Culture - Mannaz

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29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Leading Groups

The leader as culture creator

2



Team

Development

Leadership



3

Joint direction and focus of a team


Katzenbach

& Smith

High
-
performing teams

5

“A team is a small number of people with complementary skills, who are committed to
a common purpose and performance goals, for which they hold themselves mutually
accountable”


Jon
Katzenbach

& Douglas K. Smith

“The Wisdom of Teams”

Harper Business Essentials

Definition of a team

6

Degree of team integration

Performance

Group

Pseudo team

Potential team

High
-
performing team

Real team

Team performance curve

7

Core success
criterias

for teams

Willingness to help
others

Foster an open dialogue on
relevant issues

A joint plan that
everyone knows and
accepts

Clear goals that
everyone knows and
accepts

Open dialogue about
the way the team
works

Joint values


knowing
“right” from “wrong”

Willingness to give and
receive feedback

Roles that help
the individual to
feel as part of the
greater context

A balanced focus on results
and the team process

Acceptance of different
competences

Everyone in the team is
able to take on the
leadership and to be led

Each individual works on
his or her own role in
and influence on the
team


An evaluation tool

How effective is your group?

9

Less effective group

Effective group

1. Boredom

Indifference rules. Some are whispering, some are “sleeping”. There might be
“sleeping”. There might be tension in the air. People check the time. Drum their
check the time. Drum their fingers.


1. Informal atmosphere

Participants feel relaxed and content. They are interested and actively
interested and actively committed.

2. Dominance

A couple of people dominate the discussion. Their contributions are often off topic.
contributions are often off topic. Nobody does anything about it.

anything about it.


2. Many discussions

Everyone participates, according to their competence. If the discussion gets
competence. If the discussion gets off track, someone will quickly get it
someone will quickly get it back on track.

3. Unclear objective

The goal may have been presented but hasn’t been accepted. Many “hidden
accepted. Many “hidden agendas” rule.


3. The objective is understood and accepted

The task has been openly discussed until everyone has accepted it and
everyone has accepted it and arecommitted.

4. More talk than listening

Many interruptions. While others talk, people are planning their own
planning their own contributions. People tend keep each other accountable on
each other accountable on concrete words: “But, you specifically said that ...”

specifically said that ...”

4. More listening than talk

No one is afraid of making a fool of themselves by proposing an idea.
by proposing an idea. People try to understand the meaning of
the meaning of contributions.

Effective

and
ineffective

groups

10

Effective

and
ineffective

groups

5. Criticism is perceived as personal and uncomfortable

uncomfortable

Many people hold back to avoid making a fool of themselves. They feel “judged” when
themselves. They feel “judged” when they speak.

5. Criticism is perceived as objective and constructive

No one is afraid to propose an idea. Perhaps it could prompt other ideas.

ideas.

6. Superficial agreement

Disagreements are not discussed in depth. There are often unresolved issues that can lead
unresolved issues that can lead to open warfare. People often resort to having a vote,
often resort to having a vote, which is a tactical way of avoiding discussing the matter in
avoiding discussing the matter in depth. It is crucial that no one thinks that there is any
one thinks that there is any internal conflict in the group.

6. Plenty of disagreement

There is no feeling of having to keep discussions sugar sweet. People seek to understand the reasons
People seek to understand the reasons behind the views of others. Sometimes, fundamental
Sometimes, fundamental disagreements are accepted, but a solution is found to live with them.

solution is found to live with them.




7. Hindsight

Actions are often taken before the consequences have been examined. Subsequently,
been examined. Subsequently, people are gossiping behind each other’s backs: “You
behind each other’s backs: “You should have listened to me.”

me.”

7. Agreement about decisions

Formal voting rarely happens, because everyone should be able to agree on a decision, or accept
to agree on a decision, or accept “the lesser of two evils”.

8. Unclear division of tasks

No one really knows who will be doing what. No one feels committed to the rest of the
committed to the rest of the group.

8. Clear division of tasks

Each participant are committed to find a way forward.

Less

effective

group

Effective

group

11

Effective and ineffective groups

Less effective group

Effective group

9. Alternating initiative and leadership

The leader does not dominate the group. Various individuals naturally take on
the leadership when they know best. Everyone feels mutually accountable.

10. Emotions and atmosphere are discussed openly

People express themselves openly about problems and

working methods. Views
and emotions are accepted as “facts” for those who have them. There is an
interest in getting these on the table for discussion without a sense of discomfort.

11. The group is confident as a group

How things are going is often


and openly


discussed, whether this refers to
the working methods in general or to an individual member who doesn’t seem to
be pulling their weight.

9. Dictatorship

Management clearly remains with the chairperson.. He is expected to handle
everything
-

it is his responsibility.

10. No emotions are expressed

Everything must be “factual” and documentable. Personal views and gut feelings
remain hidden. One must not be “personal”.

11. No discussion about the group by and within the group, but quite a bit outside
the group

Open discussions about the group, its sense of unity and the way it works are
considered a sign of weakness. Things like that are discussed after meetings one
-
on
-
one, in cliques and with a third party.


Assessment of your action
-
learning group

-

A group assignment

13

Self
-
assessment




The Action Learning group’s way of functioning


in relation to the theory presented?

-
What are our strengths?

-
What are our challenges?

-
Where are we on the team
-
development graph?

-
How do we believe that others perceive us as a group?

-
Which metaphor would others use about us?




Wilfred
Bion

Dynamics within groups

15

The
group’s

two

levels


Leader’s

personality

Input

Output

Task

groups

“As
-
if” groups

A: Dependency


B: Fight or flight


C: Idyllisation

16

1:
Dependence

group


Symptoms



Decisions cannot be made at a ‘natural’ level.


The group often functions below their normal professional level.


Group members only feel committed to the leader.


The group does not feel competent enough to make decisions without external
professional support.


There are a number of rules, procedures and regulations for collaboration.

17

2:
Fight
-
flight

group


Symptoms



More talk than listening.


Group members often hold onto words and expressions, such as: “But you specifically said
that …”


Endless discussions in circles.


Complaints and dissatisfaction with other departments or competitors.


Aggressive atmosphere.


Sarcastic comments.

18

3:
Idyllisation

group


Symptoms



Forced optimism … “Things will get much better in the third quarter.”


Forgets the existing specific situation and focuses on visions about the
future.


Too many balls in the air.


Conversations characterised by clichés.


Forced atmosphere.


The leader as culture creator



according to
Kets

de
Vries

20

The drama organisation


Chief executive

-
Great need for attention, excitement, activity and stimulation.


Governing theme

-
Grandiosity: “I want to impress and get all the attention.”


Culture

-
Employees develop a strong need for dependence, which supports the ‘strong leader’ trends. The leader is idealised by his or
her subordinates. The leader is a catalyst for the employees’ initiatives and values.


Organisation

-
Over
-
centralisation obstructs development of effective information systems. Leaders at the next level have ‘no’ influence. The
decision making process is non
-
participative.


Strategy

-
Hyper
-
active, impulsive, adventurous, dangerously unrestrained. The leader tends to initiate risky steps. Growth is rarely
integrated in strategy.

21

The mistrusting organisation


Chief executive

-
Hypersensitive: always prepared for an attack or a personal threat. Cold without emotional expression. Suspicious,
characterised by mistrust, insists on loyalty. Wants to be overly involved in regulations to ensure full control.


Governing theme

-
Paranoia: ‘An evil
-
minded force is out to get me. I’d better be on guard. I can’t trust anyone.’


Culture

-
‘Fight or flight’. Dependency, anxiety, fear of attack, information is power, uniformity, culture of mistrust.


Organisation

-
Widespread processing of information, abundance of trend analyses, centralised power structure.


Strategy

-
Reactive, conservative, analysis paralysis, secretive.

22

The indifferent organisation


Chief executive

-
Dissociated and not involved, lack of interest in the present and the future, most often indifferent towards praise and
criticism.


Governing theme

-
‘The reality does not provide any satisfaction, interaction with others will fail, it is safer to remain dissociated.’


Culture

-
Lack of warmth and emotions, insecurity, unmanaged internal power struggles.


Organisation

-
Internal focus, insufficient examination of the surroundings, self
-
induced barriers for free information flow.


Strategy

-
Staggering, indecisive, inconsistent.

23

The control organisation


Chief executive

-
Dominates the organisation from top to bottom. Insists that others conform to carefully described procedures and
regulations. Dogmatic, stubborn,
perfectionistic

and obsessed with detail.



Governing theme

-
‘I do not wish to be at the mercy of fate. I have to control everything that can affect me and my situation.’


Culture

-
Rigid, introverted, isolated. Submissiveness and insecurity rule. No creativity.


Organisation

-
Stiff, formal regulations, well
-
developed information systems, ritual evaluation procedures, dedication, precision. A hierarchy
where each leader’s status and power is specifically associated with his or her position.

24

The balanced organisation


Chief executive

-
Great self
-
confidence and strong identity. Listens to and is open towards others. Knows their own strengths and weaknesses. Does

not take themselves too seriously.


Governing theme

-
‘I know my strengths and achieve great satisfaction by creating results together with others.’


Culture

-
A high degree of initiative and independent action. Very different employees solve tasks together. Different opinions can coe
xis
t.
Conflict is part of everyday life


and is solved through dialogue.


Organisation

-
Delegation, informal and network
-
orientated. Decision
-
making and role structure is clear. Responsibility and decision
-
making
capability is delegated down.


Strategy

-
Rational and built around the organisation’s core competence, which is typically the ability to manage complex projects. Perf
orm
ance
is adjusted dramatically from time to time.


The leader as culture creator

-

A group assignment

26

Self
-
assessment




Individual contributions to the group

-
What have I in particular contributed to the group as a leader?

-
What are my strengths?

-
What are my challenges?

-
What should I focus more on in the future when I lead or cooperate in a group?


Present your evaluation


Receive constructive, forward
-
looking feedback

-
Give each other feedback based on strengths

-
Give each other advice with regard to leading a group