework


TEAF


Treasury Enterprise Architecture Framework


IAF v1


Integrated Architecture Framework


UVA Model


Uniform Visualization Architecture


TISAF
-

Treasury Information System Architecture Framework


E2AF
-

Extended Enterprise Architecture Framework


XAF


Extensible Architecture Framework


CIMOSA


Common Information Model Open System Architecture


PERA


Purdue Enterprise Reference Architecture


SAGA


Standards and Architectures for eGovernment Applications


GERAM


Generalized Enterprise Reference Architecture




Refer to
http://www.opengroup.org/architecture/togaf8
-
doc/arch/p4/others/others.htm



“The 3 Faces of Enterprise Architecture”

EA Survey from 2003


Presently…


OMB established the
Federal Enterprise
Architecture Program Management Office

to
develop a federal enterprise architecture
according to a
collection of 5 “reference
models,”

intended to facilitate government
-
wide improvement through cross
-
agency
analysis and identification of duplicative
investments, gaps, and opportunities for
collaboration, interoperability, and
integration with and across government
agencies.

Presently…


PRM


common
set of general
performance
outputs and
measures to
achieve
business goals
and objectives

Presently…


BRM


describes
business operations
including defining
services provided to
state and local
governments

Presently…


SRM


identifies and
classifies IT service (i.e.,
application) components
that support federal
agencies and
promotes
component reuse across
agencies and to support
the discovery of
government
-
wide
business and application
service components

in IT
investments and assets.


The SRM is structured
across horizontal and
vertical service domains
that,
independent of the
business functions
, can
provide a leverage
-
able
foundation to support the
reuse of applications,
application capabilities,
components, and business
services


Presently…


DRM


describes at an
aggregate level, data
types that support
program and business
lines of operations, and
relationships among
these types

Presently…


TRM


describes
how technology
supports the
delivery of service
components,
including relevant
standards for
implementing the
technology

Presently…


Post Zachman frameworks differ in
nomenclature and modeling approaches, but
all


provide for defining an enterprise’s operations in
both logical and technical terms


provide for defining these perspectives for the
enterprise’s current and target environments,
and


call for a transition between the two.

Align or Become Extinct?