The Life of a Plant

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12 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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The Life of a Plant

Structure and Function

Nutrition and Transport

Control Systems

Asexual Reproduction

Structure and Function


A. Cellular

B. Tissues

C. Organs

A. Cell types


a. parenchyma


b. collenchyma


c. sclerenchyma_

B. Tissues

1. Epidermis
-

covers & protects

2. Vascular
-

transports


a. xylem
-

water & minerals


b. phloem
-

sugars

3. Ground
-

space filler


a. cortex


b. pith


c. endodermis_


1. Roots


a. absorb water and

nutrients


b. anchor plant_

C. Organs

2. Stems


a. support leaves


b. transport food and

nutrients_

3. Leaves


a. site of photosynthesis


b. waxy cuticle


c. stomata w/guard cells_

4. Flowers

-
attract pollinators

1.
Four rings of modified leaves


Sepals


Petals


Stamens

-
filament

-
anther: pollen grains
(male gametophytes)


Carpels(Pistil)

-
stigma

-
style

-
ovary

-
ovule: contains female
gametophyte_

Nutrition and Transport

A. Source of Plant Mass

B. Transporting Sap

C. Alternate nutrition

A. Source of Plant Mass

1.
CO
2


2.
Water

3.
Minerals

i.
N
-
protein & nucleic acid synthesis

ii.
S
-
Protein synthesis

iii.
P
-
Nucleic acid & ATP synthesis

iv.
K
-
Protein synthesis; regulation of
osmosis

v.
Ca
-
Cell walls;Enzyme activity

vi.
Mg
-
Chlorophyll;enzyme activity_


c
l
ick

THE END

Nutrition and Transport

A. Source of Plant Mass

B. Transporting Sap

C. Alternate nutrition

B. Transport of Sap

Roots absorb water & minerals

Surface area increased:

i.
Root hairs

ii.

Micorrhizae

1. Root pressure


Energy (ATP) used to
accumulate minerals



Endodermis



Water enters via:



OSMOSIS_



2. Transpiration


Stronger than root pressure


Upward


Turgor pressure


Evaporative cooling


Loss 220L/hr in summer!


Stomata


Day
-
open, CO
2

in


Accumulate K
+


Night
-
close or when
H
2
O loss.


click

Plants with tracheids are
tracheophytes

(aka vascular plants)_

A. Flow of Phloem Sap

1. Moves sucrose & other organic
compounds

2. Sieve tube members:


Alive but lose nuclei &other
organelles, require
companion cells to function_

A. From Source to Sink

1. source: leaves, sugar produced

2. sink: sugar is used or stored

3. Locations change w/seasons:


Beet taproots or potato
tubers
-
sugar sink in
summer


Early spring
-
source for
growth of new stems or
leaves



Pressure Flow Mechanism


Sugar is produced in the source

(mature leaf)


Actively transported into sieve tube member


High concentration sugar: water follows by osmosis


High pressure at source end


Sink end: sugar leaves


Water follows (flows from high pressure to low)


Sap flows through phloem from high concentration & high H
2
O pressure
to areas low sugar concentration & water pressure :

FROM SOURCE TO SINK

THE END

Nutrition and Transport

A. Source of Plant Mass

B. Transporting Sap

C. Alternate nutrition

C. Alternate Nutrition

1. Carnivorous

A. Alternate Nutrition

1. Carnivorous

2. Epiphytes

A. Alternate Nutrition

1. Carnivorous

2. Epiphytes

3. Parasites

A. Alternate Nutrition

1. Carnivorous

2. Epiphytes

3. Parasites

THE END

a.
Vegetative propagation

b.
Propagation by people

Asexual Reproduction

Asexual Reproduction


Clones

a. Vegetative propagation


Runner (stolon)

Asexual Reproduction


Clones


Vegetative propagation


Runner (stolon)


Rhizome

Asexual Reproduction


Clones


Vegetative propogation


Runner (stolon)


Rhizome


Bulb

Asexual Reproduction


Clones


Vegetative propogation


Runner (stolon)


Rhizome


Bulb


tuber

b
.

Propagation by People


Cuttings


Layering


Grafting

b
.

Propagation by People


Cuttings


Layering


Grafting


Tissue Culture

THE END

a.
Plant Hormones

b.
Plant Movements

c.
Seasonal Responses

Control Systems

Control Systems

a. Hormones (growth regulators)


Auxins
-
cell elongation


Can increase growth in numerous plant parts


Giberellins
-
increase elongation growth


Ehtylene
-

fruit ripening


Cytokinins
-
cell division


Absicisic acid
-
blocks growth


Promotes dormancy



b. Plant Movements


Tropisms


Phototropism
-
light


Thigmotropism
-
touch


Gravitropism
-
gravity


Chemotropism
-
pollen tube grows toward ovule


Nastic Movements


Thigmonastic Movement


Nyctinastic movement_



c. Seasonal Responses


Photoperiodism


Critical Night Length


Vernalization


Fall Colors_


THE END